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Writer in modern musical notation of " Melodies of the Liturgy," " Melodies of Five 

Offices in Holy Week," and "Melodies of Christmas and Easter," 

according to the Holy Apostolic Church of Armenia. 




[ The Rigid of Translation into Armenian is Reserved.} 





O F 








AUG 5 1966 

TA<j entire proceeds of the sale of this book 

will be devoted to the needs of 

the Soldiers of Great Britain 



The War for Liberty. 


Two years ago, when I decided on reprinting the "Life and Adventures" of 
my great-great-grandfather, I had in rny possession no papers, letters, documents, 
or evidence of any kind concerning him, nor did I know of the existence of any, 
other than the book itself. A dilapidated copy of his ''Life." and the simple 
inscription on the stone with its design of cannon and drums covering his remains 
in the churchyard of Nazareth's Armenian Church in this city, represented all 
that I knew of him. And I began to realize the truth of what he said in 1788, 
when he wrote that " in twenty years more, when he and all his good friends who 
knew his accounts to be true, shall be dead and gone he would be looked upon 
as a mere romancer." 

Not knowing where to turn for some information about him, his frequent 
references to " the celebrated Mrs. Montagu " led me to look up the name of this 
lady in a biographical dictionary, and, almost simultaneously, in the strange way 
in which one thing so often leads to another, I came on the advertisement, in a 
bookseller's catalogue, of the "Letters of Elizabeth Montagu," published ten years 
previously by her great-great-niece, Mrs. E. J. Climenson. Thinking that this 
book might perhaps contain some slight references to my ancestor I sent imme- 
diately to England for a copy. To my surprise it proved to be the first link in 
the chain of evidence which thenceforward began to unfold itself. 

Joseph Emin had come to know Mrs. Montagu through Lord (then Earl, later 
Duke of) Northumberland, who had befriended him when, after running away 
from his father in Calcutta, he had passed over four years in London struggling 
hard for his existence, sometimes on three halfpence a day, ' ; without Money, 
without Friend, or any Body but Lord in heaven ! " And, amongst the mass of 
correspondence (68 boxes, each containing from 100 to 150 letters) left by the 
" Queen of the Blue Stockings," as she was called, there were over twenty letters 
written by Emin the Armenian to herself and to her friends, besides copies of 
other letters made for her information, for she was much interested in him and 
exerted' her influence in many ways to help him to attain his objects. While no 
letter, or any specimen of his handwriting, was to be found amongst his descendants 
in India, these letters had been carefully Stored away by his kind friend in England 
< — eventually, after the passing away of more than a hundred and fifty years, to come 
into my possession — for, after communicating with Mrs. Climenson, I acquired from 
her all the letters of Joseph Emin that she still possessed. Some, unfortunately, 


had been already disposed of, for, as she wrote to me, little did she think she 

would ever hear of a descendant of Emin. Mrs. Climenson's work, containing 

many references to the people and the events of which he wrote, has been of great 

assistance to me, and I have to thank her for her permission to quote from it. 

Through Mrs. Climenson also, I heard of the existence of a portrait, which was a 

great surprise. I am greatly indebted to Lord Cobham for his kind permission, 

so willingly given, for the portrait to be photographed for reproduction in this 

book, to which it makes a very welcome and unexpected addition. There is a very 

faint inscription on the portrait which does not appear in the photograph, and of 

which the only legible words are 




and Lord Cobham considers that it is likely that the picture was the work of 
Arthur Pond, who painted several portraits for George Lord Lyttelton. 

My grateful thanks are due to the Ven. W. K. Firminger, Archdeacon of 
Calcutta, for much kind help, constantly given, during the past two years. The 
Archdeacon informed me of the accounts of Joseph Emin in Lord Teignmouth's 
Life of Sir William Jones, and in Prior's Life of Edmund Burke ; of the Notes in 
Morton's Decisions, and of the documents in the Imperial Record Department. 
Through the Archdeacon, who wrote to Mr. William Foster of the India Office, I 
received the notes on the events at Basra, and on the Hon. F. Stuart ; and I have 
also to thank him for permission to quote the letter of the Armenians to Sir Elijah 
Impey and the Judges of the High Court from the Rare Pamphlet, reprinted in 
that most interesting publication of which he is the Editor, Bengal; Past and 
Present, from the pages of which I have gathered much information regarding the 
subscribers to Ernin's book, as well as on many other matters. 

My thanks are due to the Rev. I. S. Johannes and to the Rev. Garekin 
Johannes for searching out and translating Armenian inscriptions and records, and 
for other information kindly given ; also to Mr. V. M. Galoostian for his help in 
translating from Ram's History of the Five Meliks, for the Note on the Meliks of 

And last, but by no means least, I have to warmly thank my cousin, Mrs. 
Walter Gregory, who, fortunately for me, happened to be in England when, I began 
working on this book, for all the kind help I have received from her — in visiting 
the British Museum for the purpose of ci 'pying down the extracts from the pam- 
phlets on the St. Malo Expedition ; in taking over the original letters from Mrs. 
Climenson, and arranging for the troublesome business of the reproduction of 
these and of the portrait; and in generally acting for me in many things which 



[, at such a distance, and in such troubled times, could scarcely have accom- 
plished without her whole-hearted and untiring assistance throughout the past 
two years. 

After the manner of the period the book was published in one unbroken 
narrative from beginning to end. I have divided it into parts and chapters, 
heading each chapter with a summary of the contents, and it is still further broken 
up by the insertion of notes, in smaller type than the narrative (besides foot-notes), 
on the personages and events mentioned in the preceding chapters, which seemed 
preferable to continual references to an appendix, to which few would take 
the trouble of turning. The spelling and punctuation of the original have been 
strictly adhered to. Nothing has been changed except the long s's. Emin's 
spelling of geographical, and even of personal, names in Armenia and Persia often 
varies in different places, but all, even the misprints, have been retained as 
found in the book. In modern maps, and I regret having failed to discover an 
old one, Armenian and Persian names are replaced by Russian and Turkish ones, 
which makes it difficult to follow his wanderings in those regions. 

The original letters are printed exactly as written, excepting those quoted 
from Mrs. Climenson's book (the originals of which I do not possess), the spelling 
of which had been corrected. It is well-known that spelling in the eighteenth 
century had taken no decided or authorized form, and very often people, presum- 
ably educated, occupying the highest positions in life, did not spell much better 
than Emin, who was a foreigner, and a stranger to the language. Frederick of 
Prussia could not spell correctly either in German or in French, and Mrs. Climenson 
mentions the terrible spelling of John, Duke of Montagu, a relative of Mrs. Mon- 
tagu. There are some curiously modern turns of phrase in Emin's narrative, 
"getting into a scrape," "ten to one," and others, and when Mrs. Montagu 
writes — " when one considers he was a porter 5 years ago, it is some rise to be 
allowed free conversation with ye Duke of Cumberland," one wonders whether 
some of the Americanisms of the twentieth century may not be but English of the 

Although Emin was known as Joseph Emin in England, and published his 
book under that name, Joseph was the name of his father. Amongst Armenians 
.then, and 'up to a much later period, a man was known by his own and his father's 
baptismal names, and family, or surnames, were not in use. At present the 
grandfather's baptismal name is often adopted as a surname, and as most names 
are biblical, Armenians consequently are frequently taken for Jews. Probably 
the reason of Emin using his father's name was that his baptismal and family 
names were the same. Emin, as on the reproduction of the old title page, gives 



the correct Armenian pronunciation ; he seems to have first spelled it Ameen, and it 
is so spelled by his son Joseph in the title-deeds of what is now 23 Canning St., 
Calcutta, a house bought by Joseph in 181 1. Emin is really an Arab word mean- 
ing faithful, and in Persian dictionaries Amin is rendered safe, faithful, superin- 
tendent. Iman is faith, amin, faithful, and Emin seems to have been a name given 
to his ancestor Emin the first, "for a reason well known but not necessary to men- 
tion here," as he says. In Armenian different members of a family bearing the 
same name are often distinguished numerically, and the numerals one, two, and 
so on, are also the first and second letters of the alphabet. 

Two things stand out above all others in Emin's life — the intense patriotism 
which moved him, forsaking his comfortable home, to set out alone and practically 
penniless on his attempts to rescue his countrymen from the yoke of the Maho- 
medans, and his remarkable popularity with all classes. Royalty, workmen, 
nobles, rough sailors, wild savage mountaineers, " two footed monsters," I^ezguis, 
Kurds, Governors and civilians of the E.I. Co., — "he is an astonishing creature," 
writes Mrs. Montagu, "to take thus with all kinds of people." A man with this 
gift must surely have accomplished something had it not been for the enmity of 
the powerful class of men whom he did not " take with " — the ecclesiastics — whose 
jealousy, culminating in a merciless plot to put an end to his existence, forced 
him, on his third attempt, to abandon his projects. 

I cannot do better than to end by quoting the words of I^ord Teignmouth 
describing my ancestor : 

" In Emin we see the same man, who was a sailor, a porter, a menial servant 
and subsisting by charity — the companion of nobles, and patronised by princes 
and monarchs, ever preserving in his deepest distresses, a sense of honour, a spirit 
of integrity, a reliance upon Providence and a firm adherence to the principles of 
Christianity in which he had been educated." 

A. A. 

44 Chowringhee, 

November, 1918. 



Letter of Sir Wexiam Jones to the Author (1788) 

Names of Subscribers 









[Genealogy — Death of old champion, his great-great-grandfather, at no, 
fighting five Janizaries — Author born at Hamadan, 1726 — To Bag- 
dad in 1731-33 — Besieged by Nadir Shah — His defeat — A second 
siege — Nadir retires — Grandfather Michael — Mr. Dorrel, resident 
of Basra — Ahmad Pasha's levee — "A European army could take 
Bagdad in five days" — Author's father goes to Bengal — Emin to 
Ispahan, 1742 — A kind Turk — Michael unjustly imprisoned — Freed 
through Emin — To Basra, thence to India.] Note. .. .. 1-15 


1744— 175 1. 

[Voyage of two months f rom Surat to Calcutta — Admiral Griffin's seizure, 
in 1746, as enemy (French) property, of two Armenian vessels — 
Great loss to Emin's father and others — Emin's desire to go to 
England — Father's opposition— Unsuccessful attempts — Taken as a 
deckhand on the Walpole, the '"'last boat of the season" — Leaves 
Balasore February, 175 1 — Life on board — Quarrelsome sailors^- 
Pudding- making and its uproarious consequences — Woolwich in six 
months, September, 1751 — " Chimney sweepers from Bengal."] . . 15-28 


1751— 1752. 

[Lodging, at Wapping with a Swede — Penny dinners — Stephanos — An 
academy — Twopence halfpenny a day — Stephanos turns Roman 
Catholic — Emin in great distress and homeless — A soldier's sym- 
pathy — Discomforts of beer-drinking to gain respect of common 
people — A master bricklayer — Emin called a German because inde- 
fatigable — Three halfpence a day — Escapes kidnapping — Sir John 
t Evelyn's grandsons — Emin adrift again — A porter on £8 a year.] 







1753— 1755. 

[Stephanos in great distress — Returning good for evil — Mr. Davis and 
Rs. 500 for Emin — Money refused — Two years a porter — Writer to 
an attorney — But Charles XII. of Sweden and Peter the Great may 
not intrude into copies of law-suits! — Lodging with a grocer — In 
the Park — Edmund Burke — His great kindness.] Note. . . 45~53 



[An Arab horse for Lord Northumberland and his Armenian groom — 
Northumberland House — Mr. Bale — An interview — Letter of Joseph 
Ameen to the Earl of Northumberland — All is changed — Duke of 
Cumberland — Woolwich at the expense of H.R.H.] . . . . 54-64 

Emm's new friends — Letter to someone unknown, perhaps to Mr. Pitt . . 65-69 



[War with France — Duke of Cumberland leaves for Westphalia— Emin 
stranded — (Letter to Mrs. Montagu — to Lord Northumberland) — 
His friends help him — Stade — Duke's levee — The Campaign.] Note. 

Correspondence. To Dr. Monsey — to his Patronesses — to Dr. Monsey — 
to Mrs. Montagu — Extracts from letters of Mrs. Montagu referring 
to Emin— Letter from Mrs. Montagu to her sister — Emin to Lord 
Albemarle — to Mrs. Montagu — Lady Sophia Egerton's letter of 
introduction to her uncle — her letter to Emin — Emin to Lord Cath- 
cart — to Mr. Pitt — Mrs. Montagu to her husband . c . . 69-93 



[Expedition against St. Malo, June 1758 — Note — Letter about expedi- 
tion to someone unknown — Return to England.] Letter to Lord 
Lyttelton. .. .. .. .. .. 93~99 


[Letters previously written to Calcutta to Governor Drake, and to Emin's 
father — His father's reply — The Black Hole tragedy — Letter to 
Heraclius of Georgia, sent through Mr. Shaw, Resident at Basra] . . 99-113 


Letter to Mrs. Montagu from the Hague. 

[Sir Joseph Yorke — Mr. Mitchell — Frederick of Prussia — His reception 
of Emin — Frederick's consideration for his soldiers — Dangers of 


riding with royalty in the dark — Frederick's kindness to an old 
German — After the levee — Mr. Mitchell's report and his orders to 
Emin — No fighting for Bmin — At Munster — At the Hague — General 
Yorke again — Return to London.] 

Note on Sir Andrew Mitchell — Correspondence — Emin's letter to Mrs. 
Montagu describing Frederick of Prussia — To Lord Lyttelton — Ex- 
tracts from Mrs. Montagu's letters. 

Narrative resumed. [Lady Yarmouth — Emin received by Mr. Pitt.] 





1759— 1 7 6l « 

Letters to Mr. Davis — to Dr. Monsey — to Lord Lyttelton — A missing 
letter from Genoa. 

[Decides on going to Turkey, thence to Armenia — Leghorn — Emin "a 
dangerous fellow " — Severe illness at Florence — Horace Mann — 
Emin reciting his adventures like Othello — Governor of Leghorn 
grants him a passport — Mr. and Mrs. Charles Evelyn — Voyage to 
Alexandretta — Emin poses as an Englishman to the terror of a 
Turk — Aleppo — Etchmiatsin — Dogs set on him by holy monks — 
Penance for killing a dog, property of Holy Church — Companions 
in penitential chamber — Set free by the Catholicos — Returns to 
Aleppo — To England— Dr. Patrick Russell's letter.] 




[Letters of introduction to Petersburgh — A reception at Lady Yar- 
mouth's two years previously — Lord Huntingdon — Emin's descrip- 
tion of Frederick of Prussia — Lord Huntingdon's dinner — Suggests 
that Emin shall establish a new religion — Emin's rebuke — Reported 
to Prince of Wales, who wants to help Emin — Lord Northumberland 
objects — Ready to live upon air to please his lordship — London 
to Riga — Mutiny on board — Emin pacifies sailors — Emin's praise 
of British navy — Petersburgh — Mr. Keith — Count Vorontsov — 
Empress's kind thoughts for Armenians — Letter to Lord Lyttelton 
from Russia.] 


1762 — 1763. 

[Proposal that Emin should enter Russian service — Firm in his desire to 
help his own country — Keith prScures letter to Heraclius from 
Vorontsov T — Kizlar — Russian general objects to passport — Emin 
returns to Astrakhan — Moscow again — An unknown friend — Inter- 
• view with Vorontsov and Galitsin — Consideration of Peter the Great 
for Armenians — Pleurisy again — Offered command of Armenians — 




Refuses — Penniless again — I,ord Buckingham's nerves — Mr. Boad's 
help — "Damn all great men" — Kindness of Englishmen unwill- 
ingly contrasted with behaviour of Armenians — "A soldier must 
speak the truth." ] . . . . . . . . . . 179-198 



[Start for Astrakhan — "Avoiding temptation" — Project of marriage — 
Emin '•' stonehearted like Charles XII. of Sweden" — Kizlar— Russian 
General Stupition " grumbling like a bear with his tail cut " — His 
German wife^ exaggerations — Tiflis— Heraclius — His nobles, " born 
24 hours before the devil " — The graceless wolf of an old Armenian 
proverb — Kherim Khan threatening • Tiflis — Heraclius' cowardice 
and Emin's disgust — Heraclius' jealousy and treachery — The price 
offered for Emin's blood — Heraclius bewildered — " All haramzadas 
and the patriarch just as bad." ] . . . . . . 199-222 


June, 1763. 

[Emin with Heraclius' permission goes to fight the Lezguis with 24 
Armenians — Encounter with 52 of the enemy — The L,ezguis cannot 
overcome them and finally march away — Heraclius failing to send 
supplies Emin has to return to Tiflis — " No one can be cheerful in 
Tiflis for half an hour" — Emin goes with Heraclius to Kakhet 
where he is well treated — Mischief-making priest Phillipos upsets 
everything.] . . . . . . . . . . 222-232 


1763 (continued). 

Return with Heraclius to Tiflis, " the city of discontent " — Emin's 
plain-speaking — better from Archbishop Jonas — 40,000 ready to 
fight for him — Brave Purseck, whom forty Georgians cannot over- 
throw — Emin in confinement — Supposed to be a magician — Taken 
out of Tiflis to a camp — Emin's servant and his adventure in search 
of him — Another trick on the part of Heraclius.] . . . . 232,-247 


1763— '64— '65. 

[Night camps amongst the Georgians — Heraclius' treachery — But Emin 
passes through without any mishap — Writes to the grandmother of 
the young lady at Astrakhan — But Uow that he is penniless and in 
trouble, they will have no more of him — Atchakan, a mountaineer 
from Muchkiz, offers him a troop of forty of his relatives without 
pay — Eight thousand mounted troops at his command — A mischief- 
making Armenian informs the successor of Stupition and receives 


1500 strokes for his pains — Erain's servant Turkhan arrives from 
Petersburgh with the third and last draft from L,ord Northumber- 





May, 1765. 

[Emin, having 12,000 men under him. pretends to have formed a plan 
for attacking Georgians — Letter written by the faithless Marian 
and his reply — Sets out with his thirty " wolf-like commanders " for 
Chachan — Slave market at Andia — Lezguis taking a child of six to 
be sold — Argues with his followers with no effect, finally dismisses 
them — Journeys on to Khunzakh — Nutzal gives Emin escort and 
passport — Seti out for Catickh — Ridiculous affair at the house of a 
I>zgui — Hajy Mustapha's kindness to him.] 




Plot against Heraclius and his family — Warned by an Armenian — 
Shaverdy Khan plotting destruction of Yusup of Gulistan — Lezguis 
invite Emin to accompany them on a raid — Provided with troop of 
Turkmans — Emin's object to play off Mohamedan against Moha- 
medau, and save his countrymen — Commander of the Lezguis and 
Emin — Fighting between Kurd, Lezgui and Turkman — Hatham and 
Yusup, and the corn of Shameor 



1766 — 1767. 

[Emin at Catickh, where resides Yusup of the Beglarians, Melik of Gulis- 
tan — Danger from Shaverdy Khan — Yusup hawking and drinking, 
heeds nothing— Mahomedans attack — Rallied by Ballah Mahomed 
— His provocation to Yusup — Aga Beg, in intervals of snuff-taking, 
shoots Ballah dead— His men fly — Disgust of Armenians with 
cowardly Yusup— Hatham 's attempt to make Yusup submit to 
Shaverdy — Emin's imaginary wealth turns the scale — Yusup goes 
to his citadel of Gulistan — Ibrahim Khan provides corn for nine 
months— Wonderful fertility of this land, where inhabitants have 
everything but prudent management.] Note. 




[Yusup's ingratitude to Emin — Emin set9 out for Gandtsasar — Johannes 

gives Emin a letter to Ibrahim Khan — Emin goes to Shushi — In the 

house of Mirzakhau — His wife relates the history of Panah and 

*Shahnazar of Varrauda — Ibrahim's durbar — The Khan's churlish 

. behaviour — Emin's request of a horse — Ibrahim's behaviour next 



day— Horse returned to him by Emin— Ibrahim taken aback— 
Return to Gandtsasar monastery— Amazement of Catholicos Jo- 
hannes— Emm's life in danger from Ibrahim Khan.] . . . . 308-323 


[Journeys on, meeting with silkwinders, gipsy Armenians and others- 
Monk Sukias again— A letter from secular priest Gabriel offering 
him support of 18,000 mountaineers needing no pay — Sukias, with 
600 tumans for Emin, gives him thirty rupees accompanied by 
threats — Adventure with Mahmed Melick Beg — Emin by his ready 
wit saves the life of a poor Persian— Ali's cat who always fell on 
four legs— The Beg tries to get the better of Emin, who outwits 
him—" What art thou, angel or devil ? "—Wanders on to an Arme- 
nian mountain village where he is kindly received.] . . . . 323-332 

Note on the Five Meuks of Karabagh . . . . . . 333-361 




[Concerning a young Armenian — Emin continues his wanderings in his 
own land at night, like a cutpurse or a murderer in danger from 
Ibrahim Khan — Ibrahim Khan's officer Hatham Beg, and his cup- 
bearer or Saki — Emin sets out with his relative Movses — A story of 
soldiers in hospital in Flanders and the sweetness of plunder — 
Inhospitable inhabitants of the village of Maghry, where women 
may look at men, but no man dare look at women — Arrival at 
Orduar.] . . . . . . . . . . 361-376 


[Journeying on to Khuy — Johannes the Varthapiet or Archimandrite, 
with tears and lamentations cursing Heraclius on account of his and 
Catholicos Simon's behaviour to " our prince Emin" — Emin makes 
himself known — Immediate terror of the monk — Fervent anxiety 
to get rid of Emin as soon as possible — In great anxiety and per- 
plexity not knowing where to turn — An Armenian, Mehrab — Wants 
to report Emin to his master, Ahmed Khan — Ahmed Khan turns 
Mehrab out with much abuse as an ungrateful Armenian trying to 
betray one who runs through fire and sword to save his countrymen 
from slavery — Emin at Tiflis — Heraclius welcomes him.] . . 376-386 


[How Ganja came under Heraclius through the death of Shaverdy Khan, 
his rival, at- the hands of a young Armenian repentant apostate — 
Battle between I,czguis and Georgians— Michael the centurion, an Ar- 
menian, commanding the I,ezguis — Heraclius' treachery again — 
Emin ordered to charge alone — His miraculous escape — Michael's 



glorious death — Lezguis entrenched fighting desperately but out- 
numbered — A captive Armenian boy — Emin's rebuke to Heraclius 
— Heraclius for the second time drives Emin out — Narrow escape 
from drowning.] . . . . . . . . . . 3^7-397 


[Young Georgian nobleman guides Emin to Tzeretel — Dangerous roads 
infested by robbers — Return of Prince Solomon of Emeral Georgia 
— How dinner was served to the prince — Solomon's wonderful wine 
and the social effect it produces on Emin — Emin continues his 
journey — Armenians who beg his protection on the road — Tribesmen 
appear, old friends of Emin, and take him with them, quitting his 
troublesome countrymen — Turkman Chief — Terror of the Arme- 
nians moves Emin, who again consents to accompany them — 
Mahomedans warn him they will again treat him badly as soon 
as they are safe — Which is exactly what happens — Mahomed 
Hassan Khan, governor of Ganja, offers him a command, which 
Emin refuses.] ... . . . . . . . . 397 - 4 I 2 


August — December, 1768. 

[At Shushi for the third time — Joins Shia pilgrims journeying to Bagdad 
— They object to his presence in their holy assembly — Emin saves 
them from paying toll to the Kurds — " An angel, not an Armenian " 
— Emin solemnly agrees to save his skin — At Bagdad joins a cara- 
van — Malalah a 3 r oung Arab — Journey and wayside accommodation 
from Bagdad to Hilla and Samavat — Malalah's devotion — His Arab 
fleetness of foot — Frozen waterways — At Qurna embarks for Basra 
— The H.E.I.CVs Revenge — Mr. Eyre, officer commanding, and his 
uncourteous treatment of Emin — Mr. Moore, the Resident — His 
suspicions — Satisfied by his Armenian broker still refuses his pro- 
tection — Taken in by an Armenian — Malalah and Emin part with 
sorrow.] . . . . . . . . . . 412-424 


1769 — '70. 

[A subscription made, Moore sends for Emin — Success arrives from 
Bengal — Emin returns to Calcutta, January 1770 — Cool reception 
by his father — Lord Bute's son and his kindness, and that of other 
Englishmen — Mr. Cox, Persian Interpreter — Governor Cartier ap- 
points Emin rosaldar to first brigade of Turkswars — Mr. Floyer, a 
councillor — Dinner at the Governor's — Arrival of English mail — 
' Letter from Duke of Northumberlarid — Doubts of guests — Arrival 
of duplicate letter to confusion of doubters — Khoja Petrus, " earthly 
god of the Calcutta Armenians " — Emin's rebuke to him.] 

Note. Copy of Document from Imperial Record Department . . 424-439 




1771— 1775. 

[Emin joins his corps at Dinapore — To Shahabad with troops under 
Sir Robert Barker — To Benares, then Calcutta, where Warren 
Hastings arrives succeeding Cartier 1772 — Troops discharged— 
Letter from the Duke of Northumberland — Emin unable, being a 
foreigner, to serve in the army — Hastings grants him leave of 
absence to try his fortune once more in Armenia.] 

Copy of document from Imperial Record Department. 

[Goes to Madras — Armenians wish to support him — Bishop Ovanes inter- 
feres — To Bombay— Plague at Basra — Moore and others arrive at 
Bombay — After nine months they return and Emin with them — 
To Bagdad from Basra — Returns to Basra — Captain Twistleton's 
action against Arab vessels — Emin volunteers and is appointed to 
the Success — Arrival of Persian armed vessels and 3,000 troops — 
An action — Enemy sticks in the mud — Moore's plans defeated by 
H.E.I. Co. — Chance of gaining command of river and control of the 
Persian Gulf lost by the British 143 years ago !] 

Note on Events at Basra . . . . . . • . 439 — 454 


1775— 17 8 °- 

[Emin and Moore — To Bushire — To Shiraz — Petition to Shah — Goes to 
Julfa — Catholicos Simon's treacherous plot against his life — Rather 
than fall a victim to the envy of this ecclesiastic, consents to 
marriage and life in Julfa — Disturbed state of Persia after death of 
Kherim Khan — Trouble at Ispahan and Julfa — By Ali Murad's 
orders Emin raises troop of Armenians — Ali offers to make him 
governor of Julfa — Immediate jealousy of bishop of Julfa — Emin 
narrowly escapes death at Ali Murad's levee — More plotting against 
him — " A dangerous man because he drinks no wine and is always 
sober " — But Ali Murad refuses to listen.] . . . . 455-4°5 


1780 — 1783. 

[Condition of Julfa and risks run by Emin — After 6 years' residence 
Emin leaves with his eldest son — Severe illness at Bushire — Mahomed 
Ben Efy — His wife's kindness — Romantic history of Ben Efy and 
his courtship of his wife — Amongst Arabs only the brave can win 
the fair, but amongst Armenians only the rich.] . . . .' ,465-471 



[Emin goes to Muscat, Surat, Bombay— Movses formerly his servant 
now a prosperous merchant giving himself airs — Emin goes to Purrel 


— Presented to Governor Boddam by Mr. Malet — Difficulty in pro- 
curing passage to Calcutta — Captain Smith of the Admiral Hughes 
— Mr. Matcharn and his letter — Leaves for Calcutta — Stranded at 
Madras through Smith's mean tricks — Anderson of the Success — 
Emin scores off Smith in the end — Arrears of pay — Hastings on the 
point of leaving — General Sloper — Posted to a company of European 
Invalids — Colonel Pearse in command at Fort William — Company 
ordered to Chunagar — Emin gets leave to stay in Calcutta and com- 
plete his "Memorial."] 

Copies of original documents — Application for Arrears of Pay — Letter 
of Col. Peter Murray — Emin's address to the Governor. 

Narrative resumed. [Concludes his Narrative with a dedication to Col. 
Pearse and an apology to the reader.] 

End of Narrative. 

Correspondence. Emin to Mr. Pitt, 1758 — to Mrs. Montagu, 1785 — 
Mrs. Montagu to her Sister, 1785 — Advertisement of Emin's book, 
1789 — Edmund Burke to Emin, 1789 — Emin to Mrs. Montagu, 
original, August 179 1, duplicate, November 1791 — Mrs. Scott to 
Mrs. Montagu (undated). 

Notes on the Subscribers. 

Notes on Armenians, Subscribers and Others— Letter of Moses 
Catchick Arakiel — Timber Chapel of the Armenians — Name of the 
Church — Address of Armenians to Sir Elijah Impey and Judges of 
the Supreme Court — Answer of the Judges — Armenians as Merchants 
— Their Charter of 1688 — Extract from Bolts' Considerations on 
Indian Affairs on position of Armenians in 1772 — The oldest 
Armenian tombstone inscription in India — Armenian Chronology — 
Emin vs. Emin, the earliest authority as to general law governing 
descent of land in the provinces or mofussil — " Maria Emin." 

Records of Emin's family in Calcutta — Records in Julfa — Tombs of 
well-known Calcutta Merchants — L'Envoi. 

Genealogical Tables 





49 8 -503 


Reproductions of Original Letters. 
Portrait of Author 

From the original at Hagley Hall. — By kind permission of the Owner, 

Map of Karabagh and the adjacent districts 

[Conlpiled from various sources.) 




cing page 


>> >> 




My Dear Emix, 
I send back the last number of your Narrative with my very- 
hearty thanks for the pleasure which the whole work has given me ; 
it has been highly interesting to me ; but, as there is no reasoning 
on tastes I cannot be sure that it will be thought equally interest- 
ing by others ; the style remains wholly your own ; for I have cor- 
rected only these errors in language and orthography, which were 
unavoidable in an English work written by a native of Hamadan ; 
and it is not the least of your merits that you have acquired such 
a command of words, in a language so different from Persian or 
Armenian. I know mankind too well to be surprized at the failure 
of your enterprize; nor am I fully persuaded, that it was just, 
since Heraclius had a claim on Armenia ; unless you intended to 
establish a republican government, and could have been satisfied 
with the station of a private citizen. A pure democracy is the only 
natural form of government, it cannot indeed be of long duration, 
because the lazy, (who are the majority of every estate) must con- 
tinue poor and weak, while the few who are diligent grow wealthy 
and powerful, and the chief use of a king is to keep down the pride 
and imperiousness of the few. A mixed government, therefore, like 
that of England, is the only form approaching to a state of natural 
society and likely to be permanent ; if your design was to transplant 
our constitution to Armenia, I heartily lament your disappointment, 

* Sir William Jones (i 746-1 794). The famous Orientalist. Appointed Judge of the 
Supreme Court of Calcutta 1783. Founder and President till his death of the Asiatic Society of 
Bengal. A man of almost universal erudition. The following memorandum was found in his 
handwriting. "Eight languages studied critically; English, Latin, French, Italian, Greek, 
Arabic, Persian, Sanscrit. Eight studied less perfectly but ail intelligible with a dictionary, 
Spanish, Portuguese, German, Runick, Hebrew, Bengali, Hindi, Turkish. Twelve studied least 
perfectly but all attainable; Tibetian, Pali, Phalavi, Deri, Russian, Syriac, Ethiopic, Coptic, 
Welsh, Swedish, Dutch, Chinese. Twenty eight languages." He overtaxed his strength, dying 
in Qalcutta in his 47th year. 


though I cannot wonder at it. Such a project I should think 
extremely laudable ; and you must think it so yourself, or you would 
not have undertaken it, but, since men are never so sure of loosing 
their just applause, as when they claim it, let me exhort you, when 
you revise your work, to strike out every passage that may favour 
of self-approbation. Let me also advise you to discard forever the 
Asiatick style of panegyrick, to which you are too much addicted ; 
weak minds only are tickled with praise, while they, who deserve it 
receive it with disdain. They, who say or write civil things as they 
are called, may not be flatterers, but they certainly resemble them ; 
as a brave man may be a real Hero, but if he dress like a fop, he 
will be mistaken for one ; I will add only one argument more : the 
Asiatick style, whether dedicatory or epistolary, is utterly repugnant 
to English manners, which you prefer, I know, to those of Persia. 
For all these reasons I return your dedication to Colonel Pearse 
uncorrected ; if I know him he would not be pleased with it, and I 
cannot be accessary to any thing that appears even in a question- 
able shape. Swift has misled you by inculcating that men of wit 
love praise, be assured that every man of wit (unless wit and sense 
be at variance) must prefer plain food to sugarplumbs, and would 
rather be rubbed with a coarse towel than with Dacca Muslin with 
all its flowers. Farewell and believe me ever, My Dear Emin, 

Your faithful servant, 
Gardens* August 10, 1788. W. JONES. 

* " Gardens." Everyone ill Calcutta who could afford it, had two residences, a town house, 
and a "garden house" somewhere out of town, indiscriminately called "Gardens." Sir 
William Jones's house was in Garden Reach, whence, in the early morning, his carriage following 
him, he walked into town every day to his house on the road leading from the Old Court, House 
(on the site of St. Andrew's Church) to the Esplanade. At the early age of 47 he died in No. 8 
Garden Reach, a house no longer in existence. 




Heraclius's claim to the sovereignty of Armenia, referred to by Sir William 
Jones. In the 9th century there was a family of princely descent in Armenia, of 
Jewish origin, called the Bagratids, who had been powerful from the earliest 
Artsakid times, and who had the hereditary privilege of crowning the kings. 
They became masters of the districts on the side of Georgia. Being Christians 
like the Armenians, they were harassed by the Arabs. During the decline of the 
Caliphate, when native impulses were revived in Georgia as well as in Armenia, 
the movement centred in a dynasty of Bagratid descent. This dynasty outlived 
their kinsmen in Armenia by many centuries, maintaining their throne till the end 
of the 18th Century, when Heraclius renounced his crown in favour of the Russian 
Tsar. Armenian royalty had been revived in a branch of the Bagratid family 
after an interval of over 450 years, in 885 A.D. 

(From Lynch's Travels in Armenia.) 

In Lord Teignmouth's Memoirs of the Life, Writings and Correspondence of Sir 
William Jones, there is a letter from Sir W. Jones to Sir J. Macpherson, as follows : 

May 6, 1786. 
I have already thanked you for your kind attentions to Emin, and I beg to 
repeat them : many in England will be equally thankful. He is a fine fellow, 
and if active service should be required, he would seek nothing so much as to 
be placed in the most perilous edge of the battle. 
In the Memoirs Iyord Teignmouth gives the following abstract of Emin's 

career : 

"Few persons have passed through a greater variety of hardships and perilou s 
adventures than the person mentioned by Sir William Jones under the name of 
Emin. — Born at Hamadan in Persia, of Armenian parents, and exposed during his 
infancy to uncommon disasters, while a mere youth he followed his father and 
ruined family to Calcutta. He had there an opportunity of observing the superi- 
ority of Europeans in arms, arts and sciences over the Asiatics, and the impression 
which he received from it, inspired an invincible desire in Emin, to acquire the 
, knowledge which they possessed. For this purpose he determined at all hazards 
to visit England ; and after a long opposition from his father, having obtained his 
reluctant assent, he adopted the only means left for the accomplishment of his 
purpose, by working his passage as a common sailor in one of the ships belonging 
to the East India Company. After his arrival in England, he lost no time in 
beginning to acquire the instruction which he so anxiously desired ; but his pro- 


gress was retarded by the narrowness of his circumstances, and he was compelled 
to submit to menial occupations aud laborious employments to procure a subsist- 
ence. Fortune favoured his perseverance and in a moment of despair he was 
accidentally introduced to the notice of the Duke of Northumberland and afterwards 
to that of many gentlemen of rank and fortune by whose assistance his views were 
promoted. The great object of Emin was to obtain a knowledge of military tactics, 
in the hopes of employing it successfully in rescuing the liberty and religion of the 
country of his ancestors from the despotism of the Turks and Persians. After 
serving with the Prussian and English armies in Germany, he procured the means 
of transporting himself into the mountains of Armenia, in the view of offering his 
services to Heraclius, the reigning prince of Georgia, and of rousing the religious 
zeal and martial spirit of his countrymen. He had there the mortification to find 
his resources inadequate to the magnitude of his enterprise, and he was compelled 
to return disappointed to England. After some time spent in solicitation he was 
enabled, by the assistance of his patrons to proceed with recommendations to 
Russia and thence, after various fatigues and impediments which his fortitude and 
perseverance surmounted, he reached Tefflis, the capital of Georgia. After eight 
years of wanderings, perils aud distresses, through the mountains of that country 
and Armenia, he was obliged to abandon his visionary project, and returned to 
his father in Calcutta. Still anxious for the accomplishment of his plans and 
noways intimidated by the experiences of past dangers and difficulties, he made 
a third attempt for the execution of them, and proceeded to Persia. This proved 

equally unsuccessful and he again returned to Calcutta During his residence 

in Calcutta he published an account of his eventful life, which Sir William Jones 
condescended to revise, so far only as to correct the orthographical errors but 
without any amendment of style." 

This was no light task, judging from Emin's correspondence. But Sir 
William evidently possessed infinite patience, and Emin was not the only 
Armenian whose mistakes it fell to his lot to correct. Writing to Thomas Caldicott 
from " Chrishna-nagar," October 10, 1787, Sir William says — " I have published 
nothing, but Armenian clerks make such blunders that I print ten or twenty 
copies of everything I compose, which may be considered as manuscripts." 

In the address delivered by Sir John Shore* (afterwards L,ord Teignmouth) 
to the Asiatic Society on succeeding Sir William Jones as President, he spoke of 
" the candour and complacency with which he (Sir William) gave his attention 
to all persons, of whatever quality, talent or education." 

* Sir John Shore, born 175 1, educated at Harrow, writer to K.I. Co. 1769. Member of 
Supreme Council 1787. Opposed the Permanent Settlement introduced by Cornwallis. Baronet 
1792, Governor-General '93 to '98. Baron Teignmouth 1798, died 1834. 




Angelo, Ducas 


Arakel, Moses Cacheke 



Barlow, George Hilaro 


Bebb, John 


Bristow, Mrs. 


Brooke, W. A. . . 


Brown, Rev. David 


Brown, Mrs. 


Bruere, William 



Campbell, Robert 


Campbell, Alexander 


Chambers, Sir Robert 


Chambers, Lady 


Chambers, William 


Chambers, Mrs. 


Cheap, George 


Cherry, G. F. . . 


Collins, Capt. John 


Cockerell, Charles 




Crommelin, Mrs. 


Crommelin, C. R. 


Crommelin, William 



' Davies, T. H. . . 


Da Cruz, Philip 


Davit Marcar Sheriman 


Dionysius, Herapeet 


* Information about the Subscribers will be found on p. 498. 



Edmiston, James 
EHot, John 
Elliot, George 





Fleming, John 

Francklin, Lieut. William . . 



Garbrand, C. 
Grant, James 
Gutherie, Capt. John 



Hamilton, George 

Harington, J H. 

H. Harris 

Hay, Edward 

Hyde, Hon. Mr. Justice 


Jones, Sir William 

Kennaway, Richard 
Knudson, Colonel 
Kyd, Major Alexander 


Lacam, Mr. 
Law, Thomas 
Leith, Sir George 

Macan, Turner . . 
Mason, Bryant . . 
Mavrody, Mr. 
Mackenzie, Edward 
Malkas, Nicolas 
Middleton, E. P. 




Murray, Colonel 

Morris, Capt. James 

Montague, the celebrated Mrs. E. 


Paniatty, Mr. 
Parthenio, Revd. Mr. 
Petruse, John Owen 
Prager, L,yon 
Prince, William . . 

Rocke, Richard . . 
Raphael Baboum, Dan 
Russell, Claud . . 
Russell, Patrick . . 

Shaw, Edward . . 
Sarkees Ter Johannes 
Satur Muradkaun 
Shamir Sultanum 
Stephanus, Mirza 

Taylor, John 

Tucker, Henry St. George 

Viskin, John 

Wright, Alex. 



Page 77, lines 34, 35 — For we are upon march every day by your Interest. I hope 
they will excuse me ; read we are upon march every day by your Interest I 
hope they will excuse me. 

Page 81. Signature to letter — For 3»l»4^«y ; read 3»Z?4-^"y. 

Page 129, line 1 and heading — For Mr. Davies ; read Mr. Davis. 

Page 158, line 18 — For Russel; read Russell. 

Page 360 (facing), in Map — For Tiza Mts. ; read Thiza Mts. 

Page 424, line 8 of Summary of Contents of Chapter — For "earthly God"; read 
" earthly god." 

Page 454, last paragraph, lines 3 and 4 — For Archdeacon Firminger says there is 
a house ; read Archdeacon Firminger writes of a house. 

Page 455, line 6 — For Echoes of Old Calcutta ; read Echoes from Old Calcutta. 



[Author's reflections on Content — How his friends urged him for two years to 
write his Life and why he reluctautly consented in spite of his ignorance of 
English — Ordinary sufferings of soldiers and sailors far exceeding anything 
endured by him — Labours and troubles of authors — Superiority of Europeans 
to all other peoples — His admiration for the English nation above all others — 
His reasons for this — How they expressed their satisfaction when America 
gained independence — Their love of fair play — What would happen in Eng- 
land should a foreigner come to blows with an Englishman contrasted with 
what would happen in other countries in the corresponding eventuality — How 
the sailors on the Walpole applauded him as David knocking down Goliath — 
Ends by expressing his hopes for his own countrymen.] 

In the name of Him whom no eye has seen, the only Maker of all, without 
whom nothing can be done, He who protects the good, and forgives the 

Let no man be confident of strength, no prince of power, no hero of his 
army, no wise man of his wisdom, no miser of his riches but only he who 
puts his whole trust in God, who will satisfy his desires, and confer on him 
an inestimable blessing. What is that inestimable blessing ? Content. 
When such a man stretches his mind to undertake a great or extraordinary 
work, whether he succeeds or fails, rises to the summit of his wishes or sinks 
to the lowest degree of disappointment, he will not pine away or despair ; 
on the contrary, he will be contented and resigned. That alone is to be 
called a blessing which is the great gift of Almighty God, by which Emin 
has passed with fortitude through many different scenes of life, for forty-five 
years successively. Had his toil been a hundred weight of iron, or a lofty 
mountain, it would have melted away as snow before the sun-beams. 

The peculiar content in his mind may attend the mind of every honest 
man who wishes to carry on an honourable design ; of which laudable quality 
if his countrymen had the smallest share, they would not have been made 
the tools of every nation and every power in the world. It is true, they 
have the empty appearance of rational beings, but, he is sorry to pronounce, 
that their minds are entirely destitute of all the principles of virtue, and even 
that is not without the will of God. Thus he contents his mind, praying the 
Supreme Being, all the days of his life, to favour him with tolerable sense 



to write the Narrative of his Transactions in Iyife. Though at the earnest 
desire of his friends, yet he consents with reluctance, not being very well 
versed in the English language. He is firmly convinced in his own opinion, 
that the inexpressible partiality of his friends towards him, and their singular 
humanity, will not let his suffering for the cause of his country to be for- 
gotten after his death, but are desirous that it may be transmitted to 
posterity, who may follow the same example, walk in the path of true under- 
standing, and force through the obstructions of fortune, which prevented 
his prosperity. 

The singularity of his sufferings would, in his opinion, scarce excite 
curiosity had he been an Englishman ; for there are many private soldiers 
and daring mariners in England, whose excessive hardships and dangerous 
lives, in dreadful storms at sea, and hazardous battles by land, are an 
hundred times superior to whatever he has undergone : but, considering that 
he is the only Armenian, out of several thousands, and in thousands of years, 
who has had an inexpressible thirst for improvement and liberty, it is 
natural that the world should wish to know the particulars of his life : yet 
he is at a loss in what manner to proceed, since, if he should write every 
thing, much will appear fabulous to many persons who are not well acquaint- 
ed with his character; but, if too concisely, he is afraid of disobeying his 
benevolent friends. However, he intends to preserve the medium, in hopes 
to meet the approbation of his candid readers, who condescend to indulge, 
and kindly pass over, any impropriety in his work ; and will consider the 
difficulty and labour by which he has attained the noble language of a foreign 
country, and that without either a friend or money. If they could possibly 
dive into his thoughts, to observe the hardship he undergoes in this task 
with an unpolished education, they would compare his mind to a blunt, 
rusty knife, cutting a thick bar of iron. 

His own labours make him sensible of the fatigue which those gentlemen 
undergo, who sacrifice their healths day and night, and waste their spirits, 
writing volumes upon volumes, deserving indeed great applause and honour 
from all the universe; who publish tracts on divinity, history, philosophy, 
mathematics, astronomy, agriculture, navigation; in a word, on all arts and 
sciences, civil or military ; making themselves acquainted with the customs 
and manner of all nations in the universe, learning languages, translating 
books, avoiding the faults, and preserving the useful parts of them; resem- 



bling the industrious bees, who extract the sweetest honey from all sorts of 
flowers; thus attaining an everlasting provision by immense fatigue, and 
freely bestowing on every body a sumptuous banquet. 

The table of learning is laid open to every man and every nation, to 
enjoy and to eat without charge ; very different from the ancient Chaldeans, 
Persians, Greeks, or Romans, whose barbarous jealousy kept learning as a 
mystery, and deprived the people in general of improvement. 

It is recorded in Justin's History of the World, that Alexander the 
Great hearing that Aristotle, his preceptor, had published a book, asked 
him by letter, why he did so ? the answer was, that he did not write in such 
a stile as to be understood by every man. But the noble-minded Europeans 
in general have more enlarged sentiments, particularly the English and 
French, who are willing to find all mankind eager pursuers of knowledge, 
receiving the light of understanding, and driving away the obscurity of their 
minds, thus enabled to see and to distinguish good from evil. And if Euro- 
peans had not been industrious in point of learning, and that in their smallest 
quarter of the world, they could not have stood against Asia and Africa, nor 
have found America to civilize. They have stood most wisely and bravely 
the terrible shocks of several wild and barbarous nations. Mahomed the 
great Impostor, and, after him, his enthusiastic khalifahs or successors, who 
laid many kingdoms wa3te with fire and sword, without pity or remorse, 
were never able to subdue enlightened Europe. Thus observing the ex- 
cellence of true learning, and the horrid misery of ignorance, Emin resolved 
to put his honest design into execution, of giving an account of his insignih* 
cant life, which he will, with trembling heart, take the liberty to lay before 
his friends and benefactors (though he cannot omit saying, that he would 
rather chuse to undertake the fatigue of the hardest campaign,) doubting, 
whether it will please the mind of the public, or finally dash him with 

When he came to have some knowledge in the language, he began to 
study as well as he could the disposition of Europeans ; he observed one 
particular goodness in the English, on which he is rather doubtful how to 
express his sentiments, lest he should be esteemed a flatterer ; but, as he is 
resolved, even at the hazard of his life, to persevere, he chuses rather to be 
wounded at the heart, than to tread over the truth, like many ungrateful 
persons, who, while they set down at the table of friends, eat the bread 


and salt of gratitude, and, when they rise, let it drop on the ground, and 
trample it under foot, this being more common with us Asiatics than with 

Emin has been often checked in conversation by his worthy friends, 
and admonished not to open his mouth in praise of the English ; but he 
could not help it; he will speak and write his mind here, which obliges him 
to make an apology before he proceeds; he having observed, from his first 
knowledge of that nation to this very juncture (a period of almost 35 years,) 
that they are glad and happy to hear, from the remotest part of the globe, 
of any people who are freed from slavery. When even their own country- 
men, the colonists in America, revolted, though sorry for the disunion, they 
were often heard to express themselves with great satisfaction, that the 
Americans are become independent. Therefore, he begs his good readers to 
have the humanity not to entitle him a flatterer, but rather to indulge him 
in speaking the truth, and only the truth. 

Lastly, he begs to explain more clearly his sentiments on that head, 
when his indulgent reader will observe the uncommon irregularity of syntax 
in this imperfect preface, and in his memoir. In his opinion, the old ballad 
singers in the streets of London could write better on the subject, and more 
intelligibly than himself, who puzzles his brains to express his meaning. He 
has made all manner of apologies to his friends, casting even burlesque on 
his poor deficient capacity, in order to excuse himself for two years together ; 
but all to no purpose; they pressing him, with uncommon good nature, to 
write any how, well or ill, he was at last obliged by gratitude to consent, 
and to obey their will ; which is a demonstrative proof of his prepossession 
in favour of the English. Far be it from him in the least to suspect his 
friends intentions, or to imagine that they mean to expose his weakness to 
the public; on the reverse, they are cordially willing to serve, as they have 
already served him ever since he has been honored by their notice; and if 
his own relations or countrymen had the tenth part of the same inclination 
and good will towards him, he might have been saved with them from being 
tossed up and down like a foot-ball, and kicked about by almost all Maho- 
medaus and divines of the church ; the first take their lives away, the others 
keep their souls in bondage, resembling exactly the two archangels in the 
Koran of Mahomed, named Azrael and Asrafil. These sacred ministers 
inadvertently stepped into his lines; but it is necessary he should conclude, 


and begin his history; wishing in the mean time to please the ears of his 
readers, and afford yet more satisfaction to his contented mind. He as a 
soldier is not afraid, having put his entire confidence in them, shewing all his 
disorders and wounds, within and without his mind and body. Let them 
act as they think proper with a becoming spirit of kindness to fight the 
battle; but in case they find the adverse party too strong to stand against, 
let them, to please themselves, defend and retreat gently, saying, Emm has 
done his best, and his worthy friends lost nothing in the way, by his inoffen- 
sive and simple manner of writing. 

Let him add a few lines more in regard to the common people of Eng- 
land : — Suppose a foreigner, (or, as they would call him, an outlandish man,) 
whether a Turk or a Jew, should come amongst them, and chance to be 
affronted by any of their dear countrymen in the street ; if he should be 
spirited enough to return the blow, they would be pleased, crying out, Well 
done, and fair play ! If the foreigner should happen to knock down, which 
God forbid, the Englishman, and should not keep him under, they would say, 
let him get up again, preserving justice all the while, till the end of the battle ; 
whereas in all other foreign countries, which the author has observed in all his 
travels, if such an affray should happen, the Lord have mercy on the poor 
wretch who should affront any one of the natives ; the whole multitude would 
rise to crush him under their feet, as if he were guilty of murder. 

Instances of the kind he has often seen ; and remembers well, when he 
first went on board of the ship lying at Balasor, a fort-night before its sail- 
ing, he was much despised by the crew, not being yet acquainted with their 
admirable sense, nor well understanding their language, which was the reason 
of his being treated in that disagreeable manner; but, when he knew them, 
he was no less pleased than an idle boy, who rejoices with all his heart in a 
holiday, and was angry with himself for not having been enough inquisitive 
to be acquainted with them before. One day a foreign seaman, with himself 
and several Englishmen, were handing down bags of rice in the main hatchway, 
when the foreigner gave Emin abusive language, who, then losing no time, 
brought the poor man down (although three times as big as himself) with a 
single slap on the left side of his face, not running to keep him down, but 
putting himself in a better posture to decide the battle in due form : but the 
combatant, stunned with the blow, sat down, was carried to his hammock, 
and, could not come on the deck for some days. What happened then ? the 


honest English mariners jumped up, and hallooed with loud voices, David 
has conquered the great Goliah ! tapping him in the mean time on his 
shoulder, and all of them shaking hands with him in turns. Is not this a 
demonstrative proof of the nature of that brave nation ? He desires, there- 
fore, to know, in what corner of his heart lodges that unmanly vice of flat- 
tery ? Truth shines like the sun in every honest heart, and affords a pleasant 
glow to every noble-minded man, who wishes well to every one that means 
well. Had he indeed a capacity equal to his will, he would rather chuse to 
treat on this head all the days of his life, like the late Dr. Campbell, who 
spent twenty years in writing his Survey of Britain, (keia met zenjernama, a 
Turkish expression, signifies the chain of eternity), than to write his own 
history, which is a novelty never before attempted by any of his richest 
countrymen. May they be inclined to receive the bright dawn of true know- 
ledge in their gloomy minds so as to become considerable in the eyes of 
every nation, and after their inexpressible sufferings, to subdue the enemies 
of religion and liberty ; to flourish in all kinds of learning, military or civil ; 
to become virtuous in all respects ; to be named free and true Christians, not 
resembling a certain nation, who are called half-christians by the mighty 
Russians, and to whom, when the common people quarrel, they say, Go your 
ways, for you have sold us your religion for our money. 








[Genealogy — Death of old champion, his great-great-grandfather at no, fighting 
five Janizaries — Author born at Hamadan, 1726 — To Bagdad in 1731-33 — 
Besieged by Nadir Shah — His defeat — A second siege — Nadir retires — Grand- 
father Michael— Mr. Dorrel, resident of Basra — Ahmad Pasha's levee — "A 
European army could take Bagdad in five days " — Author's father goes to 
Bengal — Emin to Ispahan, 1742 — A kind Turk — Michael unjustly imprisoned 
— Freed through Emin — To Basra, thence to India.] 

TT7HKN a handful of people exerting themselves to be called 
a nation are in an infant state, and destitute of perfect 
wisdom, they appear like an innocent hopeful boy in the eyes 
of the Omnipotent. A new state resembles an elegant lamp, 
the light of which, if the ministers are wise, they will always 
be watchful in preserving, and will continue from time to time 
to pour into it a proper quantity of pure oil, so as to keep it 
burning all the night long; and this is the case with the ex- 
-cellent Europeans, whose Christian sovereignty, as the writer 
observes with peculiar satisfaction, had its rise from that very 
cause, with the favour of the mo*st merciful God; and he wishes 
from the bottom of his heart that they may preserve it as long 
as the frame of the universe shall endure, 

2 author's ancestors. 

In regard to the Asiatics or Africans, they, when in pros- 
perity, are generally intoxicated with their success, and rolling 
in all manner of vices (he excepts his own harmless country), 
and continue stumbling in their soft beds, the light is extin- 
guished, and the house remains in total darkness, then the 
enemy comes with sword in hand cutting them off, and taking 
possession of their whole territory. When he thus turned his 
wandering thoughts on his nation, from their beginning to the 
time of his troublesome undertaking, he observed their sim- 
plicity and weakness of mind, as yet resembling children imposed 
on by the holy divines of their church; he resolved therefore 
to lay the foundation of his hope, and go over to England to 
see the admirable European system of wise laws and useful regu- 

Before he begins to exhibit his imperfect memoirs, it is 
necessary to say something concerning the origin of his family, 
and the names of his ancestors; since in the East, he that 
denies or forgets his progenitors, is reckoned hardmzddah, or 

Emin, the head of the family, was called the First, for a 
reason well known, but not necessary to be mentioned here. 
The name of his son was Abraham, who had several sons; the 
name of one was Astuatsatur, or Theodorus, who with other 
Armenians emigrated from Armenia (after being reduced by the 
art of Shah Abbas, commonly called the Great), and settled in 
the town of Hamadan, situated at the foot of Mount Alwend, 
where his great-grandfather, Emin the Second, was born. When 
a proper age, he followed the profession of his forefathers, en- 
listing himself in the military service of that barbarous prince, 
and by dint of courage distinguished himself in two extraordi-, 
nary actions. He was the first in the whole army to scale the 
wall of Handchar and Bagdad/ knocking down the centries ; the 
rest of dovetababs, or resolute selected soldiers, seconding the 
onset, so that both cities were taken (this he had heard from 


his own father Hovsep) : he was consequently promoted to the 
honourable post of minbafhy, or colonel of one thousand men : 
but his singular conduct caused his ruin, through the jealousy 
of that ungrateful Persian nation, who took from him all his 
estate, and reduced him to the lowest poverty, and made him 
as miserable as his great-great-grandson was in England, who 
judges the condition of his venerable ancestor worse than his 
own, since he had only to take care of himself, while his ances- 
tor had four sons and a daughter to maintain. He went there- 
fore as a choush or guard to the caravans, and after that became 
a leader or conductor for some years ; till having raised a small 
capital, he settled and married his children, bought land, planted 
a garden, thus working and amusing himself till he was an hun- 
dred and ten years of age. 

In the time of Shah Sultan Hussain, in the year 1722, 
Ahmad Pasha, governor of Bagdad, marched with an immense 
army and attacked the town of Hamadan, and after a siege of 
three months, took the place by storm, destroyed 60,000 Maho- 
metan Persians in three days and three nights, and killed, in 
cool blood, 800 Armenians in their church. Emms family hid- 
ing themselves in a kahriz, that is to say, subterranean cavity, 
in the house made for that very purpose, this brave veteran (his 
great-grandfather) would by no means be persuaded to conceal 
himself with his family, saying these very words: "My dear chil- 
dren, I dreamed last night that a great fall of snow was so very 
deep as to cover the crown of my head. This is the last day 
of my life, wherein I am to be sacrificed. You will all be made 
captives, but not denied with the foul hands of infidels ; my 
grandson Michael will deliver you. Behold it is beneath me to 
.be afraid of the Turks ! that in my youthful days I have driven 
an hundred of them' before my horse. Whenever the two armies, 
Persians and Turks, came to an* engagement, I was always the 
first that challenged the Turkish army in single combat ; I have 
cut off the heads of my antagonists, which I carried and pre- 


sented to the cruel Shah Abbas, (the old way of making war 
remains to this day unaltered, when two armies face each other, 
hostility begins by single combatants,) and with my corps of 
cavalry I used to make a way by breaking the enemy's columns. 
Depart and be blessed; — let me now make my last will." Then, 
taking his great-grandson Hovsep in his affectionate arms, and 
giving him more blessings than the rest, he spoke the following 
words: "This is my beloved boy, whom Providence will favour; 
his male child shall be baptised Bmin, after my name, who, by 
God's assistance, will lift up the sword of defence to revenge the 
cause of his country and the blood of his ancestors, that was 
shed for the truth, and in the most sacred path of Christianity. 
Never despair, Mahometanism shall fail, and will be subdued 
under us true believers in God, through our Saviour Jesus, and 
your posterity shall see the golden age first when the sheep and 
wolf shall graze together, seeing them all very well secured." 
He took his Herculean club, and sat himself down on a brick 
bench behind the fastened gate of the house, when, on a sudden, 
five blood-thirsty Janizaries broke open the door with pole axes. 
The bold veteran seeing it, stood his ground to receive the 
assailants armed with guns, pistols, and swords. He knocked one 
of them down on the ground almost speechless, and struck out 
the eye of another; (whom we have seen at Bagdad several 
years after, named Abbas, by trade a horse-dealer ;) two of them 
being disabled, the other three not daring to cope with him 
sword in hand, retired to a little distance, fired their pieces to- 
gether, and killed Emin ; after which they took possession of the 
house full of European goods, to the amount of 5,000 tumans. 

When the Turks had sufficiently exercised their cruelties on 
the Persians for three days, a proclamation was issued from, 
Ahmed Basha, to abstain from destroying any more ; and this 
encouraged the concealed people to come out from their holes : 
presently after, came fresh orders from head quarters, to enslave 
them. Fortunately a Turkish Aga, or great officer in the army, 


was acquainted with the author's grandfather Michael, and with 
Ahmed Bassas Ferman* in his hand, came just at that critical 
time when the diabolical Turks were going to lay violent hands 
on them. He thus preserved the honour, and made a bargain 
with them both for males and females, amounting to sixty-five 
souls, at twelve tuman per head, the whole sum amounting to 780 
tumans, which, at twenty rupees to each tuman, f makes 15,600 
rupees, paid by Michael before-named, who arriving from Bagdad 
a few days after the slaughter, took the mangled body of the 
old champion from among the dead victims of his religion, and 
buried it in the church with great solemnity. 

Hamadan being then settled under the Turkish government, 
Emin's youngest son, Aratun, at the distance of two days jour- 
ney from that town, with 400 tumans sewed up in his quilted 
waistcoat, was murdered by some Persians while he was sleep- 

In the year 1726, Emin, the writer of these memoirs, was 
born at Hamadan, and in 1731 or 1733, he went with his family 
to Bagdad. Presently after, the Turks had evacuated Hamadan. 

In that very year (if he is not mistaken), his father Hovsep 
was gone to Basra, and before that, his grandfather to Bengal, 
to buy articles of commerce. In the meanwhile the town of 
Bagdad was surrounded by Thahmaz Kulykhan, afterwards Nadir 
Shah, the deliverer of Persia. 

During a siege of full nine months, his mother and his next 
youngest brother died of common disorders, but not for want, 
although the Mahometans were reduced to eat the flesh of horses, 
asses, dogs, cats, and mice ; but his grandfather's father took 
care, three months before, to lay up wheat, barley, corn, grain of 
»all sort, which saved the family from starving with the rest of 
the inhabitants. In the end, Nadir Shah was defeated by 

* Firman. 

t Two hundred years ago! The toman, or tuman, before the present war broke out, 
was equal to Rs. 2-4 or Rs. 2-8. 


Thopall Osman Basha; and Emin's grandfather came soon after 
from India, exactly forty days after Thopall Osman's army was 
routed by Nadir, who laid siege again to Bagdad, and con- 
tinued his operations about three months, the garrison being almost 
exhausted for want of provision, men, ammunition, etc. 

When Ahmad Basha was very near reaching, with reluctance, 
the brink of capitulation, news arrived that Khorasan was in 
danger from the Osbeg Tartars, and the whole kingdom was not 
far from revolt ; which circumstance obliged Nadir to make peace 
with Ahmad ; so that he marched back, and left Bagdad in quiet. 
Here his great-grandfather, a man of great faith and extraordi- 
nary natural talents, instilled many notions into his head con- 
cerning the origin of his ancestor ; which need not here be men- 
tioned, as it might be taken for a romance. This venerable 
man died at Bagdad,* aged eighty-two years. 

Emin's grandfather, Michael, was almost ruined by an Ar- 
menian treacherous informer, named Kardash, but for the protec- 
tion of one Mr. Dorrel, resident at Basra, f who happened to be 
then at Bagdad, and was much taken notice of by its governor 
Ahmad, who grew so very fond of him, that he used to call 
him My Balioz Beg. J 

It may not be unpleasant to insert here what passed one 
day at Ahmad' s levee : after he had shown the English gentle- 
man the fortifications of Bagdad, the pashe said, it was so 
strong, that Nadir Shah could not take it ; and still continued 

* Three members of the family are therefore known to have died at Bagdad, Emin's 
mother, younger brother, and great-grandfather. There are several stones on Armenian 
graves in India as old, and older, in good preservation, so that I hoped to secure the in- 
scriptions, if any, on these graves of the Emin family through my cousin, Major Bertram 
Harvey, who went to Bagdad with the British forces, and who did all he could to help 
me, but did not succeed in finding the graves. It seems that the only stone procurable in, 
Bagdad is sandstone, which is perishable, and no tombstones of that period are in existence. 
There are two Armenian churches in Bagdad, one in, and another situated a little way out 
of the city. o 

t The first time this place is mentioned the name is spelt as it is at the present day ; 
later on in the book other forms are used. 

% Balioz is, I believe, an Arabic word, meaning Consul, or the equivalent to Consul. 


pressing to know his opinion of it, Mr. Dorrel answered the 
question in these words : " May it please your highness, if an 
European army besieged it instead of Xadir, they would have 
taken the place in five days time." Which expression made the 
Basha turn pale, and he said, " Gavoor, if I had not sworn, I 
would cut off your head." A similar sarcasm was made by an 
English groom, who attended the late King of Prussia : — His 
majesty one day, before he mounted his horse, began to reflect on 
the late Duke of Cumberland,* and his defeat by field-marshal 
Saxe : the English groom could not swallow the bitter pill ; and, 
while he was stroking the horse's mane, he said, loud enough to 
be well heard, " O poor horse, I wish you could speak, you 
would ask his Prussian Majesty, who ran away first at such a 
battle, for you are the very English horse he then mounted." 

Michael, being much reduced through that wicked Armenian, 
and hearing of Xadir Shah's conquest of the Afghans, the Osbeg 
Tartars, and Indostan, while Persia enjoyed abundance and 
peace, thought it necessary to send his wife, with four sons 
(Moses, David, Melchisedech, Malachi) and a daughter, back to 
Hamadan, together with his grandson Emin, who was then about 
eleven years of age. At that time, a horse-load of fine flour 
was sold for a single rupee, grapes of the same quantity for five 
abbasis, or two rupees ; in a word, every thing was cheap in 

A year after, his father Hovsep returned from Basra, with 
a dreadful illness, so that it appeared impossible for him to 
recover ; but with care, helped by the extraordinary excellence 
of the climate, superior to any other in Orahstan Persia, t he 

* Marlboro Et l'Angleterre, a-t-elle produit quelque grand general qui m'ait succede ? 
, Lichtenstein. he due de Cumberland. 

Marlboro. Combien de batailles a-t-il gagnees ? 

Lichtenstein. II a ete battu a Fontenoy, a Hastenbeck, et a manque d'etre fait prison 
nier a Stade, lui, et sou armee. (Dialogues desHMorts. CEuvres posthumes de Fre'de'ric, roi de 

t Arahstan = garden, paradise. Perhaps he means the garden of Persia, though the part 
referred to is hardly the most fertile. 


recovered his health, and married a second time. Not long 
after, came his grandfather from Bagdad, with as much indisposi- 

But this tranquillity did not last long ; Nadir's zeal, compas- 
sion, and humanity, were changed into cruelty. The villanous 
and wicked Persians began to oppress, and exact money ; pre- 
sently famine ensued. On one hand, the subjects were obliged 
to pay the king's tax : and, on the other, with inexpressible 
difficulty to provide bread for their families. To withstand the 
shock of this enormous oppression, the author's family were 
forced to sell their houses and goods for a tenth part of their 

Before this calamity began, his three uncles went to Khora- 
san, and his father to Bengal, for the purpose of trade. Some 
years after, he, being then sixteen years of age, heard that one 
of his uncles was gone to Gilan; and his grandfather, observing 
his military disposition, lest he should enlist himself in Nadir's 
service, thought it prudent to let him go to Gilan, there to 
amuse himself with his uncle for some time, so as to be prevent- 
ed at least from his supposed resolution. His grandfather was 
obliged to leave behind him his wife, with their youngest son 
and a daughter, together with the author's mother-in-law,* and 
fled ; whence he sent for Kmin, who set out with his uncle in a 
caravan as far as Casbin ; his uncle went to Hamadan, to relieve 
his mother, brother, sister and other relations : Emin, with 
another caravan, set out for Ispahan. He had a fever, or was 
much indisposed, when he set out for that place. No sooner 
were they parted than he being alone, and having no other 
Christian to help him, the Mahomedan Persians began their 
usual barbarity ; every hour in the day inviting him to their 
false religion, then using him ill with abusive language, all the 
way to the town of Kom, where he was obliged to change the 
charvadar (or the man that hires his ass to travellers). And 

* Step-mother. 


when he reached the city of Cashan, the caravan pitched in 
the middle of the court of a caravansarai, exposed to the heat 
of the sun in July ; the other travellers had their tents, but 
Emin had none to rest under. Luckily for him, the people of 
the caravan halted there a week, and his charvadar was a Turk, 
otherwise he might have been destroyed at Cashan. 

On the first day of their arrival there, he having scarce 
eaten anything for several days before, went to a cook's shop, 
with a voracious appetite, and made a very hearty dinner upon 
strong broth of sheep's head and feet, in which was mixed a 
great quantity of vinegar with garlic, to make it more palatable 
for him, whose ague and fever used to attack him every other 
day. No sooner was he out of the place, than he found him- 
self as thirsty as Mahomedans are for the blood of Christians; 
and he went three times down sixty steps or more, to the evatn- 
bar, or reservoir of water, built at Cashan by the late Shah 
Abbas. The place was so very cold that his thirst was instantly 
quenched, and, when he came up again, he was as dry as ever, 
and grew quite senseless. Not knowing what to do with him- 
self, seeing a boy about ten years of age with a large gurglet of 
water on his shoulder, Emin ran, at the hazard of his life, forced 
it from him, struck off the neck of the vessel, and drank the 
whole, which was almost four bottles of English measure. While 
the poor boy went to acquaint his Mahomedan parents of the 
rash behaviour of a Christian, sick as he was, yet through fear 
of being stoned to death, he took to the hills and made his 
escape; but going all in a flutter, he threw himself on his bed 
under the intense heat of the sun, where he lay delirious all 
the time from Wednesday *noon till nine o'clock on Saturday 
evening : he then awoke all of a sudden, when, opening his eyes, 
he found himself lying on his quilt, a part of it being rolled 
under his breast, and discovered a black mark on the white 
ground, five feet in length and as much in breadth, when he 
perceived it to be the mark of blood from his nose : it immedi- 



ately occurred to him, that his poor mother died at Bagdad of 
a bleeding at the nose; he was a little alarmed at this circum- 
stance, but more at its continuation : in the meantime he saw 
his honest charvadar, with a drawn scimitar in his hand, stand- 
ing over his head. He took it for granted the Turk was going 
to make an end of him, and crying out boldly to the man, 
" Why are you waiting, friend ? make your blow good, strike 
home, let me die in the truth of my faith," and stretched out 
his neck to receive the stroke which he expected. To his great 
surprise, the honest Turk said to him with a mild voice in these 
very words: "Be easy, Armenian lad, poor in body, bold in 
mind, you have been almost dead for these three days; the Per- 
sians wanted to take you by the legs and throw you into that 
deep hole; I drew my sword, and watched all the time; I saw 
there was life in you, your pulse beating slowly. This morning, 
when your nose began to bleed, I lifted you up with my own 
hands, and laid you on your bed, so as not to stain your clothes. 
By degrees I observed as the blood ran, you began to draw 
breath better and better ; let it run, do not be afraid ; I think 
it is the work of God, who sees the heart of us all, saw you 
true to your own faith, and saved you from perishing by the 
hands of these diabolical Persians. It is through their own 
wickedness that God has delivered them into the hands of us 
Turkomans, and has sent Nadir Shah to plague them. Take 
courage, put thy trust in God, he will preserve thee from all 
evil doers; I am your real friend as you have pronounced me, 
and that also is by the will of God." These consolatory expres- 
sions from that brave man, with a continuation of the discharge 
of blood, made the author almost well; but his mind was 
uneasy, in not having it in his power to show his gratitude, 
since his miserable uncle had given him but twelve rupees at 
Casbin, though he had with him sixteen bales of raw silk of 

Next day the caravan set out, and the author. When he arrived 


at Julpha* (the suburbs of Ispahan), he found his grandfather 
both sick and poor, for want of the money which he had before 
desired his son Melchisedech, at Gilan, to remit to him, when he 
wanted Emin to come to him. The old gentleman in a few days 
recovered his health, and Emin fell again into a very dangerous 
illness for five months, without being able to leave his bed, with- 
out a servant to attend him, or money to procure medical assis- 
tance, he drunk water all the while, but scarce eat anything. 
Six rupees the remainder part out of his twelve, lasted till they 
received 200 rupees from his father in Calcutta; who desired his 
own father, Michael, to send or bring Emin along with him thi- 
ther. His illness saved him from being starved, which would 
probably have been the case if he had been in perfect health. 
As for his grandfather he made a shift to live, being entertained 
by a rich Armenian merchant, named Evanes of Noofnoos, a 
village in Nakhchovan Armenia, who had been formerly a ser- 
vant of Emin's grandfather. This gentleman had a dislike to 
the author, because his father, in his youthful da}^s, had beaten 
him for some misdemeanor. 

When winter approached, Emin began to open his eyes from 
his illness, getting strength every day, when a Persian Beg of 
Hamadan, an officer in the king's army, without cause or reason, 
took Michael up, and made him a prisoner in his own house, in 
one of the streets of Ispahan, called Shamsabad (or the Dwelling 
of the Sun), under a false pretence that he was a fugitive from 
Hamadan. He was kept three days, with a view of exacting a 
sum of money: the Beg, considering the meekness of the grand- 
father, and not having experienced the spirit of the grandson, 
who made it his business from Julpha, twice every day, to call 

* According to the historian Arakiel, Shah Abbas deported Armenians seven or eight 
times into Persia and settled them in different parts of the country ; on the third occasion 
the people of Julpha were transferred by force* and a new town was built on the right 
bank of the river Zenderooth, and called New Julpha where fourteen thousand Armenian 
families were settled. Old Julpha in Armenia was destroyed by fire when the inhabitants 
were carried away. 


on both the old gentleman and the officer; and, finding the 
unmanly intention of the Beg, he threatened him, and went 
immediately to complain to Nadir Shah, then at Ispahan. When 
he came to the gate of the palace, he found there an officer, or 
one of the Arza Beg's deputies, who said to him, "What do you 
want, young Armenian ? " He answered, that he came, first, to 
be enlisted ; and then, to complain to his majesty of a man, who, 
without justice or the king's order, had made his grandfather a 
prisoner on purpose to extort a sum of money from him. He 
said, "Stay a little, I will conduct you to the king; but, tell 
me the truth, are not you afraid of Nadir Shah ? " pointing to 
the Persians brought out in the arms of the servants, some 
strangled, some with their brains knocked out, others with their 
ears and noses cut off. He answered without emotion, "They 
deserved it, and are well paid in their own coin": and added, 
that he would serve the magnanimous king truly and faithfully, 
like the rest of the Armenians, who fought bravely, and are well 
indulged by his majesty, like his own children: for Nadir, in all 
his reign, never hurt an Armenian, except two of the chief mer- 
chants of Julpha, who had sworn falsely by his head, and were 
burnt alive in the grand square of Ispahan in the year 1746.* 

The officer, hearing Emin's sentiments, consented with all 
possible cheerfulness and affability; and was going to enter the 
gate, in order to present him when his grandfather and the 
fellow who had confined him, were come down on their knees, 
laying hold both of the king's officer's and Emin's feet, begging 
them not to proceed further, and, with much difficulty, prevented 
them at last ; which pacified Emin. The good-natured officer, in 
a great passion menaced the villain, and said to him, "It was 
lucky for you, this Armenian lad's grandfather came with you, 
otherwise not only yourself would suffer, but all your followers 
would have shared the same fate; you would have been hanged 

* Agha Emtiiaz Khoja Miuassian, and Agha Haruthiuu Shahrimaniantz. The name of 
Eniniaz has no connection with the name of Emin. 

VOYAGE TO INDIA, 1 742. 13 

as so many dogs, like the rest of your wicked countrymen ; you 
see they are dragged away from his presence." The fellow 
looked as pale as death, and sneaked away, frightened out of 
his senses. The officer then said to Emin, "Go, my brave boy, 
serve your old grandfather, and obtain his blessing ; I see in 
your countenance, that one day you will become a great man ; 
then remember what I have told you." The Armenians thanked 
him with their best respects, and went back to Julpha. But, 
though his grandfather was pleased with the daring action of 
Emin, he still was in fear lest he should one day take the same 

A month after, Nadir inarched with his invincible army from 
that place towards Mashhed ; and Michael thought proper to set 
out with the author in a caravan, over the Gilan mountains, to 
Basrah. He was then eighteen years of age. Nothing extra- 
ordinary happened during the journey ; and, when they reached 
that place, they did not stay there more than a week, but em- 
barked in a hurry on board of an Armenian heavy-sailing vessel. 
In fifty days, with great difficulty, at last they made the island 
of Cashin, in the gulf of Persia. Thence the}* sailed to Cannanor, 
where they, with several Armenian passengers, were put on shore 
by the captain, whose name was Marut, a man of an indifferent 
character. He used them all very ill ; and his vessel was taken, 
on the same coast of Coromandel, by a Portuguese man of war. 
They went to Cochin, where they stayed five months; and thence 
back to Surat, where Emin found his uncle David, who took 
great care of him. They refreshed, after ten months' fatigue and 
hardship ; he cared little for himself, but greatly for his vener- 
able old grandfather, who had all the trouble of bringing him 
up in a pious way, and was more fond of him than of all his 
six sons and two daughters. As the author's mother died 
young, and left him young, he was also taught the Armenian 
language by his grandfather, and lived with him from the age 
of six years to nineteen or twenty ; hence he knew more of the 

14 Grandfather michaei/s piety. 

old gentleman than all his own children:, he scarce ever saw 
him angry in' all that whole period; he prayed first for his 
enemies, then for his family. 

When the unwelcome news was brought of his second son 
Moses, who was killed by the Akhwans at Tabriz, he shed but few 
tears, raised up his head and hands to heaven, thanked and glori- 
fied God, pronouncing at the same time the words of Job, " God 
has given, and God has taken away." The author saw this 
with his own eyes in Calcutta; and, when absent, was informed 
by others, that when his other three sons, and a daughter died 
at different times, all grown up, some twenty-five, some thirty, 
some forty-five, some forty-two years old, he behaved with the 
same fortitude and Christian patience : in a word, his great piety 
was -equal to the known bravery of his grandfather Emin the 


[Page 2. Shah Abbas of Persia reigned from 1587 to 1629. In 
1603 he seized Old Nakhichevan and Erivan. To prevent the Turks 
(Osmanlis), who were preparing to re-conquer the country, from obtain- 
ing supplies or assistance from the inhabitants, he forcibly, with in- 
describable cruelties, deported the Armenians into Persia. Thousands 
perished by the way, but those who reached their journey's end were 
given land to settle on, for the Shah desired that his indolent Persians 
should improve by learning the trades and handicrafts practised by the 

Page 3. Shah Suleiman was succeeded in 1694 by his son Shah 
Sultan Hussein, who was defeated, deposed and confined in the fortress 
of Ispahan by the Afghans under Mahmoud Shah in 1722. His son 
Thamasp fled to Khorassan and Mahmoud reigned until 1725, when his 
favourite general Ashraf in disgust, or pretended disgust, at his sover- 
eign's tyrannies, strangled him and became Shah himself. In the 
second year of Ashraf 's reign, the chief, Mahmoud of Khorassan, wishing 
to ingratiate himself with the Shah, sent his favourite camel-keeper, the 
robber chief Nadir, to him with presents, offering him his allegiance. 
While in Ispahan Nadir plotted against Ashraf, assuring the Persian 
princes that he could easily be got rid of. Returning to Khorassan, he 


offered his services to Thamasp (the rightful heir) at the head of 500 
war-hardened Afshars and Kurds, and with Thamasp went back to Ispa- 
han in 1728, and brought about the downfall of Ashraf, But before 
Ashraf fled for his life to Shiraz, he killed Sultan Hossein, father of 
Thamasp, and in turn was himself killed by a band of Baluchis before 
reaching Shiraz. Thamasp ascended the throne and Nadir became his 
commander-in-chief, with the title of Thamasp's Kuli Khan (kuli = slave). 
He defeated the Afghans at Mehmand and at Murchakar in 1729, later 
on incited the Persians against Thamasp, seized him and sent him 
prisoner to Khorassan. A campaign against Bagdad followed, and a vic- 
tory at Bhagwand in 1735. He became Shah in 1736. He drove the 
Afghans out of Persia, invaded India, and defeated Mohamed Shah at 
Karnal in 1738. Then came his triumphal entry into Delhi, whence he 
carried away the famous peacock throne. The last great Asiatic con- 
queror, Nadir's career ended with his assassination in 1747. He was 
born in Khorassan about the year 1688.] 



[ Voyage of two months from Surat to Calcutta — Admiral Griffin's seizure, in 1746 
as enemy (French) property, of two Armenian vessels — Great loss to Emin's 
father and others — Emin's desire to go to England — Father's opposition — 
Unsuccessful attempts — Taken as a deckhand on the Walpole, the " last boat 
of the season " — Leaves Balasore February, 1751 — Life on board — Quarrelsome 
sailors — Pudding-making and its uproarious consequences. — Woolwich in six 
months, September, 1751. — "Chimney sweepers from Bengal."] 

rpHE author and his grandfather, by the assistance of his uncle 
David, procured a passage at Surat,* on board of a country 

* In Mr. Mesrovb Seth's " History of the Armenians in India," it is stated that the first 
port where they formed a permanent settlement in India was the city of Surat, where they 
erected two churches, one still preserved. Bishop Thorgom Koushakian, Armenian Bishop 
in Egypt, who visited Surat at the end of 1916. copied out all the inscriptions on Armenian 
tombstones which were within reach, some being, as he told me, "on the roof," (probably 
meaning ceiling), he was unable to copy. The oldest one bears the date of 1579, and being 
that of the wife of a priest, is interesting, as it shows the presence in India of Armenian 
clergy at an early date. It is included, with others, at the end of this book. 


ship, and in two months arrived at Calcutta, where he found his 
father Hovsep carrying on a slave merchandize. Some months 
after, came the mournful news before-mentioned, of Moses being 
killed at Tabriz, with the loss of his estate, amounting to 5,500 
tumans, equal to a lack and 10,000 rupees. Next, his own 
father sustained three considerable losses. Sulaman Pasha ex- 
acted 18,000 piastres from his second uncle, Mirzabeg, at Basra. 
Then followed loss upon loss, destruction after destruction, a 
family of sixty-five souls reduced to a few, and (except Kmin 
the Second) all dead, and departed without fame. 

It would have been happier for them all to have been killed 
in an action like men, than to die in that mean way of mer- 
chandize, without head or tail, like a flock without a shepherd : it 
would not be despicable, if it were carried on and protected, as 
it is by Europeans. The late admiral Griffin, like Nadir Shah, 
in the year 1746, took two Armenian vessels at the bar of 
Madras, one from Basra the other from Mukca,* all with ready 
cash, amounting to twelve lacks of rupees, with passports and 
protection from the honourable council of Calcutta : yet he carried 
them to England. The honourable court of directors f took great 
pains, and did the utmost to recover the vessels and money by 
law, but could not ; and they were at last condemned as ene- 
mies ' property. When the lawyer was making his speeches on the 
subject, the author unfortunately was sent by an Armenian to 
the court of king's bench, the very year in which he arrived 
in London. J At the confiscation of those vessels, he did not 
care so much for the unsufferable loss, as when the lawyer plead- 
ing, said, " How is it possible that inhabitants of Calcutta, 
Armenian merchants, should be possessed of so great a sum of 
money ? They are like the Jews in Holland, who carried on 
a trade with the money of the enemy, when the Dutch were 

* Mocha. 

t Of the East India Company. 

t 1751- 


engaged in war. The property belonged to our enemy the French, 
and is justly and most lawfully taken by the admiral. The 
Armenians, underhand, are commissioners for them ; they have 
not any interest in this affair."* That cruel sentence, so disagree- 
able to Emin to hear, affected his mind so deeply, that when 
he went home, he fell sick, and could not come out for forty 
days, till his indignation was over. Happy it would have been 
if the present supreme court had been then instituted in Calcutta, 
the admiral might not have possessed the character of a despotic 
prince, nor many poor Armenian families have been ruined, nor 
their names disgraced by the unworthy appellation of Jews. It 
is beneath even the lowest class of his harmless countrymen, to 
act like that forlorn people, or to deal with any other European 
nation as they do with the English; for the writer persists in 
maintaining his just opinion of that famous republican nation, 
whose excellent laws resemble not a single taper, which enlightens 
only the apartment of one master, but the sun, which spreads 
its magnificent light over all the universe ; and though, in bad 
seasons clouds and fogs may draw a veil over it, yet the inhabi- 
tants are sure of sunshine again; for it is evident, that nothing 
is perfect in our sublunary world, nothing but God in heaven, 
who is above us all. 

Let us not lose the chain of our narrative. In one year, 
his father Hovsep lost about 30,000 rupees by those two ships; 

* Armenians had owned ships in these regions, and further East, before 1685. Re- 
printed from the Catholic Herald, Aug. -Sept. 191 3, there appeard in Bengal Past and Pre- 
sent, vol. viii, Serials 15-16, an account, annotated by the Rev. Father Hosten, S.J., of 
the visit, in 1709, of an Italian Missionary, the Abbate D. Matteo Ripa, to Calcutta, Chan- 
dernagore, and Bandel. In the course of his narrative the Abbate says, " I returned from 
Bandel. . . .to Sciantanagar and. .. .embarked thence with the Armenian gentleman who 
owned (padroni) the ship which was to take us to Manilla." A footnote says, " One of the 
Armenian gentlemen who travelled to Malacca in the Santa Croce was Giovanni Isacar.... 
He was the chief man in the little fleet of 4 ships going to the Philippines. He had the 
largest share in the concern, and was called the'Admiral. Ripa went with him to see the 
Dutch Governor of Malacca.... Before 1685, a Santa Cruz belonged to Joseph, brother of 
the rich Armenian John Demarcora. ... In 1702, a ship Santa Croce David Marcus Comman- 
der arrived from Manilla." — David Marcus is an Armenian name. 


add to it 18,000 more in the affair of Basra, which makes 48,000. 
A year after, he was sent to Dacca to learn trade, which he did 
not like at all. Some months after, an Armenian died there 
without issue: according to Mahomedan law, the nabob's design 
was to confiscate the deceased's property, which was all mulmul 
goods already made up in bales; but the other Armenian mer- 
chants begged Emm to put on mourning dress, and consent to 
stand as a son to the dead Armenian ; and with great difficulty 
he so did, running a risk of being tortured : they would have 
made him stand on one leg in the sun, attended by a fellow, 
who would have run a sharp pointed needle into his other leg, 
so as to prevent its touching the ground, in hopes of forcing 
him to injure other Christians, and to declare that such and such 
persons owed the deceased a sum of money : but the providence 
of God saved him. The Armenians there, industrious enough, in 
great haste packed up the goods, and sent them with him to 
Calcutta; where, for his pains, he was offered a sum of money, 
but did not accept it, thinking it beneath his dignity to sell his 
honourable hereditary right, his father then living, as Esau sold 
his birthright: he did that act for the sake of his Christian 
countrymen, to prevent wild beasts from eating the flesh of lambs. 
Afterwards the grandees of Dacca were apprised of the circum- 
stance, but it was too late. 

He was then in Calcutta, very cautious not to open his 
mouth or utter a word of his intention of going to Europe, when, 
all on a sudden, his father, just at ten o'clock in a propitious 
morning, asked him if he chose to learn Portuguese ? * he said, 
no ; the second question was, French ? he answered in the nega- 

* Portuguese was the commercial language in Bengal at that period. Mr. J.J. Campos 
delivered some lectures on the " Portuguese in Bengal" in Calcutta in 1918, in the course of 
which he said that it was little known in Calcutta that the Portuguese language was the 
lingua franca in Bengal long after the Portuguese power was extinguished. Bengalees, 
English and other Europeans freely spoke it, Lord Clive, who knew no Indian language, 
spoke Portuguese fluently and gave commands to his soldiers in that language. All the 
earliest foreign missionaries preached in Portuguese. 


tive ; after a little pause, the third question was, English ? here 
Emin hesitated a little while, and with a very low voice said, 
yes, lest the father should suspect his design; and continued 
writing all the time with a pretended indifference. His father 
said, "In how many days time can you learn it?" he answered 
nothing; while his father, standing by the side of the table, 
began to count from one month till he came to six months; 
then the son agreed, for fear he should lose the opportunity if 
his father changed his resolution. But he immediately accom- 
panied Emin to the English school* in the Old Court-house, at the 
age of nineteen; where he no sooner picked up a few words, 
than he made a shift to ask Mr. Par rent, his schoolmaster, 
Whether the law of England could stop a person, who should 
chuse to leave his father and go to a far country ? he laughed 
heartily, saying, " What slaves you are, and how ignorant is 
your nation, who have resided so many years amongst us with- 
out knowing our laws. Provided you will not make any requisi- 
tion to your father for money — I rind your mind is turned towards 
Europe; and it is your duty to ask your father first for his 
paternal blessing ; but, in case he should not be inclined to con- 
sent, then do as you think best ; and remember, that you will 
meet with great difficulty in getting your bread in England." 

This was joyful news to Emin, who, for two years and a 
half, had pined with grief and loss of appetite, not knowing how 
to find a vent for his distracted mind. He went home directly, 
and spoke of it to his father, hoping to gain his consent, and to 
obtain, if possible, his blessing : finding the old gentleman quite 
averse to the plan, and very unwilling to part with him, he 
said nothing, but took the first opportunity to inquire for the 
houses of India captains ; after which, with another Armenian 

* St. Anne's Church stood at the north-west corner of Tank Square, and the school known 
as St. Anne's Charity School was held in a house which stood on the ground now occupied 
by St. Andrew's Church, in the north-east corner of Tank, now Dalhousie, Square. The 
Mayor's Court was held in this house, and it therefore came to be known as the Old Court 
Hous,e. Emin had not far to go, for he must have been living near the Armenian Church. 


of the same age, a distant relation of his, he went to one captain 
Williamson, and was introduced by the steward. When they 
both stood before the captain, his companion, who understood 
Portuguese better than himself, was frightened and speechless ; 
Emin therefore advanced, and, as well as he could, began to 
tell his design : the good captain put several questions to him ; 
the first objection he made, was to the Turkish black turban- 
and long clothes. Emin said, the first might be taken off, and 
the second cut short ; the captain then said, you are not a sailor ; 
he answered, yourself were not one, when first you went on 
board, we shall learn every thing in good time ; upon which the 
gentleman seemed very much pleased, and told them to call the 
next morning for a note to go on board. When he returned 
home, he began to consider the matter more seriously, and said 
to himself, who knows but my father may petition the governor 
to bring me back from the ship ; I had better wait for another 
opportunity. He staid therefore with vexation and anxiety a 
full year, till the next monsoon, passing the time most disagree- 
ably and heavily ; went a second time to another captain, whose 
name is unknown, but who was a very choleric man, hardly heard 
himself speak a word, and was very near knocking him down, 
swearing furiously and saying, Do not you like to live well in 
India ? half of my ship's crew have deserted through the good 
things in Bengal, and you are fool enough to want to go to 
England to be starved there ; get away, you are mad. Emin 
would rather have been favoured by the captain with a pair of 
black eyes and a broken head, than to have had his refusal, 
and was angry with himself for not venturing the year before 
with good captain Williamson. However, he did not despair, 
but went thence to the next door, where lived captain Cash; 
commander of the Tavistock, which had been before a man of 
war. This honourable gentleman perceiving a great disorder in 
his countenance, from an agitated mind, said nothing, till some 
gentlemen, who were there, went out j he then approached Emin 

father's CONSENT. 21 

with great mildness, and advising him like a tender father, to 
be dissuaded from his intention, said, " depend upon it, my 
friend, you will not be able to go through the laborious work 
of the ship, nor able to live when you are in London ; I 
know your countrymen here are numerous and very rich, and I 
dare to say, you have a father ; what ails you, that you are so 
sanguine for going to Europe, without a single rupee in your 

The writer took no notice of all these unsuccessful proceed- 
ings to his father, whose condition of life he knew to be reduced 
very low ; besides that he then had a dangerous illness and 
great vexation of mind. On the one hand was emptiness of 
pocket ; on the other, the thought of losing an only son, whose 
resolution was not to be changed : he was therefore obliged to 
have recourse to a voyage to Mukha* for the recovery of his 
health and some little profit. Having gone on board, and before 
the ship sailed, he wrote from Culpee to his brother David, who 
was then come from Surat and inserted in his letter the follow- 
ing paragraph : " Dear brother, please to acquaint Emin, my 
only son, that his obstinate temper, I am convinced, will not 
be altered, nor will even be shaken by a battery of cannons. 
I know he is not to be dissuaded from his design. Do you not 
remember, when he was but five years of age, a Hamadany 
Mahomedan wanted to caress him, he took up a stone and 
knocked out the fellow's eye : he is our ancestor Emin, come 
out of his grave with the same fearless disposition. I think he 
may succeed in his laudable notions, on condition that he keep 
himself very strict in chastity, with honour and honesty, walking 
as he has been brought up, in the path of religion, grounded on 
the principles of truth. All my objection against his going to 
Europe was, that, young as he is, he may not be able to curb 
himself so as to withstand the * temptations there in a free 
country, as he would if he had been kept under our watchful 

* Mocha. 


eyes. Tell him so from me, and let him go ; may Heaven prosper 
him in all his ways which are good." This effaced the anxiety of 
Emin's distracted mind for his paternal blessing. He went then 
with redoubled courage to the fourth gentleman, named Thomas 
Kea, commander of the old Walpole India-man, and begged that 
he might work for his passage ; this captain made more objec- 
tions than the others, particularly observing him to be so very 
thin : but the captain rather looked affable in his countenance 
and conversation, which made the writer imagine his offered 
service would not be accepted, but would rather raise a laugh, 
and cause him to be sent about his business. Desponding as he 
grew, helpless as he felt himself, the Indiamen having all sailed, 
and the Walpole being the last ship of that season, he thought 
of no other remedy than to throw himself on his knees at the 
feet of the captain, like a deplorable captive desirous to be 
set free. He was ordered by the captain to call again the 
next morning, and so on every day for a whole week ; at last 
he was advised by the European servants to see the sircar, who 
no sooner received a couple of rupees, than he immediately spoke 
to the captain, and obtained a note to go on board. Had he 
been acquainted before with the nature of the captain's black 
ministers, and their effective influence, he might have saved him- 
self all the time he had lost, and all his vain intreaties, with 
that insignificant fee ; and this shews the great interest of the 
natives at that time in the employments of many, who depend 
more on them than on their own excellent sagacity, which might 
have helped them to discern a man of spirit, in ever so destitute 
or distressed a situation. But patience was his great comfort, 
and assisted him to pass over all such trifles. 

He went home, saw both his grandfather Michael, and 
David his uncle ; took leave of them with their blessing ; and 
after two days was on board at Balasor. The third mate, the 
captain's own brother, no sooner read the note, than he began 
to stamp on the main deck, with such unnatural swearing and 


cursing, that he thought the vessel would have gone to the 
bottom, bawling out and calling for the boatswain ; upon which, 
immediately a broom with a swab were ready brought, and 
trusted to Emm's hand. " Take care, Mr. Armenian (said the 
mate,) to keep the main-deck always clean, more especially the 
hog-stye, and particularly the gallery ; you foolish boob}', that 
pref erest a cold to a hot country, hell to heaven ; ' ' reading the 
curious note over and over again, while Emin was standing, as 
he was ordered, at the foot of the gang- way, holding the swab 
in his right hand, and the broom in the left, to hear the lecture 
of his most improving commander ; who making a second mo- 
tion, said, " Do you hear me, sirrah ? " Yes, please your honour, 
said the poor boy: "Take very great care then (said he) of those 
two instruments, to execute the duties of your office, for you are 
fit for nothing else;" then, with a horse-laugh, he turned his 
back, and began to walk upon the quarter-deck. Emin cared 
not a pin for his abusive expressions, saying to himself, "That 
is all but a puff of wind compared to your brother's polite 
smiles, which wanted very little to turn into a dreadful storm, 
sufficient to wreck the feeble boat of my poor heart.*' In short, 
he did not mind abuse, when his resolution told him, he was 
going towards a paradise upon earth, to have his eyes opened, 
and take a view of the world. A fortnight after, the captain, 
with two English ladies, passengers, came on board : next morn- 
ing, about the 14th February, 1751, the Walpole sailed. Three 
weeks more the author continued in that foul office, and then 
was removed upon the quarter-deck, together with his country- 
man John Masseh, who is also living in Calcutta at this present 
time ; and, thank God, he is possessed of pretty good estate, 
and passes his life happily. 

Though Emin had gained the minds of the ship's crew, by 
oversetting the big foreigner mentioned in the preface ; yet they 
were not well enough reconciled to him and his countryman, 
to let them hang their bag of pudding in the copper. Several 



times, when they had every second day's common allowance of 
flour, and had made it into dough, they hardly approached the 
kitchen door, when the sailors hooted out, growling like lions, 
and calling them lousy slavish Armenians; adding, "you are not 
better than our enemies the French, who in time of war are 
for conquering us; and in peace, to come to England like beg- 
gars, to take the bread out of the mouths of Englishmen." 
This obliged them to throw their dough over board. They were 
advised by some to complain of it to the captain; but Emin 
thought it a mean way of acting, and began to work his brains 
how to be even with them. He went to the steward the next 
flour day, and got their allowance; a potfull of fine hogs-lard 
was hanging over by the side of the boatswain's cott, and 
Emin thinking it no harm or theft, took a good quantity of 
it, as a thing of no value : behold ! it was the boatswain's 
own property, and esteemed on board as good as butter ! The 
owner of it came, and taking Emin by the tip of his ear, 
pinched it with such force, that the blood began to trickle down 
from it; then gave him a slap on the face, and said to him, in 
a very friendly manner, "Take care not to learn thieving, for 
you are going to England, where if you should commit the same 
fault, you would be hanged for it. I find you are ignorant of 
the ship's custom; if you knew it, you would not act so; go, 
mind your pudding." Thereupon he, with his messmate Masseh, 
went to work, mixed the flour, hogs-lard, and some water, together 
pretty well; then rolled it upon a board as thin as parchment, 
and folding it from every side, spread each plait with sugar, so 
that the thickness of it become three quarters of an inch, just 
big enough for a grid-iron; which the captain's cook, a good- 
natured elderly man lent them, seeing that they could not come 
near the great copper on account of the men. Both the Arme- 
nians, very glad of the favoui, made a shift in an hour and 
half to broil their pudding, which they took up, and setting 
down under the larboard side of the gangway in a princely 


state, began to make a dinner upon it with all the appetite 
imaginable, ehusing that place on purpose to be in the way of 
the men, by whom they had been deprived for six weeks on 
ship-board of eating pudding. As they passed and repassed the 
curiosity of the men led them to inquire how it was made, 
every one of them tasting a bit, and, when they were informed 
of the method, they approved it, and swore that they would 
follow the example, not considering the ridiculous consequences of 
it. In a ship's company among thirty or more messes, allowing 
only an hour's time to each grilling with one gridiron, in such 
hot weather, in the captain's cook-room, they must of course bid 
farewell to the ship's work. 

A day after, having their allowance of flour as usual, the 
operation began; the captain's pantry was broke open in the 
night, and robbed of all the butter; a hogshead of sugar was 
broached, and the boatswain's pot vanished; some of them were 
flogged, some reprimanded ; but the best part of the uproar was 
to follow : About ten o'clock the contest began, by their strik- 
ing one another unmercifully, with the gridiron, in disputing 
who should use it, without considering the shortness of time 
they had to spare. The captain and the rest of the officers 
were alarmed, and asked, what was the matter ? The poor men 
were ashamed to speak; when a young lad more acute than 
the rest, said in a good-natured way, "Sir, these two little 
Armenians are the cause of the disturbance:" upon which the 
captain laughed heartily with the passengers, and saying to 
them, "Very well done — now I see you have learned how to live 
in the world." He then sent them two bottles of wine, which 
they returned, and accepted a gallon of water. The bloody- 
rfosed and black-eyed gentlemen sailors, instead of being angry 
with Emin, came and shook hands with him, while he and his 
countryman sat in the same place eating their pudding boiled 
in the great copper, without interruption from any of their 
brother sailors, and lived ever after in the same manner, un- 


2 6 % COLD DAYS. 

interrupted and well treated by them. They afterwards gave 
Em in the nickname of Nadir Shah's son. 

In a ship of any other nation, if such an affair had hap- 
pened, what would have become of him who was the occasion 
of it. Nothing less than death and destruction. He remembers 
at Ispahan, that, when the army of Aly Murad Khan, the late 
King of Persia, was dispersed without fighting, (through his own 
imprudence), as they were marching away, a mule started at 
something by the side of the river Zandarud, and let fall , his 
load, which was only kitchen furniture belonging to one of the 
Khan's. The leader of the mule desired an Armenian of Julpha, 
with two other Mahomedans that were only passing by, to help 
him to load the beast. Aly Murad became successful again, the 
deserted army came about him, and he marched back from 
Hamadan to Ispahan. The owner of the mule then brought an 
action against those three persons as guilty of plunder, and 
ruined them entirely, besides their being bastinadoed in a cruel 
manner ; and this he saw happened while standing at the top 
of his house, at the distance of three hundred yards. 

Neither the author, nor his companion, while on board, 
drank any brandy, but their allowance of drams they gave away 
to the sailors; two of them had most of the drink, and they 
were very good in taking care to wash every week. 

The ship being very old, sprung a great leak below the 
head five or six feet under water, and three feet to the left of 
the keel, so that all hands set up plying the chain-pumps all 
the way to St. Helena Island, and then patched her up. All 
that he did not mind, nor anything, while the weather was 
warm; but when the ship began to get under higher latitudes, 
he recollected the meaning of Mr. Fea, the third mate, at Balasor ; 
each having four shirts and four coarse drawers to wear in all 
sorts of weather: and sure enough he felt one of the torments 
of hell, — "gnashing of teeth." It was beneath his spirit to 
skulk like other foreign sailors or lascars, who had not coverings 


sufficient to appear on the deck with good grace. He thought 
himself in the right of it not to sham sick, but worked on the 
deck, which kept him warmer, and thus preserved the good opin- 
ion of the brave seamen; as for keeping below the main hatch- 
way, which he experienced in the night, every time he went down 
after his watch was over, slept for an hour comfortably ; but the 
■ other three hours he was in great misery, shaking and trembling 
through cold. This happiness he enjoyed in his mind, that his 
suffering of hardship was for a good cause, and he was never 
disheartened, since it was his own choice ; and thanked God, he 
was not sick in all the passage. 

Exactly in six months the ship completed her troublesome 
voyage, and arrived at Woolwich on the 14th of September. 
Emin was then very happy in the sight of Old England, swelling 
like a peacock with the bright feathers of his imagination. When 
reflecting on his empty pocket, he shrank down;^but when he 
remembered God, he was as hopeful as ever, and in good spirits. 
The captain had the kindness to tell him, that he might stay on 
board during the time of the unloading, and to get a shilling a 
day according to custom ; then knowing his situation, and that 
he had no money, nor a friend to go to ; but he was foolish 
enough to stay only ten days. 

One Sunday morning, while on board, he and his country- 
man had some beef stakes dressing in the kitchen, when they 
saw a shortish Englishman come on board, who unluckily passed 
into the same place, and said very rapidly, "Who are you? I 
see the people are all gone on shore, you are only left here with 
the custom house officers; are you the captain's slaves?" Then 
he repeated in a teazing manner, " What are you ? devils or ani- 
mals ? Oh ! I see you are chimney-sweepers come from Bengal, 
to get your living in our country but I can tell you, you are too 
old, you wont be received into tHe service." No sooner had he 
heard that they were Armenians, than he threw down the stick 
he had in his hand, and began to tread upon it, saying " Ay, ay, 

28 a swede's advice. 

I know you now; I have seen the Armenians in Constantinople, 
whose necks, like this stick, were under the feet of the Turks." 
When he had finished his speech he took up the stick, and as 
quick as lightning stepped into the boat and went away. This 
spoiled the author's dinner, took away his appetite, and he passed 
all the day without touching anything. 



[Lodging at Wapping with a Swede — Penny dinners— Stephanos — An academy — 
Twopence halfpenny a day — Stephanos turns Roman Catholic — Emin in 
great distress and homeless — A soldier's sympathy — Discomforts of beer- 
drinking to gain respect of common people — A master bricklayer — Emin called 
a German because indefatigable — Three halfpence a day — Escapes kidnap- 
ping — Sir John Evelyn's grandsons — Emin adrift again — A porter on £8 a 

(\N Monday morning, a Swede, who was married to an English 
woman, came with a boat, and took them both to his house 
in Wapping (at the sign of Wapping Old Stairs) : he was a very 
honest man, his wife a very good sort of a woman. Emin, with 
Masseh, his countryman, lived there upon bread and cheese about 
a week, and paid a shilling a week for sleeping. The landlord 
took them to the India House, to receive six months pay, at 
gs. per month, which made 3/. 14s. In their way back, they 
met with the Swedish master of the house, who said to them, 
"My lads, this small sum is hardly enough to buy you a second- 
hand suit of old clothes in Ragfair ; what then will you do to 
live, as you are to stay in this country, to be educated and 
brought up genteelly ? Your best way I think will be, not to 
lose the opportunity of returning to Bengal with the rest of the 
lascars. A regulation is made by the Honourable Company, to 
work the ship in day-time only, and not to keep watch in the 


night, for a free passage without pay ; otherwise you must do 
one of two things, either beg or starve. If you enter as a com- 
mon servant or footman into gentlemen's houses, in the first 
place, nobody knows you to give you a character. Supposing 
that there were, what would 5 r ou do for want of the language, 
for you are hardly understood. I find it was a wild notion 
which some wicked man contrived to put into your head, to 
leave behind you a country 7 equal to paradise, and to come into 
this confounded could region, where one is obliged to work like 
a horse, to break his heart for a livelihood only. I myself, for 
fifteen years, have worked hard and with great difficulty made a 
little money, and married that good English widow. I became 
an able housekeeper at last, and it is through her prudence and 
good economy, that we live somehow happily, so as to bring 
both ends to meet ; for even a man of great fortune, if he is 
not careful enough in the management of it, will soon become a 
bankrupt, and be sent to gaol to be pickled." 

The author heard all this with indifference, till they reached 
the house in Wapping. The two moneyless Armenians walked 
up to their rooms, consulting what to do ; immediately after, the 
maid-servant of the house, the beautiful Sally, lately married to 
a sailor who was gone to sea, came and stood before them, say- 
ing in a pathetic, good-natured manner like to an angel, " Good 
young men, my master and mistress, particularly myself, observ- 
ing this week, that each of you have eaten but a pennyworth 
of bread and cheese, my poor heart burns for you. I have heard 
my good master and mistress telling your deplorable situation of 
life ; which puts me in mind of the distress of my sweetheart, 
the dear sailor," (meaning her husband,) and then the tears 
trickled down like pearls from her lovely eyes over her delicate 
cheeks, and deeply affected the spectators, who sympathized with 
her, admiring her unaffected fidelity to her lawful love. " What 
will you please to have ? (said she). Give me some money, I 
will go to market, buy you some meat, and dress it myself for 


you, to save you from killing yourselves ; don't be uneasy at 
having but little ; God will provide for you, and take care of 
my dear sailor too — bless him ! " fetching a very deep sigh. 

Emin begged of her to go downstairs, stay half an hour, 
and then come up again. After she was gone, he dived into his 
mind with deep reflection • surprized to find in a week' s time so 
much goodness, and truth of love, in the females of that blessed 
Island, who labour as hard as any to preserve the sacred tie 
of matrimony with faithfulness ; and consequently formed an 
honourable idea in his mind, which he, in the space of several 
years, happily found realized by many, both high and low. 
After his contemplation on the subject, he called the lovely Sally, 
with as much affection as a brother to a sister. " Well, my 
dear, (said he,) take this money," which was exactly three-pence; 
" please to buy a pennyworth of beef stakes, a pennyworth of 
potatoes, and with the third penny, two halfpenny rolls ; dress 
the meat well, and let us have it as soon as possible ; for, as 
you observe, we are really very hungry." Sally, hearing the 
writer's stately orders, ran down like lightning, and told her 
mistress of the unaccountable extravagances of Emin and his 
countryman. The landlady could not help laughing ; but good 
Sally, still in great concern, came up again, and conducted them 
to about fifteen doors higher, to a very neat Dutch woman who 
kept a cook's shop, chiefly selling broth, a large bason for a half- 
penny ; so, with a halfpennyworth more of bread, broke and put 
into it, they made a tolerable dinner. 

In this manner they passed another week ; during that time, 
Sally took great pains, and when she had an opportunity to 
come and stand by, she comforted them with as much sincerity 
as if they had been her dear brothers. She was endowed with 
a talent, which he thinks it would be ungenerous if he should 
omit mentioning: — As she was obliged to rise early in the morn- 
ing to work, she always, in her choice of songs, warbled the song, 
"All in the Downs the fleet was moored," etc., with so fine a 


voice, and so pathetic manner without any affectation, that the 
hearer of it might have snapped his fingers at the most admired 
Italian singing girl. The reader ma}- very well suppose that the 
author was in love ; and he owns it ; and so would any one else 
of a well-meaning heart have been, to find so great fortitude and 
virtue in a poor innocent servant — the genuine produce of a 
famous country he is really in love with ; which, true enough, is 
torment and plague to those who are ungratefully wicked in their 
erroneous way of judging. It is true, the English nation, by their 
extensive learning, are sensible of the difference between the good- 
ness of the admirable laws of their own mother country, and 
the miseries of others : yet it is impossible' to judge perfectly by 
theory, unless (which God avert) they had proved it by experience. 
At the end of a fortnight, they met an Armenian at the 
Royal Exchange, named Stephenus, who shipped off Masseh to 
Amsterdam, and took Emin to his lodging, at one Mr. Newman's 
on Dowgate Hill, facing Skinner's Hall. The author had about 
fifty-two rupees, besides a few shillings, the remainder of his pay ; 
he gave them all to Stephenus, out of which he paid three 
guineas to Mr. Middleton, master of an academy in Bishopsgate- 
street, beforehand, agreeably to the rule established ; and after- 
wards three more, when he had finished some learning ; and 
agreed to pay a shilling a-day to Mrs. Newman for lodging, wash- 
ing and boarding. He lived in that house exactly fifty days when 
the Armenian began to change his mind. Mrs. Newman found 
fault with his eating, which she thought was more than a shil- 
ling's worth. Stephenus said, " I will give you a guinea a-month, 
but cannot afford more: manage as well as you can." He con- 
tented himself even with that, better than with nothing, lodging 
hi the same house, and pa) T ing a shilling a-week to sleep in the 
garret, two shillings and six-pence for washing and mending, and 
a shilling for shaving twice a- week, making in all fifteen shil- 
lings; there remained six shillings to live on, little more than 
two 7 pence halfpenny a-day. Almost for seven months he made a 


shift, in that miserable starving condition, and diligently attend- 
ed the academy; when, to his sorrow, Mrs. Newman, his land- 
lady, gave him a month's warning to leave the lodging, and said : 
"The Armenian petty merchant will not stay with us on your 
account : as he pays thirty pounds sterling a-year for his table, 
should he leave the house, it will go against the grain with us." 
Poor Mrs. Newman made many apologies, and shewed great un- 
easiness for the author's distressed situation. 

This circumstance was owing to the unhappy Armenian's 
being turned papist, and wishing him to be in the same way of 
thinking; but could by no means prevail on him to become a 
turn-coat like himself. He remembered the same ill usage from 
some Mahomedan Persians, when he was persecuted in the city 
of Cashan; but, trusting in God, he did not despair. He was 
obliged to absent himself from the academy, and try if he could 
get any employ. Mr. Newman and his good wife advised him to 
go to the register-office, a little mean room behind the Royal 
Exchange, and promised to give him a good character. Miss 
Newman, their daughter, was sent by them with Emin to have 
his name registered in a book, where several gentlemen who 
wanted servants -had set their names and directions. According 
to the custom, he paid a shilling, which he had found in one of 
the winter nights, about nine o'clock, walking in the Exchange 
in order to keep himself warm, as he was not permitted, by the 
severe order of the Armenian, to enter the room, or go near the 
kitchen fire; a barbarity neither a Turk nor a Jew would have 
been guilty of. The register master, laughing and making a 
jest of him all the time, directed him every day, in the morning, 
for a week, to different gentlemen ; when he, with great diffi- 
culty, for want of proper food to keep him in strength, found 
the house being chiefly at a great distance, almost at the other 
end of the town, the gentlemen said, you are made a fool by 
the register, we are provided with servants. Some of them said, 
he looked very ugly ; some swore ; some said, he looked nine 


ways for a Sunday; and another said, "If anybody should 
chance to see your countenance, he would not have good luck 
for a fortnight together." 

In this unspeakable condition he was directed at last to go 
to Drury Lane, to a broken house, where he found a carpenter 
working and a labourer, who was a soldier. When they were 
acquainted with his errand, they told him that their master was 
not a fine gentleman to keep a footman, but a bricklayer. 
Emin's answer to the honest soldier was, " that he did not care 
if the person was a scavenger, to get bread by industry he would 
work at anything; but if he should not get business, he was 
resolved rather to die with hunger, like a man, than to beg." This 
moved the brave soldier to such a degree, that it made him cry 
like a child; and turning himself towards the carpenter, "It is 
hard," he said, "to be a stranger; for I was in the same situa- 
tion once in Flanders." He treated Emin with a pint of beer, 
which he drank against his will; in the mean time, he promised 
to speak a good word to his master. While he was comforting 
Emin, in came a gentleman, named Mr. Emir, a fresh looking 
man, about thirty years of age. The honest soldier accosted 
him, and began his mediation ; but no sooner did he hear the 
name of a foreigner, than he flew into a passion, kicking about 
the rubbish, damning Emin for a Frenchman. He assured him 
of the contrary, and that he was an Armenian ; that he had 
nothing in the world but a good character. The gentleman took 
the appellation for a German, and said, "Very well, I am very 
glad you are not a Frenchman; step in the next door." He 
then called for a pint of beer; and seeing the author almost 
wasted away, ordered some bread and cheese ; and stood by the 
bar. While Emin was eating, and again drinking up strong beer, 
to have his good opinion, (since the common people in London 
have the conceit, that if any labouring man does not drink 
strong beer, he will not be able to work,) Mr. Emir, the master 
bricklayer, was standing by looking at him, and pitying him 


with as much concern as if had been his brother. Emin could 
not be persuaded that he should pay all; he paid for the bread, 
and the master for the beer. 

This happened in the month of May, when he was twenty- 
six years of age; the days being long, the carpenter and soldier 
left off work and went away at the settled hour. Master Emir 
ordered Emin to sit on the rubbishing ground to work, and 
gave him a pickax to make holes at the narrow ends of slates 
to fasten pegs into them, which serve to fix them on the tops of 
houses. The author sat himself down contentedly to work; but 
while the bricklayer was taken up with other things, he broke, 
in half an hour's time, near 200 slates, not knowing how to 
manage the tool. When his master came back to look how he 
was going on, he cried out, "O Lord, you ruin me; you have 
spoiled three shillings worth of materials ! — come, come, that is 
not your business, it does not signify, I only did it to try you; 
I can see that you are willing to work; what you told me 
agrees with your industrious motions, you appear indefatigable ; 
never mind it, you will be able to live in our country, for you 
seem to be a true German." The author trying to correct the 
misunderstanding, said, "Sir, I am not a German;" he answered, 
" Well, well, Germans and Armenians are all alike, as long as 
you are not a Frenchman, I am glad of it." He added, This 
is Saturday, to-morrow is Sunday, when all good Christians must 
go to church, and I hope you are one?" "Yes, master," said 
Emin. "Then," said he, "if you will come on Monday morn- 
ing, you shall have half-a-crown a-day, like the rest of the work- 
men ; ' ' bidding a good afternoon, which made him in some 
degree happy. 

Emin haj[ at that time two shillings left out of a guinea, the 
remainder T»?Last month's allowance by Stephenus: and, when he 
went home and told his mother-like Mrs. Newman what had 
happened, seeming to be pretty cheerful too, she said, " The 
work is very laborious, and equally dangerous : as you are not 


used to climb up high ladders, who knows but you may fall 
down, and break your neck into the bargain. Your best way 
will be to go to Blackwall or Deptford, and work with the 
people loading and unloading ships ; and consider you have but 
a fortnight more to stay in my house, for your Jew countryman 
every day threatens to leave us if you don't go away." He said 
nothing, went up to his garret, which, although very clean, to 
him appeared a loathsome dungeon, in which he hardly enjoyed 
comfort of bed for the space of nine months. He could not 
close his eyes that whole night, nor the next following, partly 
through hunger, partly vexation of mind ; but praying to God, 
he bore it as well as he could. 

Disappointing Emir the bricklayer, two hours before sun- 
rise on Monday morning, he set out for Deptford. When he 
came to an ale-house by the side of the Thames, he called for a 
pint of porter like a lusty fellow, to appear well in the eyes of 
the housekeeper, sensible that for two days before he had not 
digested the same liquor, so that he poured poison upon poison. 
When he thought he could speak with assurance, he said to the 
woman, "Pray, madam, is there any vessel here, to be unloaded?" 
drinking up the pint, and calling for another, to appear more 
generous. She said, " No, Sir, you are too early, the Indiamen 
are not yet arrived ; you have no occasion to spend your money 
in vain ; I see you drink against your will, and are not very 
well." He begged to lay himself down on the bench; she had 
no objection, and said to him, in a grave manner, "After you 
have rested a little, step into the next long room, there you will 
see many men lying and rolling upon dry hard boards, all for 
want of work." A few minutes after, he got up and visited the 
mansion, with its owner. It was a real purgatory, where, if he 
should escape dying with hunger, he must share th£ same misery 
with them. His heart was filled \vith the distracting portion of 
beer, without a soul, in a plentiful country, to be found, who 
would bestow on him a drop of the antidote of hope. He can 


hardly recollect how he reached the lodging on Dowgate Hill, 
where he had just sense enough to throw himself down in the 
house. The darling drink of porters, the medical barley wine, 
had such an effect on him and took away his strength to such 
a degree, that he was not able to walk upstairs, and lay down 
upon the stone pavement in the yard, at the office door. 

The kitchen window, on the first floor, was over that place; 
where he could hear the Armenian speaking to the people, mur- 
muring against Bmin, dropping unbecoming expressions enough to 
poison the hearer, hallooing loudly to Mrs. Newman, and saying, 
"What is become of your garret-lodger? your honest husband was 
foolish enough to believe him, and give him a good character for 
honesty; who knows now where he is pleasuring?" Mrs. New- 
man answered, with a loud voice, " Say what you will, he is an 
honest young man ; what you say is all spite, because he would 
not be a papist like you ; nor do I care a pin for your staying or 
not in my house ; and I am assured, nobody else in this city will 
let you board so reasonably as we do ; I am an Englishwoman, 
do not like your overbearing temper ; hold your tongue." 

To this dialogue he listened five minutes, and lay down, 
from half an hour after six, to almost eleven o'clock, in the most 
tormenting pain. Just as they were going to supper, the servant 
maid came down to shut the back door, and saw him sprawling 
on the stones. She was frightened at first, but when she knew 
who he was, she ran up, screaming, and told her mistress that 
Mr. Emin was dead. This happened aptly to her boarder's reflec- 
tion, and her good- will towards the author ; she immediately ran 
downstairs, with her husband, daughter, and servant, who took 
him up in their arms, carried and laid him on his bed ; made 
him to take a glass of wine, with some rhubarb, and with ft 
little care, cured him of the disorder and saved his life. 

He reprimanded lightly the old unthinking cruel man, who 
meditated another method of revenging himself upon Emin, and 
the next morning called him to his room. Emin supposed his 


compassion to have been moved, or inclined to reconciliation. 
But on the contrary, he produced an account of the expences 
he had been at, and made the balance due to be seventeen 
pounds sterling: he then said to Emin, cf As you cannot afford 
to pay me now, it is necessary to draw a bond in form, on 
condition to pay the balance in six months." Well knowing 
he could not pay it in six years, (Mrs. Newman was then stand- 
ing behind the door, and heard all that passed,) Emin said to 
him, "Sir, since you depart from your word, as you have depart- 
ed from your father's religion, I give my word, that I will pay 
the sum when I am able; as to a writing under my hand, that 
is not to be expected.'' And added, "That he was sensible of 
his wicked intention, and that, if he would not be easy with 
the answer he received, he would give him a good thrashing, 
and expose his character on the Royal Exchange among all the 
merchants." Upon which Stephenus looked as pale as death, 
resembling Shylock the avaricious Jew in the Merchant of 
Venice. When he came out of the room, he saw the landlady 
standing in the way; she stepped in, and said to the Armenian, 
"He served you right." Then she came out, and said to Emin, 
"Well done! now you have behaved like a man of spirit." 

The author seeing it was impossible for him to get any 
sort of employment in the light service of a gentleman, made 
it his business to go upon the Royal Exchange every day except 
Sundays, his finances being reduced so low as that he was 
obliged to make a more pinching calculation, and lived upon 
three halfpence a-day for three weeks, in order to linger away 
by degrees to the welcome gates of death. He found at last, 
on the 'Change, a sailor in a blue jacket, belonging to Crisp's 
office, talking to some other countrymen, perhaps no less 
destitute than himself. Curiosity as well as necessity, led him 
to know what they were about. 'The man in the blue jacket 
said to him, "Well, my friend, will you do as they do?" 
' What is it? " said Emin. " They have no friends in London, like 


yourself," answered he; " and are desirous to go to Jamaica: 
they are to sign indentures for so many years, some ten, 
some fifteen, some twenty. After the time limited shall be 
over, they will have a piece of land given them for their ser- 
vice. Though it is a little hard in that hot country, yet if they 
survive, and behave soberly, they may make their fortune." 
By that sort of dog rhetorick he filled the author's head full of 
sense, and his belly full of victuals. He said he would consider. 

Three days after, as the month was expired, he left the 
lodging ; for that day he made a shift to walk in the 'Change, 
saw the man again, agreed to go on board the next day, and 
ashamed to tell the fellow that he had no place to sleep in, was 
obliged to walk in the streets of L,ondon for the whole night, 
from one end to the other, like a watchman, having no more than 
three halfpence in his pocket. The next morning providentially 
he met Mr. Middleton's son William. Now he hoped to live in 
England, as William stopped him, at the top of Bishopsgate- 
street, and was very inquisitive to know the reason of his 
pale look, and the cause of his absence three weeks from the 
academy. At first he hesitated, but to no purpose but when he 
told his case, the young gentleman cried ; forced him to the aca- 
demy, told his father, and Mrs. Middleton the mother who pitied 
him extremely, and were sorry for not knowing his distress 
before. The father said to the son, " Will, take him to your 
room, let him have some victuals first, then we will talk the 
matter over." 

The wandering writer took great care in eating, for fear of 
ill consequences. The young gentleman conducted him to his 
own room, treated him with great humanity (being then hardly 
twelve years of age) ; which behaviour could not have been 
surprising if he had been a full grown man. He brought break- 
fast, dinner and supper with p his own hands for several days 
after. Hmin slept in the house that night. 

The next morning, Mr. Middleton the father asked hini 4 the 


reason of his falling out with the Armenian Stephenus. He 
said, "Sir, I will not trouble you with the story; please to 
send and ask the people of the house of Mr. Newman ; they 
will tell you at once." Immediately an elderly servant maid 
was sent for that purpose. When she came back, she related 
all the circumstances, and Mr. Middleton was made easy in 
regard to his character. He then said, "What do you intend 
to do now, Mr. Emin ? " He answered, "Sir, I am obliged to 
this young gentleman for his hospitality, which saved me from 
dying in the street for want. I beg it as a favour to take 
quarter in your house three or four days more, if it is not 
troublesome, and then I will go away about my business." 
"Whither- do you intend to go," said he, "let me know it?" 
Emin then proceeded thus: "The bread of idleness is poison to 
a man who would rather starve than yield to it. I have agreed 
to sell myself on the 'Change to work in the West-India plan- 
tations for a livelihood." He then repeated his grateful thanks. 
Mr. Middleton said, " Can you bring to me the person with 
whom you have made the agreement? "I don't know, Sir," 
said Emin; "if you please I will go for him." He went; and 
when he had found him on the 'Change, he said to him, "Come, 
let us go to a friend of mine just by, who is desirous to know 
the nature of the indenture which is to be signed." The man 
no sooner heard the name "a friend" mentioned, than he flew 
in a passion, and said, "We have nothing to do with any one 
that has even an acquaintance in the place. Get away! don't 
trouble my head about it." But when the author went back 
and told Mr. Middleton of it, he very gladly expressed himself 
thus: "You have escaped being kidnapped; for those soul- 
buyers make harmless creatures believe them till they get them 
on board, and then by compulsion oblige them to sign the 
wicked indenture, instead of ten vt fifteen years, as had been 
settled a-shore, and according to their ages, make them write 
forty or fifty years, so that the poor simple slaves must live 


and die in misery. In my opinion, yonr best way will be, if 
you do not think yourself demeaned by it, to stay in my house, 
and wait on the gentlemen, keep the key of your desk, and 
when you have an opportunity, sit in the academy and mind 
your learning with them: you will then have boarding and 
education by your own industry, without being beholden to any 
one, and the servant will not be long before he goes away; 
you shall have the same wages that he has, which is nine 
pounds a-year." 

All this passed before the gentlemen in the academy, above 
forty-five or fifty in number, half of them boarders, and half 
day-scholars. The author accepted the offer with cheerfulness; 
his young friend expressed great joy, and made him in a man- 
ner his companion, treating him with civility, while the old 
servant continued in the house. The gentlemen thought it 
rather unpolite of Mr. Middleton, to say that he should wait on 
them, and with great reluctance could bring themselves to send 
him even on an errand, as he had been a school-fellow of theirs 
for nine months before that happened. But Emm took pains 
to inure their delicate minds to command him as their waiting 
servant, expostulating, and showing the difference between his 
former and his present station ; begging, in the mean time, that 
they would be so good as to consider his present preferable 
situation to a life of slavery, which, if he had not escaped, they 
would have been continually calling him to mind, and saying, 
cf 0h, poor Emin! he is gone, and lost for ever; though the 
artful kidnapper said, he would be a great man." 

Among the boarders there were two brothers, the grand- 
children of the late old Sir John Evelyn; the name of the 
youngest was John, amazingly considerate for his infant age*; 
he took more notice of everything than the rest ; was surpris- 
ingly exact in his morning ' and evening prayers ; yet very 
cautious not to be seen by any : he used to comfort Emin, 
when now and then he found him a little thoughtful. 


One day, as the author, after school, was sitting at his table 
writing some accounts in his book, both brothers came in and 
sat upon the desk before him, teasing him. As not being in 
one of his best humours, he begged of them to let him alone; 
they still persisted to play and laugh; when, by accident or 
intention, his young friend even set the inkhorn on the page of 
the book, and daubed it from top to bottom, which wrought 
upon his wild Asiatic temper to strike the face of his best 
friend, and set the poor innocent's nose bleeding. He wished 
that very instant the elder brother had been strong enough to 
have beaten him heartily for that unaccountable conduct; but 
he, seeing the poor child in that bloody condition, took him 
by the hand to carry him to Mr. Middleton and make a com- 
plaint. The author then took for granted, that without fail he 
must prepare for an asylum on board of the crimp ship for 
the West India plantation. The harmless bleeding lamb, instead 
of concurring, made this very speech: "Dear brother, I have 
received the blow of that ironhand according to my desert; we 
plagued him first ; what business had we here after the aca- 
demy was over? Your heart I am sure is sorry for me, but 
consider Mr. Emin's case; what will become of him, if Mr. 
Middleton were shewn the condition I am in ? He will be 
turned out into the street, without a friend; what shall we get 
by that ? Come, Mr. Emin, do not make yourself uneasy, it is 
all our fault: upon my honour I will not open my lips about 
it to any one in the school, and you shall have a new book from 
me : come, give me your hand, let us be friends, again ; do not 
mind, it is all over." What will the candid reader think of this 
singularity? It is to be hoped he cannot avoid being sensible 
of the author's meaning : in endeavouring to write the rough 
narrative of his life, he inadvertently comes in the way of truth, 
and spreads the light of it upon every page, without which 
every line of it would appear as dark as midnight. 

Xhe man went away a few weeks after : Emin succeeded to 



the office, cleaning twenty-four pairs of shoes, and twice the 
number of knives and forks, and running on errands for all the 
gentlemen, who, though he did not think it reasonable to be paid, 
yet would by force make him accept some, saying, "If you 
refuse, upon our honour we will never speak to you any more." 

Twice a-week he carried some eatables in a hand-basket to 
the country-house for the family, nine or ten miles, down to Aid- 
borough Hatch; sometimes he walked, and at other times rode 
on horseback. 

In that situation he passed life very comfortably, and more 
so through the good-nature of his school-fellows, and their ami- 
cable expressions. As he could not sit at table to dinner with 
them, they honoured him by turns with inviting him to drink 
tea every afternoon in their separate apartments. But, to his 
great sorrow, Mr. Middletou broke ; and, being indebted to some 
tradesmen to the amount of 4000/. was obliged to conceal him- 
self till a commission of bankrupt was taken out. As Mrs. 
Middleton could not trust the secret to any one in the house, 
she deposited a note with the faithful Emin, who by direction 
found the tavern where the gentleman was (he believes some- 
where near St. Paul's), and delivered the note to the waiter. 
Presently after came out Mr. Middleton, who treated Emin with 
half a pint of wine, and a present of half-a-guinea, giving him 
an answer to the note, which he brought to the lady. No soul 
knew of the secret from him for the space of thirty-five years. 

A fortnight after, Mr. Middleton came out. Mr. Reeves, 
another academy master, took the house ; and Emin lost his 
wages, 61. 10s. which were then due ; ill-natured fortune making 
him a suiferer as well as other creditors. At that time he had 
no more than 10s. 6d. in his pocket, with an old Rag-fair coat 
and waistcoat, and six sack-cloth shirts, darned by a good 
washer-woman in an hundred places, like the late king of Persia 
Carim Khan's head- shawl, or the patched shoes of Peter the 
Great in the battle of Poltowa. 


The Armenian merchant Stephenus, like Charles XII. of 
Sweden, pressing very hard for his ijl. the author offered himself 
to the new schoolmaster to stay in the house as a servant ; he 
answered very coolly, that he was provided. The young gentle- 
men, his dear comforters, were all gone to their respective homes ; 
and he was left alone again to his fate, with a hungry stomach. 
But fortunately, Mr. Warren, a barber, happened to know him at 
the academy, where he used to do some little errands. As the 
gentlemen were his customers, and he frequented the house, often 
dining there, and walking in the place, he knew Emin's charac- 
ter, and asked him, if he was strong enough to do porter's work ? 
He answered without hesitation, yes ; to save himself from going 
to take a survey of the streets of London again, after running 
eighteen months up and down. Oh ! could he but catch that 
imaginary goddess Fortune, like one of flesh and blood, in a place 
where no soul should be but God alone, he would make her sen- 
sible of the cruel bitterness of the distress which she inflicts! 

As the author thought he could not do otherwise, he con- 
sented to Mr. Warren's proposal ; and was conducted by him to 
one Mr. Robert's, at the corner of Sun-yard, in the same street, 
a grocer, to whom he was recommended properly for his good 
character, agreeing to serve at the rate of 81. a year. The mas- 
ter said, " If the porter behaves well, I promise to make his 
wages 10I. next year." He then began to work like a horse : 
in eighteen months he cleared his debt, partly by wages, partly 
by vails ; and managed so as to • save a little from his wages to 
pay for his trifling learning, whenever he had an opportunity. 

When the government ordered a lottery to raise money for 
the purchase of Sir Hans Sloane's curiosities,* he had courage to 

* Sir Hans Sloane (1660-1753), British Physician and Naturalist. Resided in Jamaica 
1685-1686 ; Physician to Christ's Hospital, London, 1694-1724 ; Physician-general to the 
Army from 1716; President of the College of Physicians 1719-1735 ; Physician to the King 
from 1727. His library (50,000 vols, and over 3,000 MSS.) and collections were bequeathed 
to the nation on condition that £20,000 — much less than their value — should be paid to his 
heirs : t they formed the nucleus of the British Museum. — Century Cyclopesdia of Names. 



buy half a ticket, which cost him a guinea, and had a small 
prize of 4I. 10s. 

His upper garment began to appear a little decent, but his 
linen was in the same plight, darning over darning ; and not to 
use those faithful companions too ill, he thought it necessary 
through compassion never to wear them in the night-time, lest 
some unforeseen casualty should befal them, and deprive the 
author of their agreeable company. 


Page 40. Grandsons of Sir John Evelyn. Not succeeding in 
tracing both these grandsons of Sir John Evelyn from the History of the 
Evelyn Family, by Miss Helen Evelyn, I referred to this lady, who very 
kindly sent me the following family tree, saying that she thought that 
the boys mentioned must have been the sons of Charles Evelyn. Later 
on, at Leghorn in 1760, my ancestor renewed his friendship with the 
elder of the two brothers, and he writes of the death of the second one, 
John, having taken place at school of smallpox. 

Sir John Evelyn, 1st Bart. 

John, 2nd Bart. Charles (1708-1748) 

in. Susannah d. of Peter Prideaux. 

4 other sons. 


under age 1741 

in. Philippa, d. of Capt. 

Fortunatus Wright. 

John, 4th Bart. 


under age 1741 
died young. 

died an infant. 



[Stephanos in great distress — Returning good for evil — Mr. Davis and Rs. 500 for 
Emin — Money refused — Two years a porter — Writer to an attorney — But 
Charles XII of Sweden and Peter the Great may not intrude into copies of 
law-suits ! — Lodging with a grocer — In the Park — Edmund Burke — His great 

/^NE of those days he received a very pressing letter, dated 
twelve o'clock in the forenoon, from Mr. Stephenus, the 
Armenian Jew,* begging for Christ's sake that he would go to 
him; which accordingly he did. In going up stairs, he first 
stept into the parlour to visit Mrs. Newman, whom he had not 
seen for almost two years. Inquiring for the petitioner, she 
said, "Go up stairs into his room, and see the condition he has 
brought himself to ; I do not know but it may be the judgment 
of Heaven upon the man for his behaviour towards you, as I 
have told you before a hundred times that you will thrive, and 
do not know how he will end his life at last; go up, Sir, go up." 
When he entered the mansion, he found the windows all covered 
with flannels, caulked up like a ship, smelling most disagreeably, 
with a candle burning before him, and himself sitting by the fire- 
side : as his tongue, mouth, and lips, were swelled so that he was 
not able to speak a word, there were pen, ink, and paper, ready 
on the table ; he took a pen and wrote the following words : 
" Emin, you are sensible that I have been your great enemy, 
and endeavoured to ruin you all the time you have been in this 
country ; but God was with you : — help me, for the bloody cross 
of Christ ! — if you do not go this instant to Mr. Muilman, and 
tell him my deplorable case (who has taken for granted that 
I am in the country), to-morrow I shall be sent away to prison 

* Needless to say, there is 110 such thing as an Armenian Jew ! 



by another Armenian, called Peter Paul, and by a Jew, to whom 
I owe 300/. sterling, on a joint bond." He finished the letter, 
and fell down on his knees. The miserable object of pity affect- 
ed the author so deeply, that he forgot his own hardships. 
Immediately he ran to Mr. Muilman, a merchant in Old Broad 
Street, acquainted him with the affair, and thus was the means of 
saving both the life and credit of Stephenus. This happened in 
December ; the poor man lived some years after, extremely re- 
duced, and died at last in great misery, in the same honourable 
employment of a porter, which Emin himself was obliged to 
undertake. But he was, and is, really sorry to the heart, without 
the least dissimulation ; for he thinks, that to rejoice at the down 
fall of an evil-doer, is one of the meanest emotions of a cowardly 
mind, and ought to be disdained by every man of humanity. 

The author, from the time of his coming to London, during 
eighteen months at the academy, and twenty-one months in the 
vservice of Mr. Roberts (almost three years and a half), never 
missed an opportunity of writing to his father in Calcutta, from 
whom he received no answer ; which made him the more uneasy 
in his servile situation, as he had given over even the hopes of 
his existence. But the same Armenian jeweller mentioned before, 
named Peter Paul, had on his arrival from Madras brought with 
him a servant from Bengal, who said to Emin, " Your father 
is angry with you ; he cannot hold up his head among the 
Armenians, who continually in conversation are casting reflections 
upon him in that place, and laughing at him for his imprudence, 
in venturing to let his son go to learn English ; well knowing 
the wildness of his temper before, and how untameable he was 
while in chains of strictness, which with his own hands he had 
broken, and let him loose to fly to the remotest part of the 
world, there to be lost for ever." The author was made happy 
in his exile, hearing his father was alive ; but could not help 
laughing at those cowardly gentlemen, who, not observing the 
beams in their own eyes, try to take the mote out of a n^igh- 

MR. DAVIS. 47 

hour's eye, without sense enough to distinguish the moon from 
a piece of green cheese. 

Some time after, about ten in the morning, the author, 
working in the shop, taking some sugar out of a hogshead, look- 
ing as dirty as a chimney sweeper, saw a gentleman stop at the 
door in his coach-and four, named William Davis, Esq., formerly 
chief at Dacca, in the honourable company's employment. He 
inquired for Joseph Emin, gave him a letter from his father, 
and stood till he read it over. The contents were, that he was 
to receive from Mr. Davis 500 rupees, upon condition that he 
would return to Bengal, otherwise not to be entitled to a penny 
of the sum. He said to Mr. Davis, " Since my father mistrusts 
me, be pleased to write to him, that his son will neither receive 
the remitted money, nor submit to such severity, as he trusts 
himself to God, who will take care of him." Mr. Davis much, 
on the whole, approved the author's declaration, and said, "Call 
upon me in Norfolk-street, when an opportunity offers." Mr. 
Roberts was surprised, with all his family, to think what could 
be his servant's reason for chusing to stay in the house as a 
labouring porter, rather than receive 500 rupees, and return to 
his father like a gentleman: "Our country is depopulated," 
said he, " for the sake of India ; yet this man, in this low condi- 
tion of life, prefers the former to the latter ;. he must know 
something which is a mystery to us. Well, well, Mrs. Roberts, 
Joseph is an honest fellow, and I am very glad he does not go 
for our own sakes : you know we like him as one of the family ; 
and as he likes us as well, let him stay as long as he pleases." 
The author was not mindless of Mr. Robert's humane care, who 
now and then, when he had a great deal to do in the house, 
employed a ticket porter to do part of his work. 

As Sundays are free to all servants in the city, Emin's delight 
was to rise every Sunday in the morning, early enough to march 
up to St. James's Park to see the guard relieved, and back again 
to breakfast. In his way he called on Mr. Davis, who told him, 


he would write to his father that he could not come that season 
but would the next: "I shall keep," added he, "the money in 
my possession till then." Kmin not thinking it proper to con- 
tradict him, thanked him, and went away to the city. Some 
time after, he answered his father in the negative, that he would 
neither receive the remittance, nor return to Bengal to hear his 
reprimand, and to have the mortification of seeing others laugh at 
him in their sleeves, who stretch forth their mouth unto heaven, 
and their tongue goeth through the world : he further declared, 
that he would not come away easily, without an ample satisfac- 
tion to his mind : he humbly begged of his father not to be dis- 
pleased, but to pray for his son, whose honour was so much at 
stake. He concluded, "every thing in good time, dear father; 
patience overcomes all." 

He stayed three months more in the same house, which was 
exactly two years complete ; but found the work too hard ; and 
by carrying heavy loads in a basket on the knot upon his shoul- 
ders, hurt himself at last, and was obliged to take leave with 
three pounds thirteen shillings, which he had saved, in his 

He went thence to one Mr. Webster, attorney-at-law in 
Queen Street, Cheapside, upon whom he used to call twice a-week, 
to know if he could get a place as a writer in some gentleman's 
counting-house, as he had been recommended two years before 
by a Mr. Philpot, one of the gentlemen boarders of Mr. Middle- 
ton's academy. Mr. Webster, on inquiry, found Emm to be out 
of place ; and knowing well that he could write a tolerable hand, 
employed him to write in his office, favouring him with board 
and lodging in his house. This little genteel success became a 
great subject of conversation among his brother porters, and the 
servant maids in Bishopsgate-street, who said, "Oh, L,ord ! the 
little Armenian porter is turned a gentleman"; not knowing it 
was but for a short time. 

There he copied cases of law-suits about six weeks. He 


never missed a page without some quotation from the lives of 
Peter the Great of Russia, Charles the Twelfth of Sweden, and 
Telemachus ; which, by mere chance, he found in the room, and 
thoughtlessly inserted them among the lines of his writing. Poor 
Mr. Webster was obliged to scratch them out for hours together, 
saying, in the meantime, to his Armenian clerk, " Sure, Mr. 
Emin, you have some very odd notions in your head ; I believe 
you will be a soldier at last." Finding it impossible for him, in 
spite of the utmost caution, to avoid errors, which dashed him 
with chagrin; good Mr. Webster could bear it no more; paid 
him twenty-six shillings, telling him politely, that the term was 
over, and there was no more business for him to do. 

He went away ; and took a lodging somewhere about the 
Temple, where he staid a week; thence he removed to Holborn; 
thence to the Strand, to one Mr. Philpot's, who kept a grocery, 
cyder and perry shop. He became a father, and his wife a 
mother, to Emin; who took his lodging up two pairs of stairs, 
bought his own sugar and tea, and every morning had a penny- 
worth of buttered roll for his breakfast. He resided with them 
in this economical manner. The kettle on the fire in a small 
room below stairs near the shop, was boiling gratis; each per- 
son put a spoonful of tea in the jointpot; and each had his cup 
and saucer, in which he took care to put sparingly a certain 
quantity of sugar. If he dined with them on common days, he 
paid three pence for his dinner; and if on Sunday, a groat. He 
kept no company with those of the same station with himself; 
nor had he, indeed, even from the time of his arrival in London. 
Now and then Mr. Philpot procured some writing jobs for him : 
when he had time to spare, he generally read those heroic books 
before-mentioned ; and constantly attended every morning the 
drilling of the recruits in St. James's Park, as well as the exer- 
cise of the king's guards. * 

One Sunday afternoon, as he was walking in the park, he 
saw among the multitude, Mr. Bodly the lawyer, whom he had 


seen at Calcutta, at the Old Court House, pleading at the bar, when 
he was a school-boy there. His heart jumped for joy with think- 
ing he should hear some news from him about his father. This 
gentleman was accompanied by another, very tall and well made, 
but a stranger to the author ; who followed them up and down 
before Buckingham-Gate four times, but had not courage enough 
to speak; when observing the countenance of Mr. Bodly's noble- 
looking companion to be more affable, he took off his hat, and 
accosting him told him that he knew that person. He immedi- 
ately returned the compliment, and asked Emin what the gentle- 
man's name was ? He answered, Mr. Bodly. He then said, 
"Tell me your reason for not speaking to him, since you know 
him ? " The author said, as he had been so many years in the 
East, breathing the air of that quarter, he feared some rebuking 
word from him, such as he had heard on the self-same ground 
some months ago from captain Grady, who was the chief mate 
of the Old Walpole Indiaman, in which he had been a lascar. 
The noble-looking gentleman was much taken by the observa- 
tion, as well as the remark of the author, and desired him to 
walk with them. In a few minutes he satisfied himself with Mr. 
Bodly in regard to Emin's father. The noble stranger began to 
inquire very closely the reason for his coming away from Bengal. 
The author perceiving him to be fond of conversation in his 
walk, thought it proper to open to him the wounds of his heart. 
As he was going on with rapidity, inadvertently the gentle- 
man dropped a reflecting word on two officers who were walking 
within fifteen yards before them, and said, " Those red-coats are 
the willing slaves of the nation." This made Emin stop short, 
and hold his peace. They took him with them into the small 
Wilderness where they ate some rusks and drank some milk, and 
came out of the park. When it was just dark, Mr. Bodly went 
to his habitation, and his noble companion invited Emin to his 
apartment, up two pair of stairs, at the sign of Pope's Head, at 
a bookseller's near the Temple. 


No sooner had they sat down, than the gentleman, beginning 
the conversation, asked the author the reason of his stopping 
short in the midst of his narrative ; he answered, " On account 
of your reflection concerning the military gentlemen." "My 
friend," said he, "you did not understand my meaning; there 
is as vast a difference between you and them, as between mid- 
day and mid-night ; they are inlisted in the service for a liveli- 
hood ; you have left that fine country for improvement, that you 
may become considerable, and be of service to your country- 
men." This soothing way of talking made Emin lay open every 
particular of his honourable motives; and he then begged to be 
favoured with the name of a gentleman who treated him with 
so much courtesy. He very politely answered, "Sir, my name 
is Edmund Burke, at your service; I am a runaway son from 
a father, as you are." He then took half-a-guinea out of his 
pocket, presented it to Emin, and said, " Upon my honour, this 
is what I have at present, please to accept it." Emin thanked 
him, took three guineas and a half out of his own pocket and 
said, "I am worth so much; it will not be honest to accept of 
that ; not because it is a small sum ; if it were a thousand 
pounds, I would not. I am not come away from my friends to 
get money; but if you will continue your kind notice towards 
me, that is all I w'ant; and I shall value it more than a prince's 
treasure." When Mr. Burke understood that he could read and 
write, he gave him the Tatler, and made him read a paragraph 
of it. He approved him, and said, " Very well ; lay it down. 
I am your friend, as much as it lies in my power." He took 
Emin's direction; who bade him good night, and went away. 

The next morning, Mr. Burke had the condescension to visit 
him in his room ; and advised him to read such and such books. 
Emin begged of him to indulge him with the liberty to wait on 
him now and then. Mr. Burke said, "As often as you please; 
I shall be glad to see you : " and a few days after, introduced 
him to his relation Mr. William Burke, who is now sometimes 


here,* and sometimes at Madras; and who has been equally 
kind ever since. For the space of thirty-one years, neither of 
them shewed the least reserve; the former distinguishing him by 
polite correspondence, the latter by personal kindness, which his 
grateful heart has obliged him to remember all the days of his 

Kmin had been at Mr. Philpot's about a month before he 
was made happy by the acquaintance of Mr. Burke; his three 
guineas and a half lasted him another month; and he was ob- 
liged at last to apply to Mr. Davis, and received ten guineas, 
part of the 500 rupees, and promised one of two things, either to 
pay it back, or to receive the whole when he returned to Bengal. 
He did this through necessity ; but he did not give over his 
hopes, and he trusted that the providence of God would assist 
him to the very hour of his setting out for that country, and 
would not let him go without compassing his design, to appear 
among people, who, like Banians, are entire strangers to hu- 
manity; standing ready to spit out their poison without remorse 
or consideration. They would say, "He is come at last; a lascar 
he went, a booby he has returned." The weight of this thought 
he felt heavier than all his past misfortunes. Had not Mr. Burke 
consoled him now and then, he might have been lost for ever 
through despair; but his friend always advised him to put his 
trust in God; and he never missed a day without seeing Emin. 

* Calcutta. William Burke lost money in stock jobbing transactions, and was ruined by 
1769. He failed to get a post in the E.I. Co., and went to Madras with despatches for 
Lord Pigot, the Governor. He had letters to Philip Francis, who invited him to his house, 
but as Burke got an appointment as agent to the Rajah of Tanjore he returned to Eng- 
land. He returned to India in 1779 as Paymaster to the King's forces, and in '82 was 
Commissary of the forces. Cornwallis said his appointment was an unnecessary job, and 
that service with Burke meant putting large sums in his own pocket. He died in 1798. 
(Diet, of Nat. Biography). The Dictionary of National Biography also says that the " two 
Burkes befriended Emin the Armenian." 

Archdeacon Firmiuger says in his Notes on Old Calcutta that William Burke was, in 
1787, occupying a house on the Garden Reach Road, which had become his property, as he 
mortgaged it in 1788, and it was sold in 1801 by his executor to the Company for Sa. 
Rs. 30,000. 


He was writing books at the time, and desired the author to 
copy them ; the first was, as imitation of the late Lord Boling- 
broke's Letter; the second, The Treatise of Sublime and Beauti- 


Edmund Burke. — It was about this time (1755) that Mr. Burke ac- 
cidentally formed an acquaintance in St. James's Park with a very enter- 
prising and original character, who, though a native of the East, nearly 
friendless in England, and who, consequently, appeared in rather a 
" questionable shape," presented evidence of a mind so much above his 
situation, that he instantly, to the best of his power, befriended him. 
This man, with a little more of the favour of fortune, might have turned 
out one of the most conspicuous, as he was one of the most adven- 
turous spirits of modern times. 

Previous to his introduction to the Duke of Northumberland, Emin 
had become acquainted with Edmund Burke, whom, as already stated, he 
accidentally met in the Park. After some conversation, Mr. Burke invited 
Emin to his apartments at the sign of Pope's Head, a bookseller's near 
the Temple. Emin, ignorant of the name of the gentleman who had 
treated him with so much courtesy, begged to be favoured with it, and 
Mr. Burke politely answered, " Sir, my name is Edmund Burke, at your 
service. I am a runaway son from a father, as you are." He then 
presented half a guinea to Emin, saying " Upon my honour, this is what 
I have at present — Please to accept of it." 

Mr. Burke next day visited Emin and assisted him with his advice 
as to the books which he should read. He introduced him to his rela- 
tion, Mr. William Burke ; and for thirty years Emin acknowledges that 
he was treated with unceasing kindness by both. 

At the period of the commencement of his acquaintance with Mr. 
Burke, Emin had little left for his maintenance, and the prospect of ac- 
complishing the purpose of his voyage to England became daily more 

gloomy The whole of this story is characterised in a high 

degree by the humanity and generosity which always distinguished this 
great and virtuous ornament of our Aation. (Prior's Life of Edmund 
Burke, p. 29). 


[ An Arab horse for L,ord Northumberland and his Armenian groom — Northum- 
berland House — Mr. Bale — An interview — better of Joseph Ameen to the Earl 
of Northumberland — All is changed — Duke of Cumberland — Woolwich at the 
expense of H.R.H. ] 

TN the month of November, when one morning the author was 
going along Cheapside, he met a young man in a Turkish 
habit, and had the curiosity to speak to him in that language, 
as he found him to be an Armenian; both parties were glad to 
see each other. Emm after inquiry, was informed that the man 
had been sent over with an Arabian horse, as a groom, by the 
English merchants at Aleppo, for his Grace the late Duke (at 
that time Earl) of Northumberland.* The Armenian groom 
desired him to call on him at Northumberland-house, as he was 
an entire stranger to the English, in order to explain some 
words to the people of the house ; to which he agreed very 
gladly, not foreseeing the happy consequences of it. The next 
morning accordingly he went, and stood interpreter between him 
and the servants of the house, more particularly his Grace's 
gentleman, Mr. Bale, who wanted to give him a commission for 
an Arabian horse, and was glad to have Emin's assistance, to 
give a particular explanation. His countryman desired him to 
dine there with the footmen, but not with him at the second 
table ; where his Grace's gentleman, the Duchess's gentlewoman, 
the steward, and head French cook, and Mr. Iyambe, groom of 
the chambers, were ; which unpolite behaviour, obliged Emin to 
reprimand the man pretty smartly ; upon which, both Mr. Bale 
and Lambe appeared, taking Jiim by the hand, made him set 

* Hugh Smithson, 15th Earl of Northumberland, 17 14- 1786. Made 1st Duke of North- 
umberland in 1766. 



with them at the same table at dinner. The Armenian told Mr. 
Bale as well as he could, that Emin said, though he was taken 
so much notice of, yet he was a subject of Emin's. This little 
circumstance was insinuated to his Grace without the knowledge 
of the author, who was not in the least aware of the interest 
Mr. Bale had been making, from the first day of his frequenting 
the house, to introduce him to his Grace's audience. While 
Emin was doing some little writing business here and there, and 
saved just enough to pay the ten guineas back again to Mr. 
Davis to whom he said, that as he could not do otherwise, he 
would work for his passage, nor could accept the money ; on 
pui-pose that when he arrived in Bengal, understanding the Eng- 
lish tolerably well, he might get employment there, and not be 
obliged to hear the mortifying expressions from the Armenian 
Banians, nor to bear the cool reception of his relations. Good 
Mr. Davis used his utmost endeavours to persuade him, but he 
would by no means accept the money ; he said, since he was so 
worthless as not to be maintained by a whole kingdom, not to 
be trusted by a father, it was beneath him to submit to mean- 
ness. He once trusted in God, and would stand to his word, 
though his heart was hung by a single hair; but his hope told 
him, That Great Maker would not desert him. Thereupon Mr. 
Davis wrote a note, and recommended him to Mr. Crab Bolton* 
in a little square near Bishopsgate-street, that time chairman of 
the court of directors, who favoured him with a writing to ship 
himself on board an Indiaman for Bengal. When he came home, 
he found the Armenian groom waiting for him, and saying, 
"Lord Northumberland wants you, let us go." He could not 
believe it, but went. No sooner had he entered the house, than 
Mr. Bale told him, that his lordship was desirous to see him. 
He said, "Let me go back to put on a clean shirt, and a more 
decent coat." Mr. Bale said, "Nfy lord will know a man with- 

* Henry Crabbe Boulton, Director 1753. Deputy Chairman 1764. Chairman in '65, '68, 
'ji, died in October, 1773. 


out fine cloaths." Emin consented, called God in his heart to 
his assistance, and entered the library, where the duke was 
standing by the side of the table. After making his bow and 
paying respects due to his greatness, the duke said to him, "The 
Armenian groom Asataim does not understand English, nor is 
he, with his broken lingua Franca, able to make us understand 
him ; we are at a loss to explain to him the different marks of 
horses. Have you seen the chestnut-coloured Arab that he has 
brought over ?" " Yes, my lord." " Pray, Mr. Emin, what do you 
think of it; is it a true one?" "Yes, my lord," said Emin; 
"if your lordship will give me a commission, I give you my 
word I can procure a better." " Pray >Sir, where is your 
father?" He answered, "In Bengal, my lord." "What is your 
reason for chusing to go to Aleppo?" "My lord, the Indian 
climate is too hot, it does not agree with me." "How old were 
you when you left Persia ?" "Between seventeen and eighteen." 
"You were too young," said his lordship, "and cannot be a 
judge of horses." He said, "My lord, I know the nature of the 
Arabs, as I understand Turkish, Persian and Armenian ; I can go 
among them in their own tents; they are the most hospitable 
people in the universe. I learnt their manners in Bagdad. 
After making presents of a few yards of English green cloths, 
with some coffee and sugar, and having tasted bread and salt 
with the chief of the clan, I shall become one of the family ; 
then I can depend upon them in getting a genuine Arabian 
horse." (The author's intention was to throw himself that way 
to the mountains of Armenia, since Nadir Shah had then been 
dead but three or four years,* and people were stirring pretty 

"No, no," said the duke, "Let us drop the horse story. 
Pray let me know the motives that brought you hither from 
Bengal?" The author said, »" My lord, my father is a poor 

* Not quite correct. Nadir was assassinated in 1747. Persia was convulsed by rebel- 
lions after his death, Shah succeeding Shah. 


man; I came with the black lascars as one of them, and shall 
go on board in a few days." "Pray, Mr. Emin," said his lord- 
ship, "conceal nothing from me; tell me the truth, for I see 
there is some extraordinary thing in your mind ; conceal nothing 
from me; I will upon my honour stand your friend; do not be 
doubtful of my word." The author said, "My lord, your gentle- 
man is apprehensive of having introduced a sharper to rob your 
lordship ; you have heard the clack of the door three times 
since my coming here, you bad him not to come in; I beg your 
lordship will let him enter, to make his mind easy, then I 
will begin the history." Nothing at that time could please his 
lordship so well as the remark Emin made; the Earl laughing 
heartily at it, called Mr. Bale in, by ringing the bell, charging 
him strictly not to tell any person his lordship was at home. 
Upon which Mr. Bale, seeing his lordship was safe, went out 
with tranquillity. His lordship then said, "Now, Mr. Emin, let 
me hear you;" with such condescending affability and good- 
nature, that the author was encouraged to a degree of inspira- 

When he began to tell him the story of the various misfor- 
tunes of his life, the hardships that he had been through, and 
the adversity which still awaited him in the cause of his countrv ; 
it affected his lordship so, that he could not refrain from shed- 
ding tears. To shew the feelings of the human mind, he is now 
no more, to the great grief of Emin's bleeding heart.* When 
the writer was near finishing the narrative of his life, and said 
that he could read and write, his Grace desired him to draw a 
short memorial of it, looked at his watch, and found it was one 
o'clock in the morning ; he then asked him, if he was indebted 
to' any one ? Emin said, no ; he had but a single shilling in 
his pocket; his Grace offered his purse; the author with much 
ado took one guinea out, and returning the purse, made a 

* The Duke died in 1786. Emin is writing in 1788. 



bow, bade his Grace good morning, and went away to his lodg- 
ings. He then began the promised letter, and did not sleep 
the whole morning till he completed it as well as he could. 
The following is a copy of it.* 

[A Letter from Joseph Ameen to the Eari, of Northumberland.] 

My Lord 

I present you with the Specimen of my Writting I promised. 
It is too bold I am afraid to make myself the Subject, when I 
write for your Lordship, but forgive my good Lord the Language of 
a Stranger. I have been in too low Condition to know how to write 
proper to your Lordship but you speak to me more kind and 
humbly than mean People, so I am encouraged. I have very good 
designs and I have suffered very much Hardships for them. I 
think your Lordship will not despise a person in mean Condition for 
thinking of some thing more than Livelyhood. I have with a very 
good will thrown behind me a very easy Livelyhood for this Condi- 
tion mean as it is, and I am not troubled. If I can carry my 
Point at last, As long as I can remember my own Family and I 
remember my Great Grandfather, they have always been Soldiers, 
and always did Remember Christ, tho' they were torn out of their 
Country of Armenia by Shaw Abbas and planted in Hamadan 
after their Captivity they were Soldiers still : two of my Uncles did 
Spill their Blood in the Service of Kouli Ean my Father was his 
Slave for many Years, but he was at last forced to fly into India, 
because this Tyrant had sharpened his Battle Ax more against his 
own Army than upon his Enemies. Soon after my Father sent for 
me to Calcutta in Bengali where he is a Merchant, There I saw the 
Fort of the Europeans and the Soldiers Exercise, and the Shipping 
and that they were dextrous and perfect in all things, then I grieved 
with myself, for my Religion and my Country, that we were in 
Slavery and Ignorance like Jews Vagabonds upon Earth, and I 
spoke to my father upon all this, because our Fathers did not fight 
for their Country, but I understood that the black Armenians in the 
Mountains! were free, and handled Arms from their Childhood, and 
that those under Patriarch, who are subject to the Turks and 

* Instead of the text of the letter as published with Sir W. Jones's orthographical 
corrections, I prefer to insert here the texC of the letter as presented to Lord Northumber- 
land, the copy of which Emin gave to his friend Mrs. Montagu, and which she preserved 
with the rest of her correspondence. 

f See p. 60. 


Persians did not want Courage, but they are all Ignorant, and fight 
only with a wild and natural fierceness, and so they have no order 
and do nothing but like Robbers, but I resolved I wou'd go to 
Europe to learn Art Military and other Sciences to assist that Art ; 
and I was sure that If I would go into Armenia like an European 
Officer, I may be usefull at least in some degree to my Country ; 
but my Father did not listen to me, for God did not give him 
understanding in these things. I could not bear to live like a Beast, 
eating and drinking without Liberty or Knowledge. I went to 
Cap* Fox of the Ship Walpole and kissed his Feet a Hundred Times 
to let me work for my Passage to Europe before he would bend to 
me, but he did at last admit me, and I came to England with 
much Labour, but it did not grieve me when I thought of my 
Country. I ent'red with my little Money into M r Middleton's 
Academy. I had the Honour to tell your Lordship so before. I 
was first a Scholar, and when my Money was gone, I was a Servant 
there for my Learning, but he was broke, and I lost every thing. 
I went into the Street to work for my Bread, for I could not bear 
to go wagging a Tail at Peoples doors for a bit of Meat, I will not 
grieve your Lordship with the Misery which I went through. I do 
not want to be Pitied. I got Service at last with M r Roberts a 
Grocer in the City, in this time I carried burthens of near 200 Lib 
upon my back and paid out of my Wages to learn Geomerty, and 
to complete my Writing, and just to begin a little French, but be- 
cause my Lord I almost starved myself to pay for this and carried 
Burthens more than my Strength, I hurted myself and could not 
work any longer, so that I was in dispair, and did not care what 
become of me, but a Friend put me to write with one M r Webster 
an Attorney in Cheapside which for a little time got Bread, but I 
was resolved in dispair to go again to India, because no body wou'd 
put out his hand to help me to learn, and my Uncle sent £60 to 
Governor Davis to carry me back. I am afraid I am too trouble- 
some iu my Accounts to your Lordship but we people of Asia can't 
say little and a great deal like Scholars.* Now I met by chance 
some Gentlemen who encouraged me, and gave me Books to read 
and advised me to kiss Col° Dingley's hands and shew my business 
to him, he was a brave Soldier, took me by the hand, spoke to his 
own Serjeant an Honest Man to teach me Manual Exercise and gave 
me Blands Military Discipline and promised to help me to learn 
Gunnery and Fortification ; but I was again unfortuned, for when 
light just began to come to my Eyes he died, and I was like before 
except that I knew a little of Manuel Exercise and read some of 
the Roman History, could learn vq more nor live, I was broke to 
Pieces, and bowed my Neck to Governor Davis to go over to my 

* C^annot say much in a few words. 


Friends without doing any of these things I suffered for. I am in 
this Net at present but I am happier than all Mankind if I can 
meet any great Man that can prevail on Governor Davis to allow me 
something out of the Money he has, only upon Condition I return 
to blindness again that I may go through Evolutions with Recruits, 
and learn Gunnery and Fortification ; and if there is a War to go 
one Year as a Volunteer. If Governor Davis writes that I have a 
Great Man here my Protector my Father who looks upon me as a 
Person run away and forsaken, will make me an Allowance to learn. 
If I could clear my own Eyes and serve my Country and my Reli- 
gion that is trod under foot of Mussulman, I would go thro' all 
Slavery and danger with a glad Heart, but if I must return after 
four years Slavery and Misery to the same Ignorance without doing 
any good would break my heart my Lord in the End. I beg Par- 
don; I have experience of your Lordships Goodness else I would not 
say so much. I would not receive but return, and I want nothing 
but a little speaking from the Authority of Indian Governor to my 
Friends, I have always been honest, those I have been Slave to will 
say I am honest. M r Gray trusted me. here is a Sort of Story 
nothing but your Lordships goodness can make tolerable to you. I 
am much Obliged to your Lordship for your Patience and shall be 
very proud of giving your Lordship all the Proofs in my Power that 
I am your Lordships very much Obedient and most Obliged humble 

Servant ' Jo. Ameen. 


Armenians in the mountains who had never been conquered. 

[Emin here refers to the five Meliks, or Chiefs of Karabagh, men of 
noble birth who for some reason or another had quitted their native 
territories in other parts of Armenia, and had settled in the Karabagh 
mountains, the natural features of which region, combined with their 
own valour and skill in warfare, had enabled them to protect themselves 
against the incursions of hostile peoples and tribes, — such as Turkmans, 
Kurds, Osmanlis (the real Turks), Lezguis, and others,— and to preserve 
a certain amount of independence — until that fateful day when the arch- 
intriguer and villain, Panah Khan, ex-shepherd and town-crier, set fo^t 
in Karabagh. 

The word Black is connected with them in various ways. Kara-bagh 
in the Turkman language means B^lack Garden, — probably an allusion to 
the marvellous fertility of the soil,— and the Meliks of Gulistan were 
nicknamed the Black-heads —in Armenian, " Sevak'lukh." This clan, pos- 


sessed from former times the right of bearing on their standard, or coat- 
of-arms, the royal emblem of an eagle. Not the golden eagle, nor the 
double spread-eagle of actual royalty, but a black-headed eagle, and, ac- 
cording to the statement of a member of this family (b. 1795, d. 1884) 
who came to India in 1813, only " half an eagle." What he intended to 
convey by this description I have not been able to discover, but from 
the nickname it would seem that he probably meant the head and neck 
of the bird — in heraldic parlance, an eagle's head couped. The first of 
this clan to settle in Karabagh was the Black Centurion,* Sev Apov, so 
called on account of his swarthy complexion, which was inherited by 
several of his descendants; not, however, by the one who came to India, 
for he was a little fair man with brown hair and grey eyes — and of an 
unparalleled obstinacy ! ] 

That morning (being Thursday) the author carried this writ- 
ing, and would have given it to Mr. Bale, his friend, to present 
it, but his countenance was not so kind as before, it appeared 
full of jealousy; and, with a sinking voice, he told him very 
coolly, He had nothing to do with it; and then turned his back. 
Emin, like a faithful dog, following him, said, "Sir, you need not 
be uneasy in your mind, I am not a person to be suspected, or 
to undermine any soul in the house. When Iris lordship last 
night kindly offered me leave to stay, I thanked him saying, I 
wished to live and die in the field like a man. Then Mr. Bale, 
with some indifference, said, "Very well, give it to the porter 
Jones." The letter was opened, that Mr. Bale might read it 
first : the jolly door-keeper lighted a candle, put his own seal 
upon it, and promised cheerfully to deliver it into his lordship's 
own hands. 

The author went home, reflecting on the cross reception of 
Mr. Bale; but comforted his wounded heart with the following 
sacred verse: "O! put not your trust in princes, nor in any 
child of man, for there is no help yi them ; for when the breath 
of man goeth forth he shall turn again to his earth, and then 

* Centurion = Uzbashy. Apov was his baptismal name. 


all his thoughts perish." He resolved to struggle no more, 
packed up his things, and, on Monday morning, sent the servant- 
maid of the house for the porter and waterman. When they 
came up stairs to him, bargaining for the fare, one to take his 
things to the water-side, the other to row him on board the ship 
which lay somewhere down the river, who should come up just 
at the time but his honest friend old Gilman, the washerwoman's 
husband, stamping and roaring, and saying to him, "My dear 
boy, I called at Northumberland-house to take your countryman's 
linen to wash ; Mrs. Smithson the housekeeper asked me, What 
was become of the little Armenian that my wife washed for ? I 
told her I carried his linen home last Saturday evening, when he 
made me a present of half-a-crown, besides what was due ; that 
when we took leave of one another, he said, Pray for me, I am 
going on board for Bengal; it will either be to-morrow, or Mon- 
day morning. And I told her, he must be gone by that time. 
Mrs. Smithson said, My Lord has been enquiring, ever since last 
Thursday, of all the servants of the house, to know where he 
lodged. I told her, every one of them knew it ; and that I had, 
with my own eyes, seen his countryman, the Armenian groom, 
almost every day with him in his lodgings ; why did not he 
shew the way ? My dear boy, that illnatured fellow was standing 
by when these words passed. Mrs. Smithson said to him, O fy, 
fy upon you, Asataim ! what do you think his lordship will say 
to that ? The good woman gave me a shilling, and two glasses 
of wine ; and desired me to run as fast as I could, to see if you 
were not gone away ; and to tell you, that the great duke of 
Somerset wanted you. I have more to tell — that I have given 
a good character of you ; told her that you were an honest 
boy ; and remember that we, the brave people of Ireland, ace 
more true to our friends, and have better hearts than your own 

Emin thanked the old man, made him some amends, gave a 
shilling to each of the men (the porter and waterman) ; dressed 


himself, and set out immediately to know his Grace's pleasure. 
When he entered the house, honest Jones wished him joy ; abus- 
ing the groom for keeping his lordship in suspense, which made 
the whole family uneasy for four days together. The second 
servant he met was his former friend Mr. Bale, my lord's gentle- 
man, who, with an outward appearance of good-nature, con- 
ducted him into the drawing-room, brought a dish of chocolate 
with his own hands, and said, " His lordship is busy, rest your- 
self a little, he will be here presently." In about five minutes, 
Emm's princely protector entered, and received him in his 
mighty arms, as he hopes his lordship is now received in the 
bosom of Christ. After blaming him in a kind fatherly manner 
for not leaving his direction, he said, "His Royal Highness the 
Duke of Cumberland has seen your memorial, and much ap- 
proved the spirit of it, saying, the actions of the author will be 
equal to his writing : henceforward Emin belongs to your lord- 
ship, and shall be entirely protected by me. His Royal High- 
ness also promised at court, to send you to the Royal Academy 
at Woolwich. Now, my dear Emin, you shall not want any 
thing, His Royal Highness expressed himself sanguinely in your 
favour before a great many noblemen, and I am sure he will 
do every thing to forward your good designs ; yet you are my 

While his noble patron was comforting his new-found son, 
whom he had given up for lost, twenty messages on cards were 
brought with compliments, desiring of his lordship to see Emin. 
His lordship said to him, "Look at these cards, and visit 
those who sent them, paying your respects one after another. 
I have this to add, that your letter has been copied by 300 
different gentlemen, ever since last Thursday." His lordship 
made him accept five guineas whether he would or no ; invit- 
ing him to his table at all times* He consented to the first 
favour, and refused the second offer, for which, he said, he was 
not yet worthy, till a proper time ; when his good behaviour 


should help him to be known better, he would then merit that 
great honour his lordship generously conferred upon him ; and 
said, "It is not long since I was but a common servant ; with 
what assurance can I take the liberty to sit at the earl of 
Northumberland's table ? what would the world say of me ? or 
how could I digest my meat without deserving it?" His lord- 
ship was very well satisfied with these words ; Emin taking 
leave, went out to his lodging where he related the whole to his 

He was introduced for a whole fortnight, from the next day, 
to a great many gentlemen and ladies. Both the Mr. Burkes 
were more glad of his success than many envious men were 
sorry. Among his new friends, were the late Mr. Charles Stan- 
hope my Lord Harrington's brother; Doctor Mounsey, of Chel- 
sea-hospital ; the late Miss Talbot, Lady Anson, Lady Sophia 
Egerton, the Bishop of Bangor's wife, the Earls of Pembroke 
and Bolingbroke, with their countesses ; a little after, the Dukes 
and Duchesses of Richmond and Marlborough, the celebrated 
Mrs. Montague, the late Earl of Bath, the Earl of Orford, and 
the late Lord Cathcart ; every one of them was kind and very 
glad at all times to favour him with their countenance ; besides 
many others, who would fill up two pages if he were to name 
them all. 

When his Royal Highness commanded him to go to Wool- 
wich, to be instructed there at the Royal Academy, under 
several masters, in the arts of gunnery and fortification, he 
boarded at one Mr. Heaton's for thirty pounds a year, with a 
blue uniform and a guinea per month for pocket-money ; to be 
paid by the late adjutant general Napier, at the expence of his 
royal protector. 


F<min's New Friends. 

Mr. Charles Stanhope. John Stanhope, son of John Stanhope of 
Elvaston had 3 sons, 1, Thomas, who succeeded at Elvaston, M.P. for 
Derby, who died in 1730. 2. Charles, Secretary of the Treasury and 
treasurer of the Chamber, temp. George I. 3. William, 1st Earl of 
Harrington, a distinguished soldier and statesman during the reigns of 
the two first Georges, President of the Council and Earl of Harrington 
in 1742, later Viceroy of Ireland. Married Anne, daughter and heiress of 
Col. Edward Griffith, by whom he had twins. His son William, 2nd 
Earl, succeeded to the estates of his uncle Charles Stanhope, who died 
unmarried in 1760. 

Dr. Monsey of Chelsea Hospital. Dr. Messenger Mousey was the son 
of a clergyman, born 1698. He became physician to the Earl of Godol- 
phin, and later physician to Chelsea Hospital. He was most eccentric, 
and, if his portrait at the Soane Museum was like him, hideous in ap- 
pearance; but he had a coarse, rough and tumble wit, and evidently was 
so droll in manner, that he became a sort of pet buffoon of the 

Montagu and Lyttelton circle He was at this time a widower 

with one daughter, Charlotte, whose husband, William Alexander, was 
•, elder brother to the 1st Earl Caledon. Mrs. Alexander had one child, a 
daughter, Jemima,* who married the Rev. Edmund Rolfe and was mother 
eventually of the 1st Baron Cranworth. ... Dr. Monsey begged Dr. 
Cruickshank, in case of his dying away from his own doctor (Dr. Forster), 
to dissect his body before the students, set up his skeleton for instruc- 
tion, and put his flesh in a box and throw it into the Thames. — Letters 
of Elizabeth Montagu (Climenson), vol. ii, p. 98. 

Catherine Talbot, only daughter of Edward Talbot, who died in 1780, 
second son of Dr. William Talbot, Bishop of Durham, and brother of 
Iyord Talbot ; her mother was daughter to the Rev. G. Martyn, Prebend 
of Lincoln. Dr. Seeker (Archbishop of Canterbury) owed his first prefer- 
ments to Mr. Talbot's recommendation to his father, the Bishop of 
Durham. Dr. Seeker never forgot these obligations, and after his marriage 
to. Miss Benson in 1725 took Mrs. and Miss Talbot to live with him, which 
they did until his death. He left them an easy income for their joint 
lives. Miss Talbot was intimate with all the " bas bleu" society, Mrs. 
Montagu, Mrs. Carter, Iyords lyttelton and Bath, and was a very highly 

* This is the "grant daughter" Emin refers to in a letter to Dr. Mousey. 



educated person and much esteemed by all who knew her — she died in 
1770, aged 49. Her mother survived her until 1783, when she died at the 
age of 92. — Communicated by Mrs. Climenson. 

Lady Anson. Elizabeth (b. 1748) eldest daughter of Philip Yorke, 
1st Earl of Hardwicke (1690-1764, — Lord Chancellor 1736, Viscount and 
Earl 1754), and sister to Sir Joseph Yorke. Married George, Baron 
Anson, Admiral of the Fleet and first Lord of the Admiralty. Lady 
Anson died in 1760, and Lord Anson in 1762. Emin refers to Lady 
Anson's kindness in the most grateful way, in many of his letters. 

Lady Anne Sophia Egerton, daughter of Henry de Grey, Duke of 
Kent, wife of the Bishop of Bangor, and niece to Charles John Bentinck, 
son of Hans William, 1st Earl of Portland. 

Henry, roth Earl of Pembroke, b. 1734. d. 1794. Married Elizabeth, 
daughter of the Duke of Marlborough. Colonel of rst Regiment of 

Bolingbroke, 3rd Viscount St. John, 2nd Viscount Bolingbroke, born 
1734, succeeded in 1751 to the honours of his uncle, Henry, 1st and 
attainted Viscount Bolingbroke. Married in Sept. 1757 and divorced in 
1768 Diana Spencer, eldest daughter of the Duke of Marlborough, "in 
such a hurry they could not wait for settlements, but were married upon 
an Article." — Letters of Elizabeth Montagu (Climenson), vol. ii, p. 116. 

Charles, 3rd Duke of Richmond and Lennox, K.G. (1734-1806). In 
1765 Ambassador extraordinary to the Court of France, in 1766 principal 
Secretary of State. 

, Hugh Smithson, Sir, rst Duke and 2nd Earl of Northumberland 
(1714-1786). Married Baroness Percy, only surviving child of the 7th 
Duke of Somerset, who in 1749 was created Earl of Northumberland 
with special remainder to his son-in-law, Sir Hugh Smithson. The Duke 
was succeeded in his dukedom by his heir male, in the barony of Percy 
by his daughter, and in the earldom of Northumberland by her husband, 
who was created Duke of Northumberland and Earl Percy in 1766. 

George, 3rd Earl of Orford and 2nd Lord Walpole (1730-1791). Lord 
of the Bedchamber and Ranger of St. James' and Hyde Parks. 

Cathcart, Charles Schaw, pth Baron (1721-1776). Married in 1753 
Jane, daughter of Lord Archibald Hamilton. A.D.C. to the Duke of 
Cumberland, wounded at Fontenoy. 

Lyttelton, Sir George, jlh Bart, and /st Lord Lyltelton, born 1706. 
Secretary to Prince of Wales 1737, one of the Commissioners to the 


Treasury 1744, cofferer to the Household and Privy Councillor 1754, 
Chancellor and under-treasurer of the Exchequer, elevated to the peerage 
1756 by the title of Lord Lyttelton. His son Thomas, 2nd Lord Lyttel- 
ton, married in 1772 Apphia, second daughter of Broome Wilts, of Chip- 
ping Norton, and relict of Joseph Peach, governor of Calcutta. 

George Lord Lyttelton wrote "Observations on Cicero," a ''Mono- 
dy" on the death of his first wife, a "Dissertation on St. Paul," and 
a " History of Henry II." Although Emin does not mention Lord 
Lyttelton in his book, he seems to have been on very friendly terms 
with him, no doubt through Mrs. Montagu's influence. Dr. Monsey, 
Lord Lyttelton, and later, Lord Bath, were amongst Mrs. Montagu's most 
devoted admirers, and all three very friendly with Emin. 

Dr. Monsey on Sept. 26, 1760, wrote a letter to Lord Lyttelton 
describing his visit to Tunbridge to see Mrs. Montagu, saying " It may 
be new to your Lordship tho' not strange, that the Earl of Bath is fall'ii 
desperately in love with one who seems not insensible of his passion, 
and I think 'tis time for you and I to look about us, for an Earl is 

better than a Baron or a quack Doctor it is impossible to tell your 

Lordship with what warmth he talk'd to me about her, and so now 
there are 3 fools of us! — Letters of Elizabeth Montagu. 

William Pulteney, 1st Earl of Bath, b. 1684, d. 1764. 

[Letter written by Emin.] 

(Copy of letter to some one unknown,* perhaps to Mr. Pitt.) 


My Education was too rough to give me hope I please a Gentle- 
man of Judgement in writing ; nor is it my Study to write, but to 
do something. You give me great Honour to desire seeing poor per- 
formance, & unfortunate Story; but this encouragement I receive, 
gives .blood to my Veins; so I do not despair that I may do some- 
thing at last in Country, that is so low to want to be served by 
such little Skill as mine ; which is now nothing, but what it can be 
, made by the Nobleness of my great Lord Northumberland & Con- 
sideration of yours. This thought pays me the labour I already 
had, & all besides that I shall suffer in time to come in carrying 
my Designs : I was boru S r at Hamad an in Persia, which is one of 

• This copy was given to Mrs. Montagu, and preserved by her. It is not dated, but 
apparently was written about this time. 


the Places, where my unfortunate Nation lies in Captivity since 
vShaw Abbas. My Father taught me, like other Armenians only to 
write and read our own Language, & to get Psalms be heart, to 
sing them in the Church, but he did not shew me to handle Arms 
to fight for that Church, as my Uncle, who was killed at his Church 
Door, nor any thing to kindle up my Heart to understand great 
Affairs. He was for good while himself in the Army of Kooly Kan, 
but after his House was ruined at Hamadan, I travelled to Chilian, 
from Ghillan went to Ispahan, from Ispahan to Bassorra & from 
thence to Calcutta into Bengali, where my Father was Merchant, 
& had his thoughts to make me the same ; but I saw plain, that 
our People, when they consume their flesh to grow rich, and have 
made a little money, they are robbed for foolish invented pretence 
sometimes by Bashaw, sometimes by the Cawns, & sometimes by 
Nabab ; because they have not Sowrd in their own Hands ; so they 
labour in vain, but I saw that People of Europe were wise, & 
strong in themselves; fighting as one man, & I thought, if I can 
be like European Soldiers, I will go to my Countrymen the black 
Armenians in the Mountains; for I heard they were never con- 
quered , & that they were brave bold men ; and if I can teach 
them art of War, it will be great use; for the Soldiers of Turk and 
Persian are brave on Horse back, but they are not worthy to be 
called an Army, & the Towns not fortified artfully as I under- 
stand in Europe. I spoke my thoughts to my Father, when I saw 
the Soldiers & the Ships of the Company ; but he turned his 
Countenance from me and abused me ; I coud not bear to live so ; 
I ran away, & worked my Passage from Bengali to London ; 
whilst my Money lasted, I was at M r Middletons Academy to learn 
the English Language, and writing ; afterwards I was obliged, to 
quit my learning to work for my Bread ; I suffered much Hardships 
in a strange Country without Friends or Money ; but I will not 
trouble your goodness with my Misfortune. I was Porter to Mr. 
Roberts Grocer in the City, here I carried heavy Burthens for two 
Years, and with my Wages paid to learn some Geometry, and to 
perfect myself in Writing, and to begin French ; but my labour was 
above my Strength ; I began to fail, because I was striving without 
Hopes. I lost my Health, & was at last obliged to quit that 
Service. A friend recommended me to an Attorney one Webster ; 
here I eat & drank, but I had no peace, because no person looked 
upon me to give me light in my Design. I fear that I am trouble- 
some Sir, but you are very good; at last, I got some Friends who 
advised me to apply to Col. Dingley ; this brave Gentleman was 
very kind to me, but he die<". very soon after he knew me. I was 
then in my old distress, and almost bended my Neck to my Rela- 
tions to return to miserable Blindness, and Slavery again in India ; 
when Providence sent me to my Lord Northumberland, who lifted 


me from the Ground. You Sir, have done me great Honour like- 
wise ; you have both put a Seal upon my Heart, & it is Your 
own always. I am very greatfull Sir 

Your most obedient & obliged 
humble Servant 

Joseph Ameex. 


[ War with France — Duke of Cumberland leaves for Westphalia — Emin stranded — 
(Letter to Mrs. Montagu — to Lord Northumberland) — His friends help him — 
Stade — Duke's levee — The campaign.] — Note. 

Correspondence. To Dr. Monsey — to his Patronesses — to Dr. Monsey — to Mrs. 
Montagu — Extracts from Letters of Mrs. Montagu referring to Emin — Letter 
from Mrs. Montagu to her Sister — Emin to Lord Albemarle — to Mrs. Montagu 
— Lady Sophia Egerton's letter of introduction to her Uncle — her letter to 
Emin — Emin to Lord Cathcart — to Mr. Pitt — Mrs. Montagu to her husband. 

T^MIN had just began to pick up some small knowledge in 
Euclid's Elements, Algebra, and drawing plans of forts, in 
the course of thirteen months ; but hardly enough to make him 
fit for any of the branches in the art of war, when the hostili- 
ties began with France. Lord Cathcart spoke in behalf of Emin 
to his royal protector, what he should do ? and asked, whether 
he should continue in the academy, or follow the Duke to West- 
phalia ? His Royal Highness told his lordship to ask him, which 
of the two he chose ? and he answered, • that he preferred a 
campaign, where the practice of the art of war was displayed, 
to living in the dull theory of it ; that as he was then thirty- 
one years of age, the seeing of one campaign might be more 
useful to him than study at home for five years. Such was his 
answer through L,ord Cathcart to the Duke, who approved it 
much, and said to his lordship, he was glad to hear Emin pre- 
ferred fighting to study. He then ordered general Napier to buy 
him two good horses, with camp equipages ; and, having before 
recommended him to the Hessian General, ordered him to follow. 


His Royal Highness having crossed the Channel before the 
Hanoverian army,* Emin was left behind neglected. The Duke 
his patron said, it was a delicate point to interfere in, and 
could not give him advice, and went to his country seat; 
general Napier would have nothing to say to him any more, 
and immediately cut off his allowance. 

Letter to Mrs. Montagu. 
Madam, < M ^ r6 x 757) 

It was your desire that I shou'd write to you of my Situa- 
tion when I come down here, which is at present a very doubtfull 
one, & am sorry to say so ; because it will be only making you 
uneasey. I saw M r Muller the Cheif Master of our Academy who 
by the Orders of the Duke & General Napier did pay my Expences 
before his Royal Highness consented my going with Hesens over to 
Germany, but now he tells me he is not certain whether I am to 
have the same Allowence from the Duke or not. I don't know how 
to go on, & what Step will be proper for me to take ; I hope 
D r Madam you will not fail to give me your good Advise as soon 
as you receive this. I beg pardon for this Trouble I give, I will not 
have my Queen be vaxed at the Misfortune of her Slave who looks 
upon all sorts of Misfortunes of this World but a pleasent Dream. 
We have a Fraze among us in Persia, they say a Brave-man's head 
is always in Troubles ; so I am happy when every thing proves 
contrary to me, and I don't care what becomes of me I am but a 
Mortal, I will do my Endeavour as long as I have any L,ife in me 
to serve my Country, and if I am born to save my sheperdless 
Nation, none shall be able to hinder me, Gods will must be done, 
unto whom I will put my whole Trust, be glad o ! my wise Queen 
of Sheba for I am happy. 

It is my Oppinion that my Royal Master the Duke will hardly 
think of answering General Napier's Letter, which was sent on my 
Account as he has so much to think, and so much Business upon 
his Hands, that it will be necessary for me to leave that way of 
proceeding, and begin another new one. 

Thus If you can make any Interes for me to the Duke of Mary- 
borough by M r Medowsf who is my Friend, & knows his Grace 
very well, to procure me a Commission of Leutenautcy in. the Royal 
Regiment of Artilery of Woolwich, it will be much better for me, 

* April 9, or 10, 1757. 

| Brother-in-luw to Mr. Moiilagu. 


for then I can go to the King of Prusia at my own Charge by the 
Leave of my General, and I will have no more waiting at the 
Great Peoples Door, from 8 in the Morning to four or 5 in the 
Afternoon, at last hardly any admtance. There are great many 
Vacanceies in the Regiment I have already mentioned, now is the 
time to help me, don't you imagine that my Patron will be dis- 
pleased at my getting a Commission for he has done his best, he is 
above asking such smal Favour as this, therefore let the Ladies, & 
noble Ladies, that have any Love, regard or Esteem for their persian 
Slave assist me in this case, & which I will not forget it as long 
as I live ; please to present my most obedi 1 Service to them all. 

If I cou'd succeed in this Plane it will be a very great Conse- 
quance to me, for being in the Army two Years by that time the 
Fate of my Letters which I have sent to Prince Heraclius will be 
detarmined, and besides the Fast India Company will be glad to 
have me in their Service, and will be a great Honour, & happi- 
ness to my worn away Father. This is all I can say at present, 
and will await with patience for an answer. Pray give my Compli- 
ments to my Hearty Friend M r Montigue & to honest D r D^ Mon- 
sey. I am 
• Madam, 

Your and all the Noble Ladies of England 
who are my beloved Friends 

most obedi*. most greatfull humble Slave 

Joseph Emin. 
The 16th May 1757 on Church Hill at M r Heatons Woolwich. 
To M m Montigue. 

To Lord Northumberland. 

My Lord Ut3*~l) 

I was in the Dust when your Lordship looked upon me, but 
I was not so unhappy then as I am now : at that time I cou'd 
charge myself of the Likeness of no fault and I was so little, that I 
had no body -to envy, and accuse me: but now your Lordships 
, Goodness has held me up to y e whole world, and if you turn your 
face from me at this day, all men will say that I have misbehav,d 
or that my patron who knew me from the first wou'd not have 
rejected me, Whenever I look into* myself, or out upon myself I see 
nothing, but what is your Lordships, the bread that I eat, the 
Cloaths that I wear, the Learning that I have Learned, the friends 
tjiat look upon me, the Sword that I wear which is Glory to me, 


all these are your Lordships, is not then your Lordships Goodness in 
my mind ? where shall I hide it ? but when people say he is un- 
worthy what shall I answer ? I am not unworthy my Lord, I am 
not : I am not ungreatefull ! You Look at me no more, I hold my 
tongue within my Heart, but Your Lordships Goodness is there 
speaking to me, If I Come to be a man I will speak of it, if I be- 
come a worm to be trod on, it will be in the Dirt with me. I do 
not know how I have the misfortune to displease your Lordship. I 
Cannot approach to you. I do not know now at this point that my 
Life turns, what to do without your Counsells, for I will do nothing 
but what you approve of, the war is now my Lord, to morrow it 
will be peace, as it was when I first Came to England, and I shall 
Lose an Opportunity which may never return, the thought of this 
makes my Life more miserable than when I Carried burthens when 
M r Stanhope forced me to go to Diversion I had no pleasure there 
twice that I went the musick was not pleasant to my Ear. My 
businiss is not done. I Struggled long time to go to Germany by 
his Royal Highness.s favour, I begin to despair, but if this Honour 
is too much I will by your Lordships permission go with my fathers 
money in M r Davis, s hands which will be fully sufficient to procure 
me all I Shall want, to the Camp of His Royal Highness, wrwere I 
Shall have an Opportunity of being in Action, or if this will not be 
permitted. I will go to the King of Prussia, I would if I dare beg 
of your Lordships Goodness some Recommendation perhaps to my 
Lord Albemerle for it is but few persons in the world that will Look 
at a man from their own Benevolence without the Recommendation, 
as my Great Lord Northumberland has looked upon me. When I 
beg of your Lordship to do something for me, it is not so much to 
desire you to it, as humbly ask your Lordship Advice, whether it 
should be done, I say of the Reccommendation, I do not persume for 
more than that I will be satisfied in your Lordships Determination. 
I am not wanting in respect to your Lordship. I am not wanting 
in Gratitude for your Goodness. I have done no mean thing, and 
your Lordship is too generous to beleive any thing bad of me with- 
out letting me defend myself, and I have hopes for that reason 
that your Lordship will 3'et Look upon me and give me permission, 
and I Shall hope Recommendation to Germany where I will think 
both in the Camp, and in the Hour of Battle of your Lordships 
Goodness and your Noble Ladys who have been my first and best 
friends and patrons, whatever becomes of me, may the Great God 
protect your Lordship, and your Noble family to be Like your Lord- 
ship, the friends of destress'd men, that strive to be men Like your 

Lordships. « A11 , . , 

1 Allways remembering and 

dutyfull humble Servant 
Joseph Emin. 


(On the back, in Mrs. Montagu's writing.) 

This letter was written to Lord Northumberland at a time when he im- 
agined his lordship had taken some offence at his conduct. 

His other noble friends were all very sorry, not knowing 
how to advise him. He said, " The time of advice is over ; if 
you will enable me, I will soon make my way to overtake my 
royal master, in spite of some ill-natured souls." These noble 
personages, finding the ardour of his spirit, soon understood his 
meaning, and made up a purse of sixty guineas among them, 
which he accepted. He found a courier going over with letters 
from the ministry, and having agreed to pay the man half of 
the chaise hire, set out in company with him for Harwich ; 
whence they took their passage in one of the king's cutters, 
which, after three days dangerous sailing, made the river Elbe. 
On the fourth day he arrived at Stade, and on the fifth, at a 
village where his royal master was quartered. After refreshing 
himself a little, before he was admitted, he drew an address, and 
sent it in by Lord Albermarle,* at that time the Duke's aid-du- 
camp. The following are the words of it, as well as he can re- 
collect : 

"To his Royal Highness the great Duke of Cumberland. — 
Your Royal Highness has taken by the hand a distressed soldier, 
who was mingling in the ashes of oblivion ; you have raised him 
in the eyes of the world ; may God forbid he should be for- 
saken ; he would drop down, and be lost for ever. He finds he 
has done nothing to incur any person's displeasure, but was neg- 
lected after your Royal Highness left him behind. He is come 
by your Royal command, with resolution to lay his head and 
heart on the ground before your Royal Highness' s feet. He has 
made it his choice, rather to embrace death than to return back 

* George Keppel, 3rd Earl of Albemarle (1724-1772), A.D.C. to the Duke of Cumberland 
at Fontenoy, bearer of the dispatches announcing the victory of Culloden to London. C-in-C. 
at the reduction of the Havana in 1762. 



with a disappointed face ; and he humbly implores leave to sub- 
scribe himself your Royal Highness' s" &c. &c. 

When this short petition was carried by the nobleman, a few 
minutes after he was admitted to the levee ; which was the first 
time of his being honoured by that favour, during the thirteen 
months in which he was protected by the duke in London. No 
sooner had he entered the place, when the duke stretched out 
his hand to him, which he, making a low bow, kissed, and stood 
back. The first question the duke asked in a most martial com- 
manding voice was this : " Emin, why did not you come over 
with the troops ? Did not you hear my orders to Napier, to fit 
you out, and send you with the Hessian general?" He answered, 
"May it please your Royal Highness, according to command, I 
waited on him no fewer than fifteen times, and my lord Cathcart 
interposed to his utmost ; but to no effect : the poor general had 
too much upon his hands to think of your Royal Highness' s 
servant." Then his Royal Highness graciously took pains to ex- 
plain the matter in German to the general officers who were all 
round him in waiting. The duke said, smiling, " Well, my Emin, 
what said lord Northumberland when Napier would not trouble 
his head about you?" "His lordship," he answered, "was 
taken up in going to his country-seat ; and declared he could 
not interfere in a point so delicate, when your Royal Highness 
had taken me under your auspicious protection : he was cautious 
in giving any advice whatever." "I know you had no money," 
said the duke: "how then did you manage it?" Emin said, 
" May it please your Royal Highness, while your humble servant 
was not known to you, he was in a state of misery ; but since 
he has been honoured by your protection, his heart feels an in- 
crease in the riches of happiness. Should he in your absence 'be 
dashed on the hardest rocks, he is sure milk and honey will flow 
from them under your auspice's. He was assisted ; and he hopes 
he shall never be in want of money ; but that his conduct will 
gain him the good opinion of the world, and maintain the good- 


will of his magnanimous royal protector, whom Heaven pre- 

After this short oriental speech, an order was sent to call 
general (then major) Frydakh,* who commanded 600 yagers, f or 
hunters. His Royal Highness taking much pains to explain the 
case to the officers, and they in their turns saying, "ya, muu 
hartsak, das ist eun brave kerl,"i that is, "yes my duke, he is 
an honest man." Xo sooner was the officer come in, than the 
glorious duke took Emin the porter's hand, and putting it into 
major Frydakh's, said these very words : "I am some how 
doubtful of this man's courage. As he is so desirous of seeing 
service, I charge thee to be very strict, putting him in the front 
of every action, and bring word to me how he behaves him- 
self : " then turning to Emin, he said, "Go with him; let me 
hear a good character of thee." Here Emin's heart broke the 
chain of slavery, and jumped for joy, forgetting all his former 
distresses ; when he, who was but a meek sheep before, became 
a loose tearing lion. He kissed a second time the duke's hand; 
and was not gone ten steps from the house, when the duke 
called him back and said, " Do not let me see you at head 
quarters: do you hear!" He bowed, and went away with the 
officer, who had four horses, which were for Emin's use, and 
treated him with all the politeness imaginable, taking as much 
care of him as he could of his son. He dares not say, that the 
good usage of the general was merited by his wild rapidity in a 
whole campaign, in eighteen different skirmishes, and at the 
battle of Hussenbach§ : but when it was reported every day at 
the head quarters, unknown to him, the duke approved of it. 
He was then removed, by order of his Royal Highness, to be 
under general Carlton ; and when the cessation of arms had 

* Freytag. # 

t Jagers. 

X " Ja, mein Hertzog, das ist ein braver Kerl." 
§ Hastenbeck, 24th July, 1757. 

76 Cumberland's campaign. 

taken place at Stade, the duke kept him three days at the head 
quarters, gave him twenty ducats, and sent him over again with 
a courier to London. 


[By the time Cumberland, who had sailed on April 9th or 10th, 
reached his command in Germany, French troops had penetrated into 
Westphalia nearly as far as Ems, and then a delay occurred, during 
which Cumberland occupied Paderborn. The surrender of Etnden to 
D'Estrees on July 2 cut off Cumberland from communication with England 
except through the port of Stade on the Elbe. Then came Cumberland's 
defeat by D'Estrees at Hastenbeck on July 24, and Cumberland fell back 
on Verden, the last fortress towards Bremen.* Richelieu occupied 
Hanover on Aug. ir, but never moved against Cumberland until Aug. 23, 
when Cumberland abandoned Verden and fell back again — this time to 
Stade, Richelieu pursuing him to Bremervorde, about 20 miles from 
Stade, where his exhausted troops were checked by the Hessians and 
Richelieu, in his turn, fell back to Klosterzeven. Then came the inter- 
vention of Denmark, and, although the Rochfort expedition was leaving 
England to relieve Cumberland, he signed the Convention of Klosterzeven 
on the very day it started. On his return to England after the loss of 
Hanover, his father's reception of Cumberland was such that he resigned 
his command and all his appointments, f Sir John Iyigonier succeeding 

On June 18 Frederick with 34,000 Prussians was defeated at Kolin 
by Marshall Dann, commanding 53,000 Austrians, and his advance into 
Bohemia was held up.] 

Emin wrote a letter to Mrs. Montagu, saying 

"The French seem afraid of us, tho' so much inferior in 

numbers I hear the king of Prussia takes to himself the 

whole blame of his disgrace in the late affair, and says if he had 

* lCmin's way of putting it— "His Highness thought proper to return to his camp in 

t On Oct. 25 Mrs. Montagu wrote to lurs. Boscawen, " The Duke, it seems, is gone to 
plant cabbages; as soon as these great folks are disgusted they go into the country; the 
indignant statesman plants trees upon which he wishes all his enemies hanged, his occupa- 
tion* arc changed, but his passions not altered." — Letters of Elizabeth Montagu. 


followed the advice of the Prince of Bevern, it had not happen'd ; 
there is something more great perhaps in a Monarch owning his 
error than in gaining a victory, but it will not have the same effect 
in establishing his affairs in Germany, so that in his situation the 
least advantage over the Empress Queen* would have been of better 
consequence. Sir John Mordaunt, General Conway, and Colonel 
Cornwallis are going abroad with some forces as the Newspapers tell 
us, and the French seem again disposed to disturb us with the ap- 
prehension of an invasion." — Letters of Elizabeth Montagu. 

This was the Rochfort expedition commanded by Hawke and 
Mordaunt, intended, by a diversion, to relieve the pressure on Cumber- 
land. Regarding this the following letter was written by Mrs. Don- 
nellan to Mrs. Montagu on the return of the expedition, "All I can 
gather of this most shameful affair is that there will be no more 
known till there is a publick enquiry, and then if the scheme is 
proved by the general officers to have been impracticable, those 

who sent them on it, must suffer Sir J. Mordauntf and 

Admiral Hawke have both been to Court, the Admiral was received 
graciously, the other taken no notice of, 'tis said he stooped to 

kiss the royal hand but it was pulled back from him after 

some of the troops were in the boats in order to land, there was a 
council of war called, and when Hawke thought they were landed, 

they were ordered on board again Hawke desired them to 

come to some resolution for he would eithej: land them or come 
home. Colonel Con way %, I hear, showed the most spirit, and that 
our common men showed no unwillingness to action." — Letters of 
Elizabeth Montagu. 

Letter to Dr. Monsey. 

{July jo i7S7) 
My Love and duty to M rs Montagu the Great 
and to her husband. 
D r Doctor Monsey 

The inclosed is to be coppied and sent to all my Noble 

Friends, you will I hope make my Appologies to them that I had 

no time to write it fair, we are upon march every day by your 

Interest. I hope they will excuse me. I have sent Letters to all of 

. them, and two Letters to you & with this will make three, I ex- 

* Maria Theresa. 

t General Sir John Mordaunt, a nephew of tb* famous Earl of Peterborough, sixty years 
old at the time of this expedition, commanded the land forces. 

% Seymour Henry Conway, cousin and bosom friend of Horace Walpole, b. lyzo died 


pect to have an answer to them all, and to know how they are 
pleased, I give you my word I shall never trouble them any more 
I love them, I honour them, and I will remember them in all my 
days, and in all my Life who are the support and the Comfort of 
my Heart. 

I was in a very bad hole you will see by the inclosed, it was 
God that protected us, or else we might have been taken Prisoners 
by the French ; I receved not. hardly a scrach from the Enemy, I 
am as well and as healthy as ever my bed is of Straw, and my eat- 
ing black Bread, some time we lay out for three or four nights in 
the field without any cover, it was three days we had hardly any 
thing in the world to live upon before we had that insignificant 
Battle, tho the danger where we were posted was greater than any 
thing can be; you will please to send one the Coppys of this Letter 
to the Ladies to my Friend M r Burke at the Grecian Coffee House 
in Devoreux Court Tample Bar. 

Excuse me D r D r I am in haste 

Your sincere and gratefull Servant 

J. Emin. 
the 30th July 1757. 

No I wou'd have you to ask M r Burkes advice about this 
Letter before you^coppy it for my Friends I will write no more till 
I have from you Pray don't you be mad because my Friend is an 
Irish Gentleman, but I can tell you that he is your beloved son-in- 
Law's Countryman I dar say you will be mighty pleased of being 
acquainted with him. 

(On the back of this, in Mrs. Montagu's writing) 


The right honble 

Lady Anson.* 

To His Patronesses. 

{Aug. 1st 1757) 
To all the Ladies, & Patroness of Joseph Emin, 

My Noble Ladies, 

I believe your Ladyships have been in a long Expectation to 
hear from this part of the World, more especialy of the Battle 
which begun on the 23rd of July in the morning ; we were ordered 
out with 25 Horses, & 200 Foot Irregulars to secure a post, where 

* Emin's letters were handed from one to another of his friends. 


we found 300 Husars, and 700 of Foot Soldiers, upon which we be- 
gun immediately to fire*, & they retreated very soon ; and in the 
afternoon His highness hearing that the French were advancing with 
their whole Army, ordered Part of his Army to advance also, but it 
was very unlucky for us that our Infantry was too late, and before 
they cou'd come up, the Enemy begun from some distance to fire 
upon us with their Cannons, which did no manner of Execution. 
His Ro}-al Highness thought proper to return to his Camp in Aferden. 
The next day the 24 th the Enemy still advancing from their Camp 
at Halla all along the Rivcr-Vizer, and we retreating, until we halted 
upon a high Hill full of Trees, and they on another ; where the fir- 
ing of Cannons begun again on both sides, and lasted till Evening ; 
our Situation not being so well as we cou'd wish, we still retreated 
till we come to Hamlen there we posted the right of our Army, and 
our left at Ansburg ; and unfortunate Hastenbek between us & the 
Enemy, which was soon burnt down. The 25 th about four in the 
morning the Enemy begun to advance with their Musick, and 
Drums, making a very great noice, more like Indians than Eu- 
ropeans, and was soon silenced by fire of our Balls ; and Cannonad- 
ing begun of both sides very briskly. At that time Your Slave was 
upon a Hill with no more than 200 Irregulars commanded by my 
Friend Major Freydag (a man of great Conduct, & Judgement) 
where we cou'd see the two armies very plain. It was a Place had 
it not been so very dangerous as the Cannon Balls were flying like 
so many Flies over our Heads. I cou'd have- wishd that my Noble 
Friend Ladies who are my Patroness & who are so fond of Heros, 
and hearing of Battles, to have seen it, which wou'd have been 
realy worth their while. Then I wou'd have wished again that 
Heavenly Charriots wd have desended from the Gods above, to 
have transported them to Their Native, and blessed Island, or per- 
adventure they shoud have been in the greatest of all Dangers ; For 
we saw about eleven of the Clock, the Enemy with no less than Six 
Thowsaud Horses, & Foot coming up to us on all sides with a 
great fury (except a little Pass which led us down to our Army). 
But this Bravery of theirs was greately owing to an Information 
which they had of us a day before. Knowing that we were no more 
than two hundred men, or else they wou'd not have been so furious 
in their attack. For they are vastly like the black Indians, fire at 
a great distance, and run away. However we stood almost half an 
Hour, our men ralyed three times, and killed no less than three 
hundred of them ; for our men are brought up from their Infancy 
as huntsmen they never miss the Mark, I have seen them shoot at 
300 Yards distance, they are like the mountaineers of Armenia, and 
Dagostan. The French Husars run away as soon as they see us. 
You see my Noble Ladies what great Advantage it is to a Nation 
w,ho has the Liberty, not only kill the Partridges, but to kill as 


many Deers and other Animals as they please. The Loss of our 
side was but 20, & six wounded ; we cou'd not support it any 
longer, and were obliged to retreat, and join the Army. And about 
2 oClock in the afternoon the Enemy retreated with the Loss of 
eleven Cannons, and had taken some of ours, but we have retaken 
them again. But the Battle continued still, and lasted from 4 in 
the morning to 6 in the afternoon. The Loss of their side was about 
Three Thowsands, and about twelve hundred of ours. We don't look 
upon this as a Battle in Persia but as a Scarmish. The Inventor of 
Gun Powder is cursed by many Ignorant People, but his Invention 
has been a very great Service towards the Preservation of mankind. 
Gun Powder is a thing which makes a great noice, like Lightning, 
& Thunder, keeps mankind at a distant, with an awe. "The 
Thought of Gun Powder says the Great Marshal de Sax is more than 
the danger itself. I wou'd wish to have no more than fifteen Thow- 
saiid Persian Horses, if it is not too bold & your humble Servant 
the leader of them we cou'd soon shew the French that the effect 
of Symiters wou'd be greater than that of Gun Powder, tho' their 
Number by what we hear is one hundrid, & fifty' Thowsand men, 
and what ours is you well know. At present we are upon Marches, 
& countermarches. I think we rather keep away from them instead 
of their retreating from us, as I mentioned before. I write this from 
Limburg, and the Enemy is at Hamlin where the right of our Army 
was posted, you may easely know by a Map where our, & Enemy's 
situation are. 

I am with the same Corps as I have mentioned in my last, in 
hopes of going among the Regulars to learn the Exersice, and Evo- 
lutions; the Expences of Camp Equpage will amount to a great 
deal of money, and I have not yet received the least thing from my 
Royal Master. I will be as little trouble to him as possible, and 
no more Expence to my great Soul Ladies. I was in a great hopes 
of serving a Campagin under the King of Prussia after this, but I 
find I must give over that Hope, for it is impossible for me to do 
it with less than hundred and fifty Pounds p r Year, let me live 
ever so near ; for which money I shall never trouble your Goodness, 
nor bend any more my Neck to the Greatest Prince in the universe. 
Do not think I write this as a Hint, but beleive me as I am a man 
of Honour & Truth I will be as good as my word. I shall say 
nothing, I must lose no time. If my Royal Protector will do accord- 
ing to my Expectation as he is a great Prince, as well as good ; 
and if not, I must take my Leave of him, and return to my Father, 
then to my Country. I can no longer be a Begar, and your Lady- 
ships who are my Constant! and sincere Friends, will not be dis- 
pleased to find your Slave has y e Spirit of a man of Honour, and 
who will not forget the great Friendship you have done to him. 
Now you will think all I am too hasty, but I say I have reason to 


be so hasty, I have seen enough, 5 Years & half in England, I have 
seen a smal Battle, I shall see a little more while in this Campagin, 
which will be more than ever Kouly had before he became so great 
a man. I hope not to be so great a Tyrant as he was, & if there 
is any tyrranny in my Blood let me never live, let me be destroyed, 
and never heard of, let me live, & die like an honest good Christian 
which is the Greatest Ambition I have in this World. If I have 
any genius, and if God almighty has made me to lead a Nation, all 
what I have seen, & learnt will be an Ornoment to it, and if not I 
will be like the rest of many Officers and Soldiers who have been 
vScores of Years in the Service, and are just the same, as they first 
entered. Thus the Art of War whoever is the master of it is the 
Gift of God as well as any other Science. Iron never can be made 
into Silver, nor lead into Gold. Here again an obscure asiatick 
Symily which is in my Nature I tried to avoid it but I could not, 
saying that Iron is, Iron & Gold, is Gold. 

I am 

My Noble Ladies & Patroness 
Your most obed* 

most gratefull most obliged 
humble Servant 

Limburg the 1st August 1757. J ° SEPH *"" 

Excuse the Badness of Paper 
the Errors of this Letter. 
(On the back of the Letter). 

To all the Noble Ladies Who are the Patronesses of 

(_J^a- luillrhujjb (J^^ini_uyy mflfinj* npo \$i mfipnu^fi. 

Joseph Emin. 

To Dr. Monsey. 
D R Doctor (*4«g. 22 ij$j) 

God almighty bless you for remembering me after so long a 
time, however I thank you for the great Kindness you express in 
your most gracious, most venerable Letter, and you thank me for 

condisending — Lady A to you and I am obliged to you for get- 

ing me into the Favour of that great & incomparable Queen of the 
universe, who has honoured me, with such instructive Letter as it 
will be hardly possible for me to express how much I am indebted 

* Should be M^friuy, Or mfiifkmjj. 



to you for geting me such Noble Instructor. My Lady Ansons pre- 
cious advice and your Oppinion of writing to my first, & last Patron 
Lord Northumberland is very good advice, I will do it, and you 
shall see it before it goes to him. 

If I write a compleat answer to your Letter, my D r D r I shall 
not have time enough to write to my other Friends, you are desir- 
ious to know how my Royal master do ? upon which I ask d 
M r Andrews he told me with making his compliments that H.R.H's 
Leg is quite well & therefore pray be easey. M r Andrew's thinks is 
hardly worth while to Write, in hopes of seeing you in old England 
soon, for we have made Peace with the French in this Part of Eu- 
rope by the help of the King of Denmark ; after our great War with 
that coward French men, which you seem to be afraid of at this 
time.* I don't mean D r Monsey, but his Countrymen. My compli- 
ments to your Son & Daughter I am 

D r D r 

Your obliged humble servant 

J. Emin. 

Yours 22 d August reed. 13 th September in Had. 


my obedience to M r & M rs Garrickf 

P.S. my Comts to M r Burke 

need not write any Letter 

(On the back of the letter) 

Thank you for calling on my little Charmer 
I beg you will do so as often as you go to your daughter 
I am very uneasey about your grant Daughter I hope to see her in 
perfect health in short time. 

To Mrs. Montagu. s ^ m } 

My dear Queen \ r * /j/' 

Your Persian Slave whom you have been pleased to -honour 
with the Title of a Hero is yet alive, and is intirely captivated by 
the most instructive Epistle of his noble Queen, for the sake of 
whom he is always ready as well as for his disstressed Country to 
risque his single Life in all sorts of Dangers ; especialy for that 
great, & encreasing Affection; in which she expresses herself in- a 
most tender manner. Madam it is out of the poor Power of your 
Slave to shew by writing how much he is indebted to your Good- 
ness & Humanity : for I dkr say you feel as much for him and 

* Panics of invasion by the French had spread all over England in 1756, and 1757. 
f The actor Garrick and his wife, with whom Dr. Monsey was very friendly. 

with Cumberland's army. 83 

have so great Regard for him as if he had been really your own, 
and your dearself his Queen ; (I hope my Friend M r Montagu will 
not be displeased at this, for it is true what I say, He must be the 
happiest man in the World : to have possessed the wisest of all 
Women whose greatness of Soul is to be honoured and talked in the 
presence of Kings, and who is worthy to rule Kingdoms and Em- 
pires ; I say again, happy are those that can see you always. The 
Jewels, and all the precious Diamonds on the Pea Cock Thone of 
Grand Mugol is not enough to purchase those words that comes out 
of the mouth of my Queen Sheba. I cannot help to envy those who 
have her Company often. Let them think themselves happy, and 
proud ; let them adorn her Person, and admire her great Wisdom ; 
I am sorry & vaxed that I have had no proper Education. I might 
have sat down, & wrote years togather in the Prais of you madam. 
It hurts me, because I cannot enough express my Sentiments to shew 
how much I am obliged to her, for she is good, she is wise, she is 
generous, and she is great. 

Now madam if I can I will answer the rest of your Letter, and 
if not you will excuse me. I am sorry for m} r Royal master who 
was worthy of Victory for the great Fitigue & hardship he under- 
went ; but I am glad at your informing me that the People of Eng- 
land are convinced of his great generalship, they begin to know a 
little better, and I am very glad of it, and I shall be more so if 
they continue so : for they are very changable People (Fairsex ex- 
cepted) M r Addison in his Poems upon the nature of men when he 
comes upon English Nation discribes the following Lines. ''Fickled 
of mind" changing as their Skies, so soon they value they as soon 
despise. I think he gives a very pretty and a true Character. Pray 
madam do not be angry at this my Remark, I know you love your 
Country as well as I do mine, and you are pleased to call me your 
Hero, and be not displeased when I speak like a„ Hero, who is 
obliged to } r our tender care for advising him to live well, that I do, 
as long as you are mine. But believe me madam it was owing not 
that I grudge money, or I wanted it, for we cou'd get nothing else 
but black Bread & sour milk : It is the Food which common People 
of this Country subsist upon. For the Jager Corps which I was in 
were ordered to keep always at the 'rear of His Highness's Army, 
in order to know' the motion of our Enemy, after I have been in 
this Corps above two Months, my Royal master thought I have 
learnt enough in that way of righting, he ordered me to come, & 
quarter near him ; and have been so for this 8 Weeks past ; before 
the Pease was made, He sent me with one of his Aidecamps, to learn, 
& chuse Place for encampment, ar>fl now it is Pease you will soon 
see your humble Servant again, and ever since I dined at the Kings 
Second Table by his Permission, with his Officers, and sometimes 
Generals ; He treates me becoming to himself, vou see I lieve like 


myself, and will have you for my Queen, Venerable D r Monsey my 
Phisician, and great M r Burke my Secretary of State ; none shall 
escape me, I will have every thing I aim at Tell for me to D r Monsey 
the Lady who condesended to him for his Oppinion of my writing 
to my Patron Lord Northumberland, was right, I am obliged to her 
good Counsel, she always writes to me In y e third Person. Your 
observation upon my Persian Simily upon Gold, and Iron ; it is very 
wise one. I chained my hands with it in making such simily. I 
am now in thine hands lead me which way you Please, but madam 
have mercy on me. I acknowledge when the Iron is polished, and 
sharpened may deliver a Country from Slavery, as it did once Rome 
out of the hands of the Gauls, who put the Romans under Contri- 
bution, to pay so many Talents of Gold, when they were weighing 
it, the King of Gauls, threw his Sowrd into the Scale, to make the 
Weight havier, there came a brave Roman, I think it was martius 
took out the Sword, and said thus " Our Country shall be delivered 
by this Iron, and not by the Gold"; So madam when Iron once is 
polished may save a country by the hand of an honourable Murderer 
as you are please to call, and Gold which has its natural value may 
ruin a Country. O wise madam I admire at your Hints be ye in 
Health and live long Life. I am glad you have been amusing your 
dearself seeing different Places I wish it may do you good and add 
to your Health ; but I am sory to find you are so much discouraged 
for you shall not be my Queen if you don't have as great a Heart 
as your great Soul, about the unprosperity of Germany & america; 
why madam ? have not we People enough to defend us ? have not 
we Liberty enough to make us happy, and ruin us afterwards ? ; O 
Pity, and thousand Pities, that you shou'd lose Courage without 
Cause. If we had thought that we were born to die we need not 
fear of Invasion, let us become one will and one mind we will soon 
shew our Enemy that we are not afraid of them. I am in haste 
madam and remain with the utmost Gratitud and sincerity 

Your great Wisdoms admirer 

and most duty full humble Servant & Slave 
J. Emin. 
the 14th Sep r 1757 at Stad 
at his Royal Highness's Quarters 

my duty to Lady Sophia Egerton and my Compliments to Mr. 

excuse the errors 

To M rs Montagu the great 

(On the back of the letter) 

Mrs. Montagu. 


Letter of Mrs. Montagu, August 7, to Dr. Benjamin Stillingfleet {b. /;oj 
d.ijjj. Author of "Calendar of Flora" etc.). 

'* Mr. Erniii was most graciously received by the Duke, had offers 
of money and all marks of regard from his Royal Highness, so that 

his letters express the highest satisfaction there must be a 

nobler seat than the Persian throne reserved for that fine spirit, 
which , born in slavery and nurtured in ignorance, aspired to give 
liberty, knowledge and civil arts to his country. To compass this 
he risqued his life, and endured the greatest hardships, and ventured 
all dangers and uncertainties in a country whose very language he 
was a stranger to ; how different from so many of our countrymen , 
who for little additions of power and greater gratifications of luxury, 
in spite of their pride of birth and advantage of a liberal education 
and the incitements of the great examples of all ages and nations, 
will hazard enslaving us to a nation our forefathers despised." 

From Merton, on August 30, Lady Frances Williams (daughter 
of the Earl of Coningsby, married Sir Charles Hanbury Williams, 
statesman, poet, and wit) writes to Mrs. Montagu and in her 
letter alludes with much joy to Emin's safety. In a letter to her 
husband dated July 1757, Mrs. Montagu writes "We had a report 
that the Duke had killed 3000 French but he is well off if he can 
keep on the defensive. I had a letter from Mr. Emin that the Duke 
of Cumberland had received him in the most gracious manner, and 
he is so pleased, I believe he thinks one more step will put him on 
the Persian throne. It is happy to be born of a hoping constitu- 
tion, his day dreams are very pleasant. I wish his patriot spirit was 
communicated to a dozen or so of our great men." 

In another letter to Dr. Stillingfleet, Sept. 15, 1757, Mrs. 
Montagu writes of Emin, "I do not hope to see him on the Persian 
throne, or giving laws to the East, but I know he sits on the sum- 
mit of human virtue, and obeys the laws of Him who made that 
world the ambitious are contending for, and to such only my esteem 
pays homage." {Letters of Elizabeth Montagu.) 

Mrs. Montagu to her Sister. 

My brother and W, at Land 11 Morris a child. Letter from Emin 
noticed by D. of Cumberland. 

Wednesday morn 

My D' Sister * I;58 ~ 9 

I am glad to rind our friend sets a due value on the noble 
Creature Man to tell vou the truth I should not think he made a 


bad bargain for himself if he accepted of an £150 a year however 
as he is not fit to contend with any difficulties I would not advise 
him to it. I am sorry the circumstances do not suit, for as you 
seem to think she has sense and spirit she would make a proper 
wife & a help meet for our friend, who is certainly very deficient in 
many particulars. My Brother Morris & his wife left us this morn- 
ing, they will be very happy to-night at seeing their little one whom 
they seem very fond of, I hope the poor little fellow will live, & 
make as reasonable & honest a Man as his Father, whom they say 
he resembles in Countenance & shape, & also in temper, for he is 
always laughing, & in ye Course of the day never cries but when 
they put on his cap which I suppose he thinks a mere foppery.* 
My Brother spoke very affectionately of Miss Arnold, & M rs Robin- 
son enterd much into her commendation, & took notice of her being 
pleased with having a Brother, & of her great civility & kind be- 
haviour towards her when she was at Bath. I had a letter from 
M r Emin last post, the Duke took him from the Jagers & placed him 
in a Camp near to him, & he dined at ye 2 d table with the consi- 
derable officers, & was employed in going to look out ground for 
an encampment, he says ye Duke is in good health, they are all 
daily expected in England. Mr. Emin's letter is intirely in the 
Asiatick stile with an address to M r Montagu upon his great feli- 
city in having such a wife that wd make you laugh, upon the whole 
he has had an agreable Campaign for a Man who dispises danger & 
volupte. If one considers he was a Porter 5 years ago it is some 
rise to be allowed free conversation with ye Duke of Cumberland, 
& to be particularly distinguished by him, at which he seems 
pleased but not at all surprized. You may suppose the way he has 
made for himself in England does not abate & diminish his en- 
thusiasm & adventurous spirit. I suppose M r William will be here 
to-day or to-morrow. I expect my Dear friend Boscawenf on Satur- 
day. I shall send you two brace of partridges, some potted pigeons, 
& an 100 of Cray fish by to-morrows Coach. I must attend Miss 
Morgan who comes this morning to place ye flowers of M rs Boscawen 
gown, so I must reserve my pleasure of writing you a longer letter 
till another post or two, & I will then send, you the bookes. We 
are to-day in all the magnificence & luxury of a summers day. I re- 
joyce that you are Again able to ride on horseback. I cannot get a 
proper horse which is a grief to me. I beg my best respects to 
Lady Barbara & affect te love to Miss Arnold. Perhaps I may be 
able to tell you in my next how our Lovyer finds himself, as he gets 
at a greater distance from his Mistress & her estate which seems to 

* He became eventually the 3rd Baron Rokeby. {Letters of Mrs. Montagu.) 

f Mrs. Boscawen, wife of Admiral Boscawen, was one of Mrs. Montagu's dearest friends. 


have made a considerable part of his passion. Adieu my Dear, & 

very Dear Sister ! T . a- **_ ri . 

' I am most anec"} j n 

E. M. 

To Lord Albemarle. 
My Lord, ( Se P L T 9 '757) 

as long as your Lordship is my Friend and His Royal High- 
ness my Protector (to whom God protect & grant always Victory) 
I need not fear to speak, to express my Thoughts freely. 

I inclosed here the 2o£ Notes which I have no ocasion for, so 
as His Royal Highness's Eyes will not be away frome. I want noth- 
ing, and if I am not turned out of the Roo f n again that is sufficient 
for me: I am grateful!, and always will be so. 

my Lord 

Your Lordships 

most obed* most humble Servant 
the 19th Sep' 1757 j. Emin 

(On the back) 

The Right Honourable 
The Earl of Albemarle 

* There's a long story about this. He sent back a 20 
note to L d A. but Major freiday advis'd him not, 
so it did not go, — I am glad, He has a noble 
Soul, incapable of recieving because hee is so of 
offering insult ; — I'll write it you when I have 

(On the back of the letter) 

The Hon. Edward Montagu Esq. 
at Sandleford 



To Mrs. Montagu. 
Most gracious Queen (Oct- 4 1757) 

Let not your Angr fall navy upon our worthy, & sincere 
Friend Mousey tho' he has made you uneasy about me concerning 

* In, Mrs. Montagu's writing. 

88 emin's return. 

Bank Notes which he has mentioned to you, & you are under 
anxiety to know it) but still he deserves to be our head Phisician 
when you reign Takuhy of Persia. I tell you madam there is noth- 
ing that will be the least prejudice to your Slave, it is needless for 
me to write, and to you a Trouble to read ; so I will have you to 
be quite Tranquil about me, untill I have the Honour to see you 
again, then I shall be able to give you an account of my Conduct, 
& Behavour during in His Royal Highness's Camp who has been ex- 
treamly gracious to me, and is, & will still be so as long as I live ; 
and it was his Pleasure that I shou'd return to England to wait for 
his arrival, & further Pleasure ; 

Now my dear madam I am yet alive, but lead a miserable 
Life. To be in the same Land with you, and not being able to see 
you. Hard indeed, and is very hard ; had I thought my Presence 
wou'd not be the Occasion of puting you into some inconveniencies, 
I would walk it, but you are so exesive good, and delicate in your 
Friendship, that you will not make so free as to say. (< Slave Emin 
take yourself away for I have a Business at Present." I shoud be 
very happy if you wou'd do so, besides I am always in Fear, not 
knowing how long I shou'd stay, even when I have the Pleasure of 
your sweet, & instructive Company. To tell you madam after my 
misery which is above mentioned, I have one very great Consulation 
that is, when I am alone in my Closet, I make a Teliscop of my 
mind, and when I have made it, I fix my Eyes to it, & through 
which I discover your Picture painted on my little Heart, by the 
great Wisdom of my sincer Friend M rs Montagu, I begin to be over- 
joyed, and glad ; like the Poor, & whether bitten Mariners at sea 
when they see their Native Land. It is a secret Satisfaction nothing 
can be compared to it, nor any man can presume to have the least 
Idea of it, without being on sea himself I am 


Your most Faithfull Servant & Slave 

J. Emin. 
4 th Octo r 1757. 

P.S. my Compliments to my good Friend M r Montagu, & my Love 
& duty to M rs Boscowen. 

(On the back of the letter) 


The Great Mrs. Montague. 

[The two following letters were written by Lady A. Sophia Egerton, wife of 
the Bishop of Bangor. 


Sophia, (b. 1701), and Elizabeth Adriana (b. 1703, d. 1765). were the 1st 
and 2nd daughters of Hans William, 1st Earl of Portland, by his second wife 
Jane, daughter of Sir John Temple, Bart. In 1718 Lady Portland was State 
governess to the daughters of George II. 

Sophia married Henry de Grey, Duke of Kent, in 1728. In 1720 Eliza- 
beth Adriana married the Hon. Henry Egerton, Bishop of Hereford. Their 
son, John, born 1721, was collated by his father to the rectory of Ross, in 
Herefordshire. He married in 1748 his cousin Anne Sophia, daughter of the 
Duke of Kent, and he was consecrated Bishop of Bangor in 1756. He conti- 
nued to hold the rectory of Ross, whence, as may be seen from the address, 
Lady A. Sophia Egerton, his wife, wrote the two following letters in 1757. 
The Bishop of Bangor became Bishop of Durham in 1771. Lady Sophia died 
in 1780, and he married again in 17S2. He was a great benefactor to his 
county by reason of the encouragement he gave to public works. The "sero- 
phim children" (p. 161), were a daughter, and three sons, one of whom died in 
infancy, the other two becoming successively Earls of Bridgewater. 

Lady Sophia's uncles in Holland were the sons of the Earl of Portland, 
William, born 1704, and Charles John, born 1708, d. 1779. William was made 
a Count of the Holy Roman Empire on his marriage with Countess Sophie of 
Aldenburg, 1733.] 

To Count Bentinck. 
(Emin's arrival) 

(Lady A. S. Egerton.) ' 

Dear Sir Ross Dec - >' e r 4 th J 757- 

Your obliging indulgence to me gives me encouragement to 
trouble you by M r Emin with this letter to recommend him to your 
Favour — he is by Birth an Armenian, his Father is a Merchant at 
Calcutta, where having seen with much astonishment the European 
dexterity in the manegement of Ships and Arms, he conceived there 
was a possibility of his learning from Them, such arts, as might 
render him capable of releiving, or at least improving, his own 
People ; this amazing Plan has been hitherto prosecuted with the 
most singular Firmness, & success ; the particulars of his History 
I leave to him to relate : — he is now going to visit his Countrymen 
in Holland, and as desirous of being permitted to pay you his res- 
pects, as I am of shewing you a man, who from his extraordinary 
Character, & Experienced Merit, has been much noticed in England, 
by the Worthy, or ingenious. I flatter myself my Dear Uncle you 
will pardon this freedom, & accept by M r Emin the many Compli- 
> ments & respects my Lord & I have charged him to present, with 

the assurance of my being ^ 

Dear Sir 

Your most obliged Xeice 

& obedient faithfull 

humble Servant 

, Anne Sophia Egerton. 



To Emin. 

Dear s» Ross Dec : ye I4th I757 

I send you enclosed a letter, (Open,) for M r Bentinck which 
I leave to you to seal & deliver if it meets with your approbation. 

I must mention that I have another Uncle, M r Charles Bentinck, 
in Holland whom I am perswaded would be pleased with seeing you 
if he should at the Hague when you go there, but as Lady Margaret 
Bentinck, his wife, is Aunt to the Duke of Richmond* you cannot 
want any introduction from me, & I will only trouble you with a 
request to present them my Lords sincere respects, as well as mine. 

I cannot conclude without presenting you my Lords kind Com- 
pliments, & telling you that amongst the many good wishes we make 
for you, we selfishly add a hope that we may repeat them to you 
in person before you leave England. 

I am 

Your faithfull humble Servant 

Anne Sophia Egerton 

To Lord Cathcart.j 

my Lord Cathcart 

I have suffered along with the rest of Nation, that his Royal 
Highness the Duke has been indisposed, he is now thank God in 
perfect health ; but my exellent Lord Northumberland is now laid 
up in the Gout, so that I am unfortunate on every side; tho in my 
heart his suffering gives me more pain than my own Loss ; and yet 
I lose no little thing by my Friends Indisposition ; and your Lord- 
ship so full of Business can hardly have time to think of an unfor- 
tunate Soldier as I am. Therefore I take the Liberty to make this 
my humble, & short Address to your Lordship that your Lordship 
will be pleased to use some interest in my behalf to his Royal High- 
ness again, by which I may obtain Orders to go to the Academy at 
Woolwich where your Lordship has first thought a lit School for me 
to go to, and that I may not lose the Opportunity of improving my- 
self since I know that I am crowned with the Happyness of having 
such Noble Friends, and Protectors as your Lordship, and my Lord 
Northumberland, but I shall be still happier when I find myself that 

* Earl Cadogan, b. 1672, a general officer, who took part in Marlborough's campaigns 
and succeeded him in the command of (fie army, had two daughters, Sarah, who married 
in 1719 Charles, 2nd Duke of Richmond, and Margaret, who married in 1738 Charles John 
Bentinck, 4th son of Hans William, 1st Earl of Portland. 

f A copy. 


I have made some Progress in my Undertakings by your Lordships 

Assistance & Consideration I am T , 

my Lord 

Your Lordships &c. 

To Mr. Pitt. 
Sir, [March i? 5 8) 

Though I never had the Honour to be known to you, yet I 
have the Boldness to write. I have been over great Part of the 
World, and have seen much People ; but I wanted to see Men ; for 
the Design of my Travel was Knowledge, and I thought that Know- 
ledge of real Men was better than Books, therefore I have turned 
my Eyes upon all ways, and at last had the great Happyness, of 
seeing, and hearing you in that Potent House of Commons, and 
there I discovered like the Light breaking upon me, what my Friends 
had often told me, of your great Love to your Country, and your 
wise Eloquence that conqueres more than the Sword of a Hero. I 
own I grew a little Envious, for I thought no man loved his Coun- 
try better than I have mine, but I confess it that I am nothing 
tho I have been Sailor, Porter, Slave, and suffered every thing in 
every shape, to make my Country what you have made yours. 
Several Armenians, suffer Hunger, Thirst, and take long Journeies, 
but all those Hardships are only for money. I the first of them 
have done it for Knowledge, and for my Country. This is my small 
Merit, and the only Recommendation I can make to 3'ou. 

Sir I will observe that a Cloudy day of Winter is light enough 
to see what is about us, and to serve common Business, but per mitt 
me to say, that no man is happy, nor in good Sperit untill the sun 
shines out. Then there is Jove upon all mens Faces. Thus it is 
Great S r with me in this Country. I along with the rest in this 
happy Land find Benefit of the Light you give us all by your great 
Wisdom of governing, but I am not happy, and my Life is dead in 
me untill I see the Vezir Azam of England. 

If You do me this high Honour you will see a poor Soldier 
whose only Fortune is a Character with all People which I have been 
amongst. I was a Porter for Learning not for Livelihood, and I was 
honest in that low way. This is known, when by the goodness of 
great Souls I was raised from that. I was not idle nor ingreatefull. 
t I have been high, and low, and I was not bad. When I served 
the last Campain in Germany, all the officers both the English, and 
the Germen will say more of me than I dare to think of myself. 

I have Sir in my Studies f^r my Country, found the way to 
advance it, and do some Service to your Noble Nation at the same 
time. My humble Plan for this good Design I will do myself the 
Honour to shew it to you, and to be instructed by your gread 


Wisdom, and to give me new Lights in this Great matters. My 
Scheme has two Qualities which makes some laugh at me, others 
seem to like me for it. Whatever it is, it is little without your 
assisstance. If you approve it I laugh at those that laugh at me, at 
any Rate, I am resolved and nothing shall stop me, but Death, which 
is common to every Body, and an honest Heart need not fear any. 
I am with the Greatest Respect, and Veneration 

Great S r 

your most obedient most obliged 
devoted humble servant 

J. Emin. 
in the month of March 1758. 
To the R: H: William Pitt &c. &c &c. 

{On the back in Mrs. Montagu's writing) 

This letter was addressed to Mr. Pitt 
Secretary of State. 

Mrs. Montagu to her Husband. 
Emin March 175S 

Lady Medows was 

Mr. Montagu's sister. 

„ Tuesday. 

My Dearest 

As I had not ye pleasure of a letter from you last post, 
& so am not by that means furnishd with matter for a letter, & 
this Town is so dull & quiet as to afford no kind of news, I shall 
not encroach upon your leisure as I am apt to do by a long letter. 
I never knew ye Town so empty of company & void of news, 
Ad 1 & M rs Boscowen dined here yesterday, drank y r health & 
desired their compliments. M r Isaacsons called on me this morning 
they dined with Lady Medows on sunday. Emin dines with her 
Ladyship to-day if joy can give appetite he will make a good meal, 
for by ye sollicitation of Lady Yarmouth M r Pitt has received him 
& promised to see what can be done For him, as great minds are 
akin, M r Pitt was much pleased with him. Emin repeated to me .his 
discourse to M r Pitt, & it was full of Asiatick fire & figure, if it 
did not touch ye Statesman it must ye Orator. M r Pitt made him 
great complim ts . I hope they will be realised : & they surely will 
if Lady yarmouth continues her desire to serve him. My little 
Nephew is perfectly well. I hope you will receive no detriment from 
ye bad weather, since yesterday the weather is more mild but it is 

Expedition to st. malo. 93 

now rainy. I desire my comp ts to all our friends. I am ever most 
affectly & faithfully Vrs 

I am very well and shd. E. M. 

therefore be very happy 
if my Dearest was not 
at such a distance. 

The dates and other notes printed in italics, and some in brackets, at the beginnings of 
these letters, are all in Mrs. Montagu's writing on the original letters, and are evidently 
notes made for the purpose of classification. 



[Expedition against St. Malo, June 1758 — Note — Letter about Expedition to some- 
one unknown — Return to England — Letter to Lord Lyttelton.] 

'TVHE next season he went a volunteer in the successful expedi- 
tion against St. Malo, commanded by the late duke of Marl- 
borough. After seventeen days* sailing with contrary wind, they 
made Cancal Bay. In the afternoon, lord Howe silenced some 
old batteries on the top of the precipices, and the whole army 
landed. The next morning, the new-raised light horse, com- 
manded by the glorious general Elliot, was ordered to march up 
to the town. Emin had no horse, and chose to be one of the 
party on foot : he walked thirteen miles at the head of the 
troops, and reached the suburbs of St. Malo just in the dusk of 
the evening. The troops set 133 ships large and small on fire 
upon the beach, where he did as well as he could to gain the 
good opinion of general Elliot. The late Sir John Armitage was 
more active than all the troops, setting the enemy's magazine 

also on fire. 


* "Seventeen days sailing." — A mistake or a lapse of memory when writing thirty years 
after the event, in 1788, unless he means that contrary winds prevailed before starting. In 
his lett«v he says they left on 1st June and arrived on the 5th, and this is correct. 

94 Extracts from pamphlets. 


Extracts from <l A Journal of the late Campaign against France." 
[British Museum E. 2050.) 

P. 46. "On the 23rd of May the Duke of Marlborough arrived in 
1 camp as Commander-in-Chief of the forces. Lord George Sackville was 
f Second in Command and under these another Lieutenant General be- 

' sides five Major Generals The embarkation of the baggage 

1 began on the 25th on the 28th the whole was finished Com- 

' modore Howe commanded the frigates and was entrusted with the di- 
f rection of everything that related to the landing of the troops in the 
'enemy's dominions." 

P. 47. "We were favoured with a fair wind on Thursday the 1st 
' June. Lord Anson* immediately weighed and put to sea with all the 
' Ships of war except those defined as convoy to the transports under 
'the immediate direction of Commodore Howe." 

P. 48. lC On Monday morning we made St. Maloes, and about two 
' in the afternoon the whole fleet stood into the Bay of Cancalle. We 
' were detained at Cancalle by north westerly winds, for two days, dur- 
' ing which a packet arrived from England — another was dispatched 
• thither with an account of our success and safe embarkation, and a 
1 flag of truce from St. Maloes went on board of the Commodore." 

P. 52. On Friday 16th " we sailed from the Bay, but next day 
"we were obliged by contrary winds to return to our former station." 

From " A Genuine Narrative of the Enterprise against St. Maloe 1758." 
{British Museum y E. 92/0. C. ./6.) 

P. 49. " We left St. Helens the first of this month meeting with a 
" wind not so favourable as we could have wished we were forced through 
"the Race of Alderney. The third day we were off Sark. The fourth 
" day we saw Cape Frehel and St. Maloes but the road being too dan- 
" gerous for ships to ride we sailed the next morning to Cancalle Bay." 

16 battalions were sent to the Isle of Wight by the middle of May 
and at the end of the month 13,000 men were encamped on the island 

on the 1st of June thc.%arinament set sail arriving on the 5th 

at Cancalle Bay about 8 miles from St. Malo. A French battery left for 

* Lord Anson did not go to St. Malo, but turned westward. 


the defence of the bay was quickly silenced by the ships and on the 
following day the entire force was landed. One brigade was left to 
guard the landing place and the remainder marched to St. Malo where 
the light dragoons slipped down under cover of night and burned over 
a hundred privateers and merchant vessels. (From Fortescue's " History 
of the British Army.") 

In Corbett's " England in the Seven Years' War" the number of 
ships burnt at St. Servan is stated to be " four Kings' ships of from fifty 
to eighteen guns on the stocks and sixty-two merchant men ; and at 
Solidore, hard by, eight fine privateers ready for sea and twelve other 
vessels besides small craft and an enormous quantity of timber, cordage 
and naval stores." 

Thus, according to Fortescue, over ioo privateers and merchant ves- 
sels were burnt, according to Corbett 74 large vessels and twelve others. 
Emin, writing on nth June, therefore is fairly correct since he says 73 
were burnt, "besides small vessels." In his narrative he says iC 133 ships 
large and small." 

The "glorious General Elliot." — George Augustus Eliot, born in 
Scotland 1717, died at Aix-la-Chapelle 1790. In 1775 Governor of Gibral- 
tar, which he defended against the French and Spaniards in 1779-83, 
since when Gibraltar has been free from attack by land or sea. Raised 
to the peerage as Lord Heathfield, Baron of Gibraltar, 1787. 

Sir John Armitage, 2nd Bart. b. 1738. M.P. for York, died un- 
married (according to Thackeray in "The Virginians" affianced to the 
sister of Commodore Howe), killed in the unfortunate affair on the coast 
of France near St. Cas, in 1758. 

Emin's Letter of June ii and 12. 1757, from Cancale. 

There is nothing to show to whom this letter was written, unless 
from what he says of the kindness shown to him, " a stranger," we may 
consider that it was addressed to Charles Stanhope. The recipient gave 
it tQ Mrs. Montagu, who preserved it. 

By "Lahad" and " lohalle " Emin means the harbour of La Houle 
where the troops landed, and which was defended by the small battery 
of two guns silenced by Commodore Howe from the Success. Two 
brigades were landed on the 5th, the rest of the troops on the 6th, and 
on the, 7th Marlborough ordered the advance to St. Malo and St. Servan 

g6 emin's description. 

where the shipping was fired. The incident of the French gentleman, 
" Count Lanual," who met " Kingsly Granaders,"* is thus related in 
"The Virginians" — "the only person slain on the whole day being a 
French gentleman who was riding with his servant and was surprised by 
volunteer Lord Downe marching in the front with a company of Kings- 
leys. My Lord Downe offered the gentleman quarter which he foolishly 
refused, whereupon he, his servant, and the two horses were straightway 

After the shipping was burnt, the forces re-embarked and " the 
costly armament returned to Portsmouth having effected absolutely noth- 
ing." (Fortescue.) 

Loyalty to his chief prevented any comment in his letter beyond 
ff what ever his Grace does is always right/' but the return without any 
fighting must have been a disappointment to Emin. The Essex, on board 
of which man-o'-war he returned, was the Commodore's ship on the set- 
ting out of the expedition. 

SlR Uum 1758) 

Give me Leave to acquaint you of our short Expedition as 
short as possible. That on the first day of June we set sail from / 
S 1 Hellens, and on the fifth came to an anchor at Lahad, on the " 
sixth all our army landed without the havy artillery (which I am 
sorry for) on the seventh we marched up to Parame about 8 miles 
from our landing place above, and by the order of his Grace the 
Duke of Marlborough, with a detatchment of few Horse and foot ; 
advanced towards S 1 Malo 3 or 4 miles distance from our Camp, 
about nine o Clock in the evening, we begun to set fire to the Ships, 
and to the Dock, and magazine in the sight of the Town of S 1 Malo, 
without having the Honour of firing a shot from them, for all we 
were so near to the Place, as about a thousand yards without any 
manner of Covering, intirely exposed to their Batteries, exept second 
and third day of burning their ships wich they fired about 40 shots 
at us and killed hardly any. and on the 10 th we returned to our 
landing place here we are safe and sound Troops are embarking 
again and will be finished tomorrow. 

I have not told you what opposition we met in our landing, 
and marching up so far into the most inclosed, and strongest Coun- 
try ever was known, there at lohalle was only 2 Cannon Battery, 
to which Captain Howe carne up with one of our small frigates as 
near to it as possible, and dismounted them very soon ; this is all 

* Ktagsley's Grenadiers. 




1 i ^ 

Js SJ 





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the opposition we have met in such strong Place ; our Generals and 
noble experienced Wariors say that had there been only fife hundred 
Regulars our landing would have been impracticable. We found few 
men, and few Women all the Villages emty, hardly any Provision in 
them, Kingsly Granaders happened to meet Count Lanual a man of 
a Considerable fortune in this Country would not surrender himself 
abstinately was kiled with his servant and his Horse. 

The reason of our coming away without taking the Town of 
S 1 Malo is not my Place to say any thing, what ever his Grace does 
is always right, I wish him well for he deserves to be victorious like 
his noble ancestor he is wery gracious to me, and so my lord George 
sackwell. I have one thing more to say that I have the suppersti- 
tion to flatter myself that the Duke of Marlborough is now at the 
Head of the English Army they will be victorious let them be where 
they please. 

The number of ships burnt is y^ from 40 to 16 Guns besides 
small Vessels this is all the account I can give you, and am sorry 
have not time enough to write to the rest of my Friends, but if you 
will be so good as to send it to M rs Montagu after you have read it, 
I shall be infinitely thankfull to you, it will be added to the rest of 
your Favours, and humanity your Goodness has already bestowed on 
me, a stranger, may God bless you, and preserve your Health I am 
with the utmost respect & Veneration. 

Good S r 

Your most obed 1 most obliged 
humble servant 

11 th June 175S Housep Emin. 

Cancail or Lohalle 

P.S. my Compliments to D r Monsey, and General Elliots compli- 
ments to you 

12 th June 1758 by the Help of Almighty all our army now are 
safe embarked without any Loss & I hope to return as safe on board 
of Essex, Man of War excuse the error of this for I have wrote 
without looking over. 

\Vhen Emin came back with the troops, the duke of Marl- 
borough hearing of his behaviour, promised to take him with 
him into Germany. But when they* arrived in London, the duke 
invited him to his table; and after dinner, told him in private, 
that the king had ordered no volunteers to be admitted into the 



army then going over to join prince Ferdinand in Westphalia. 
His Grace made him accept thirty guineas. He having a great 
desire to go into the late king of Prussia's army, told his inten- 
tion to the duke, who said, "that in case he should not be 
received by His Majesty, upon his word he would take him then 
under his protection." While he was in these active pursuits, 
his friends increased daily. 

[There is no -date to the following letter to Lord Lyttelton but it is 
clear that it was written after the " Buckeniering Enterprize" of St. Malo, 
and before Emin was admitted to the presence of the "Great man" — 
Mr. Pitt.] 

To Lord Lyttelton. 

My Eastern Lord & Magnanimus Councelor. 

I am sorry I have not wrote to your Lordship before, ney I 
am ashamed, nor I deserwe your Foregiveness, but there is one thing 
that I can say to excuse myself, I have done nothing seen nothing, / 
since I took my Leave of your Lordship, and therefore I thought ' 
needles to write to you, exept some Grand Affair had happened, 
that it might be worthy of my sage & great Lord's Notice, whose 
prevailing and wise Councel is greater than the universe, and when 
I am so happy to be in his Presence, and heear his paternal advice 
about my Honest Desings, my mind begins to feel satisfaction, and 
my Heart tells me that I shall overcome all difficulties, and save 
my distressed Country ; my good Lord in this World I have hardly 
any Comfort, exept Great men like your Lordship, think well of my 
Undertakings, which is as much to me, as if I had already com- 
passed it. The Instruction of wise man, is not only an Encourage- 
ment, but it is like Spur pearces me to persue & run faster ; leap over 
Hedges, and Ditches, without minding any Danger. Thus I am re- 
solved and shall remain so, till Death puts an End of this mortal 

In the Expedition (which is now calld a Buckeniering Enter- 
prize) there was not good dill to be seen, or to be lcarn't. 1 am 
now going to Prince Ferdinands* Army, among my old Friends, 
there I will see a Campain #11 next winter. Duke of Marlbroug has 

* Ferdinand of Brunswick- Wolf enbiittel, Frederick of Prussia's nephew and oue of his 
most successful generals. 


been very good, and kind to me, and wou'd have taken me along 
with him, had not his Majesty* ordered that there is no volunteers 
to go to Germany, but however be as it will, I shall see him again 
very soon in Germany, from thence I may be able to give your 
Lordship a good account, worth reading. 

I have not yet seen the Great Man,f I have been so many 
times to his Door that I am grown tired, however I don't mind it, 
nor I care for it, as long as God has given me a good Heart I need 
not be afraid. D r Monsey has wrote to you last night, that M rs 
Montagu is very well, which is a great Comfort to me, and have not 
the Happyuess to see her this Week, makes me very uneasey, lest 
the Queen of the East is displeased with her faithfull asiatick Slave. 
I am with the utmost Gratitude & Veneration 

my Lord 

your Lordships 

most obliged most obed fc 

and devouted humble Servant 

{On the back of this letter) J. Emin. 

Rt Honble L d Littleton. 



[Letters previously written to Calcutta to Governor Drake, and to Emm's father — 
His father's reply — The Black Hole tragedy — Letter to Heraclius of Georgia, 
sent through Mr. Shaw, Resident at Basra.] 

[TE omitted, saying before, that when he was first known to 

the earl of Northumberland, and to his Royal Highness, he 

wrote four letters ; one to governor Drake, J one to his father ; 

the third to the Armenians in Calcutta ; the fourth to prince 

* George 11. 

f Pitt. 

... Roger Drake arrived in Bengal May 1737 ; President of Council and Governor of 
Calcutta from Aug. 8, 1752 to 175S ; he gave offeuce to Suraj ud-Dowla, the new Nawab of 
Bengal, by a letter with regard to the strengthening of the fortifications of Calcutta; the 
attack on the city followed; Drake escaped in t&e last boat that left the Port, 1756 ; his 
desertion of his post brought reproach upon him; and T. Z. Hoi well (q.v.) who had stayed 
behind, was chosen to the command : Drake was dismissed from his post by the Directors, 
1757. (Qict. of Indian Biography, Buckland.) 


Heraclius of Georgia. He translated into English the three 
which were in Armenian, and shewed them to the duke of Cum- 
berland his patron, lord Northumberland, the late Dr. Seeker, 
archbishop of Canterbury, Mr. Payne,* of the Direction, and to 
several noblemen. His Royal Highness sent for Mr. Payne, and 
told him the letters were to be sent to Bengal to the governor 
and council of Calcutta, who could summon all the Armenians 
there, with his father Joseph, and read them in the government- 
house, f 

To Governor Drake 

A copy. 

~ my own diction. 

What induces me to trouble your Goodness, is that high Oppi- 
nion I have of the Generousity of all that belong to a Country, 
where I have found such Noble Friends who have not only sup- 
ported me at the time of my destress, but have taken great pains 
to instruct me with their good, wise, and Noble Councells ; they have . 
also obtained for me the protection of his Royal Highness the Duke < 
of Cumberland, & by his Order sent me to the Academy of Wool- 
wich ; which makes me happy every moment, when I reflect on my 
former Condition ; of my Slavery for 4 Years successively. Was I 
to be sacraficed for them or for your Countrymen Good S r wou'd 
not be a sufficient Gratitude shewn in return to that Great Human- 
ity I have received, since I have been so very happy, & so greatly 
blessed to be known to them; This, & many other Nobleness of 
theirs encouraged me to make you this Address, and to beg that 
you wou'd not think a Trouble to help an honest man who has not 
the Honour to be known to you. 

The Design of this Letter is to entreat you wou'd use your 
endeavour, to prevail upon Armenian Merchants of your Settlement 
of Calcutta in Bengal, to write to Prince Heraclius in my Behalf, in 
order to be received into his Service ; as it is mentioned in the 
Letter which I have wrote to him, inclosed here in Armenian Lan- 
guage, translated by me into English ; being laid before his Royal 
Highness The Duke of Cumberland, & before My Lord Bishop of 
Oxford, The Earl of Northumberland my Patron, My Lord Cathcart, 

* John Payne, Director 1741-1757, Deputy Chairman 175O, Chairman 1757. 
t The letter to Heraclius is the only one of the four published in his book. Copies of 
two letters to Governor Drake wrere given by Sarin to Mrs. Montagu. 


and before several worth}- Gentlemen ; & it is by his Royal High- 
ness's permission that I do send this Letter to Prince Heraclius, by 
which you will soon know how to help me, and how to direct the 
said Armenians of the said Settlement of Calcutta. In what manner, 
& in what method they are to proceed. 

And that you will be pleased to let the Principle People of 
the Armenians peruse the Contents of the above mentioned Letter, 
to that Prince, that they may thoroughly understand before they 
begin theirs. I have wrote & inclosed here a Letter to the said 
Armenians, that they may be better convinced of the Matter. And 
have like manner the Honour of receiving a Letter of Recomendation 
the Directors of the East India Company to your Goodness, to cer- 
tifye that what I have said above is true, and that it is not my 
Intention to impose upon Armenians, nor abuse your humanity ; and 
that I am honest. Those Noble Friends whom I have been known 
to, & those whom I have been slave to will all say I am honest. 

I am in great hopes they will not scruple to do me this fa- 
vour, for it will cost them neither Money, nor much Trouble. Where- 
as a plain Letter signed by all the Armenians of Calcutta may be 
of Great Consequence to me. For even if I had no success in this, 
that the said Prince shou'd not accept of my Service, which I fear 
but little. Yet when I come to my Country, if they begin to make 
their false, foolish & Asiatick Pretences, I might then produce the 
Coppy of the said Armenian Merchants Letter, as their Testimony 
for my Honesty ; to signify that I have from the Begining shewn 
a clear, & a good Heart ; and that I have no Design neither against 
him, nor against his Country, but the reverse. And as long as I 
have any Life in me I will endeavour to make it serviceable to him, 
and also towards the Good both of Religion, and my Country. 

If you do me the Honour to serve me in this, (which I am 
assured you will with Pleasure, as you are an Englishman, must 
therefor resemble your Countrymen) Then I will take the Boldness 
from that Encouragement to ask for one favour more. I have a 
Father Good S r who has the Happyness to live under your Govern- 
ment, who is old, & worn away by much Grief caused by the Absent 
of his Only Son, & who canuot know of the Great Honour I have 
received in England, except you are so very good to shew some 
sign of it. That is the least Notice you will be pleased to take of 
him, will make him happy, & will be the Greatest Honour both to 
him, and to me, who am already loaded with Favours from the 
first, & best of your Countrymen, & that all my Life will be proud 
to own myself, I am ~. 


Your most obedient & obliged 

humble Servant 

Joseph Ameex. 


To Governor Drake. 

A Copy. 
' Sir 

M r Payne a director of the East India Company does me the 
honour to convey this Letter to you and will certifye the truth of 
what ever I say and that I am not altogether unworthy to receive 
the same favours from you that I have reed from him, and from 
many other of your Countrymen. My principle S 1 ' is founded upon 
truth, and I shall employ my last Breath in acknowledging the 
Honours I reed from your generous country. 

The purpose of this Letter is to entreat you wou'd use your 
endeavour to forward the inclosed by some good Hand to P : H : of 
Georgia ; it is a Letter adressed to him in the Armenian Language 
which I have translated into English in order that you may know 
the Contents of it having laid it before his Royal Highness the Duke 
of Cumberland my Protector the B. of Ox. my reverend instructor 
my Lord Northutnland my Patron, my Lord Cathcart my Noble 
Friend and als before several worthy Gentlemen of this Kingdom 
and it is by his R: H: permision I send this Letter to that Prince. 

I am sorry to trouble you, but I am assured you will delight 
like the rest of your Generous Countrymen to serve an Honest man 
who has not the Hon r to be known to you and who is with the 
utmost Gratitud 


Emin's translation of his letter to his Father. 

Honoured Father 

The Son of Virtue is Bravery, and Bravery cannot be without 
Virtue ; for as the Son proceedeth from the Father, so Bravery does 
from Virtue. More plainly to speak to you, O my Sweet Father ! 
thou art a Virtuous man, and used to instruct me of Virtue while 
I was with you; and if I am thy true Son I am bound to be 
Brave, by which I may be worthy to be called thy Son, and also 
worthy of the name of that our great fore-Father Ameen. O my 
Father Joseph, the reason of my departure from thee is to obtain 
Bravery. What are thy Thoughts ; ? dost thou think that I am 
come here to Learn only the english Language ? no, no, I am cpme 
to learn the Art of War ; which is preferable to all the Arts upon 
the World ; This Art is so precious, that always it is always spoken 
in the presence of Casers, and Kings; by this very Art, we are to 
give Battles against the persecutors, and enemies, of our Christian 
Nation, who stand Captives under their Hands. It is unexpressable 
the preciousness of this great Art, for without it, is impossible that 

emtn's translation of tetter to his father. 103 

our Religion shou'd shine ; we shall allways be percecuted under our 
enemies, if we don't strive to learn it ;. my Father those were the 
reasons of the departure of thine only Son (and when I used to 
mention them to thee instead of commending me for it thou didst 
allways insult me, and turn thy Countenance from me as if I was 
speaking of Treason ;) and now I would not tell thee so plainly 
and openly my mind, if I had not accidentaly met here a Nobleman 
who when he was acquainted with the Councel of my heart and the 
hardship which I underwent for the sake of my Nation, was 
surprized ; loved me like Father, gave me Money, spoke of me to 
the Son of the King of England, and also to several Noblemen ; 
again he asked me what was my Design that made me come away 
from my Father; and when I made answer and said, that I am 
come to learn the Art of War, still he liked me and conforted me ; 
and said to me be contented ; I will make interest for thee to the 
son of our King to give thee order that thou mayst go to the Place 
of Education, and Learn what thou desire where are all the Sons of 
Noblemen learning the Art of War ; and you will learn the same 
with them. O Father, be glad! for God is with me; I am not 
come here to Learn Luxury, & Extravagancy ; I am come to Obtain 
Worthyness, to learn Wisdom ; to know the World, and be called a 
perfect Servant to my Sheeplike-Shepherdless Armenian Nation. 
Again know ye, that if you had made a present, or had spent 5 
Thousand Rupees, you coud not be able to get me such great and 
Noble Friends ; therefore it is almighty God, that has showered 
down upon me his infinite Mercy ; for it is he that knows the 
Councell of my heart ; and my Heart is into him ; he is Father 
of all that trust in him ; without him is nothing ; and nothing can 
be done. 

Michia ! my Uncle, you seem to be very angry with me. My 
beloved, what were my Sins ? why you have forgot me in that 
manner ? why don't you comfort me with a Philosophical Letter of 
yours ? I have driven myself to Death for your sake ; and instead 
of encouraging me, you think me a prodigal. I beleive, that you 
have heard of the wrath of my sweet Father, who had rejected me 
from being his Son ; after his arrival on board of the Ship, he had 
sent a Letter to the Hand of my Shepherd David ; and it was 
written in This manner ; " Brother David, knowest thou so far, 
that there is no absolution for Ameen my Son, unless he is crucified 
his head downward for the sake of his Nation, as Apostle Peter 
was crucified;" thou seest that he was comparing such a Sinner as 
me to that Great Saint ; but he will have patience to stay, that I 
might obtain Worthiness first ; and then be crucified, he thought 
that he cou'd pronounce that word, crusified, with ease ; but he did 
not imagine the dificulty of the Loss of his only Son. And after 
all those great Torments and hardships which I have been under, 


and am just begining to make his name and yours to shin, you all 
desire me to return ; ignorant I came, and Ignorant I must go you 
are indebted to hearten me ; I am contented to obtain an emty 
Letter either from thee or from my Father ; even that you will not 
do. O my Compassionate Uncle ! if I have sined before my Father, 
tell me what evil have I been culpable of, towards you ? why you 
forsake me so : I know within myself, that it is only my Ruler 
David, who bears and weighs the Torments, and smarts from my 
Father ; my Father cannot blame you ; for at the time of my 
Desertion, you was at Seidapad, and my Ruler David at Calcutta ; 
therefore let me die for him ; let my Blood be under his Feet ; it is 
true, that you are my Sheperds ; but he is the only my Ruler and 
manager, my controller and my Comforter, my supporter and my 
teacher. D: I cry, I roar for to see David; but in vain ; I cannot: 
and thou Mirzabec the Soul of my Soul embrace a Wild beastlike 
salute from the deepest part of my Heart. 

My Ruler David, thine, fowan the 3 d of February from Hugley, 
arrived here the 14 th December 1755 by the Hand of John Mills to 
the hand of Stephanos Coggigian but I did not see the Person who 
brought thy Letter ; I reed it from Stephanus. and it was a great 
Joy to me to obtain such fatherlike Letter from thee ; and I was 
very thankfull to God, for having such a Ruler as thee in this 
World. Altho my sweet Father is a little angry with me ; I did not 
submit to his Will ; but I know within myself, that a fruitless Tree 
is always hatefull, and proud, to its planter or Master ; but a * 
Fruitful! Tree is dear and humble ; its branches bend down to the 
ground; therefore, while I am fruitless, it is impossible for me to 
obtain humbleness ; but when I am fruitfull it is natural then I 
must be humble, a second example ; a valiant Warier, while he is 
in the battle he is obliged to appear proud, first among his Soliders, 
secondly against his enemys, and if he shoud obtain a Conquest 
over them, it is then natural to appear humble, if he is true 
Warier ; these are my less understanding thoughts if your great 
Wisdom will approve of them. 

I Last year two Letters by the hand of M r Davis to the hand 
of M r Maningham have sent, to give them to you. I am in hopes 
that you will perform what I have already desired in them ; to 
write to M r Davis, to pay me the money deposited in his hand, and 
if not, let it be then your Pleasure, let me tell you that I have no 
need for money here ; but you will all repent for not beleiving your 
Son; so much is sufficient to your understanding, if you read this 
Letter with Care and Wisdom. But if you please to be friends with 
me, it is Debt upon you ta do thus ; first, to write to M r Davis, 
to pay me the 5 hundred Rupees ; secondly, a Letter with great 
Thanks and with presents to this my Protector Nobleman, of whose 
name I shall mention in this Letter; The presents that ypu are 


to send are as folows : 3 Pieces of the finest Pulam of Radnagar ; 
2 Peices of the finest Mulmul that ever had been brought our to this 
Land ; 2 Pieces of Madras red Handkerchiefs ; and 2 Peices of 
Cusombzar silk hanker : 2 pieces of Douria ;• be ornomented if pos- 
sible with Golden Thread at Daca ; that they may so fine & worthy 
of the Possession of this great Noblemans, Lady ; her great Spirit 
and generosity is higher than Language & who herself stooped 
down to take notice of me. This Nobleman is so great here as Maiar 
kan was in Persia ; the things the more fine They are so much honour 
will they be first to you all ; then to your Son. My Father, and 
my Sheperds Mirzabec and David be not afraid, I shall make 
return a Thousand to your once. 

My Fathers now you will think, that I dont want to come to 
you ; don't you think, that I long for you ? for my Longing is mea- 
sureless ; and it is so great, that I cannot explain it. Your Love 
is as hot in my Heart as fire ; and for the sake of that Love, I 
have first made myself a mariner, and cleaned hogstye for almost 
six months; secondly, when I arrived here, I did serve to Stepan 
like a Captive. 3 after turning me out of his house, three Weeks I 
lived upon three half pens a Day. 4 I went to sell myself; but 
providence sent to me the son of my School Master who delivered 
me from being recaptive. 5 I have lost one years Service ; 6 I was a 
Load carrier or porter for two years ; and paid 17 Pounds out of 
that Labourious and slavish Employment, to Stepan; which had he 
spent for me while I was with him ; and at last from portership 
did arrive myself to Clerkship, there I have wrote about three 
Months, and absented from thence, I was again droven into my old 
distresses ; without Money, without Friend, or any Bod}* but Lord in 
heaven ; untill one day this great man whom I have mentioned in 
this Letter, who had heard of my Character, sent me his Servant, 
and I was admited to him ; and when I was come into his presence ; 
after knowing my Councell, and the Love which is for you and for 
my Nation, he was surprized, and was saying to me, O Ameen! 
it is very hard to live in this Country without Friend & without 
Money (almost 4 years) therefore the Lord is with you ; be con- 
tented, I will from this time provide and furnish you with all neces- 
saries, and said he I will mediate to the son of our King, and aftei 
you have learned the Art of War, I will send you unto your 
Father, and Uncles : the Noble Lady comforted me likewise ; do not 
despair ; be glad, O Zealous for thy Country, Ameen ! be not afraid, 
then My Fathers almighty and sa vast God it is, that hath put in 
my Heart to depart from you, and come here that I might be be 

* Here he wrote, and then crossed out " 20 Neck-eloathes of English : and both ends of 
them "—then " be ornomented" etc. as above. 

106 his father's reply. 

able to serve my Country : therefore pray to God for me with a 
long mind, with trust & patience. 

The name of this Nobleman is the Earl of Northumberld* 
This is a Lord of a great Word with the King of this Land ; Great 
men and Nobles all that know him love him ; now it is 2 Weeks 
since he know me, I dine at his Palace, he has given me good deal 
of money, and Books, his Goodness and friendship is measureless ; 
many times I dined with great men here through his Friendship it 
is to him that I am indebted for great strength & comfort I receive 
from a Nobleman called S r Charless Stanhope who is Father to 
me, He has made me known likewise to another Nobleman called my 
Lord Cathcart, who is a soldier and gave me much Encouragement. 
Once more be glad, as to what I have wrote to you performe it. 
The Loss of seven Years 1 shall repair in one Month. God Al- 
mighty will deliver us from all Difficulties, by ye in Health. 

Emm's father, in his next letter, after many patriarchal 
blessings, says, " My dear son, Governor Drake read all your four 
letters before the Armenians, wished me joy of your success, and 
made me forget all my anxiety ; especially since the Armenians, 
who have reflected six years upon me there, are all surprized, 
and cannot help saying, God's providence has been with your 
son. You may see their weakness, by their own answer ; they 
testify you to be the real offspring of the ancient kings of 
Armenia, because you are successful j but if otherwise, they 
would have said, Who is he ? or what is he ? This is the way 
of all the Asiatics; who have ever shewn themselves friends to 
one in prosperity, and bitter enemies to those in adversity. A 
little while ago I could not show myself among them ; now 
they pay me homage, as if you were a king, and myself a king's 
father. In short, you did very right, not to return in the con- 
dition you went from this place j therefore go on and prosper 
in all your undertakings : remember, gratefully, that you are pro- 
tected by the English ; and I pray God, that their sovereignty 
and liberty may be protected as long as the world stands by 

* Here he wrote, and then crossed out, the following words, "this Noble has 50 Thou- 
sand pounds Sterling a Year by this know ye the richness of his." 


the great Maker of it. The wicked Suja ill Dowlah came with a 
vast army, destroyed almost 400* innocent English gentlemen in 
one night in the Black Hole. Calcutta was overset by him : for 
my share, I have lost 16,000 rupees, and all the Armenians in 
proportion ; we are all become as poor as you were when you 
went from this place. I have written to Mr. Davis, to pay 
you the 500 rupees deposited in his hands. The glorious 
English army came with the fleet ; re-took Calcutta, destroyed 
Chandernagore, and drove the Musulman army to the bosom of 
their prophet Mahomed ; and I am in hopes that the whole 
kingdom, in a dozen years time, will be subdued under the 
blessed mild government of the English ; which you used to 
prophecy, when you were here. Walk in the way of God, and 
be happy, without fear ; put your trust in Him : who knows 
but He may one day or other set your countrymen free from 
the slavery of the unmerciful Mahomedans. By Mr. Drake's 
express order, your letter, through the Armenians, was sent to 
Basra to Mr. Shaw, the English palioz ; who, you may be as- 
sured, will take great care to send it to prince Heraclius at 
Tefliz : but I would not have you depend much upon him ; by 
all accounts he is not inclined to reward a man of merit. Yet 
you have acted wisely in one great point ; that the moun- 
taineers, with all the rest of Armenia, will be informed, that you 
are in agitation to carry on an honest design. I make no doubt, 
it will be admired by them all, in the highest degree, provided 
the holy fathers of the most sacred church will not interfere ; 
who, treading in the steps of ancient patriarchs, soften the 

* Some misplacement of the numeral four iu proof-correcting or in printing would ac- 
count for this error in the number of the victims of the Black Hole. Sir William Jones 
would scarcely have allowed a statement of the number so greatly in excess of the facts to 
stand uncorrected. However, in view of the doubts lately cast on the truth of the tale, 
this reference iu a letter which seems to have been written in 1757, is a proof, if any were 
needed, that the tragedy did occur. The English who fled to Fulta and were suffering 
privations, were, it is stated in Mesrovb Seth's History of the Armenians in India, supplied 
with boat-loads of provisions, secretly, for about six months, by Pietros Arratoon, a well- 
known Armenian merchant of Calcutta. 


minds of men into meekness, with a religious intention ; preach- 
ing the doctrine of the Holy Gospel to them, but knocking 
martial spirit on the head ; not looking far, like the brave 
Europeans ; nor considering, that the bare-footed Arab will come, 
sword in hand, to take possession of them all. In our times, 
the Mahomedans are worse, and relaxed with effeminacy. The 
holy fathers may probably concur with you, because your good 
intention is to free the Church first ; but upon condition that 
you have a large sum of money, of which they seem to be more 
fond than the laymen ; otherwise I am apt to imagine all 
your pains will prove in vain. There is one thing yet in your 
favour, that you have done your best to serve them ; you will 
then rest satisfied with having raised the dead name of our 
family, which has been buried many years last past in the dust 
of obscurity. I pray God to bless and prosper thee. I remain, 
my dear son Emin, yours," &c. &c. 

The following is a translation from the Armenian of the 
author's letter to Prince Heraclius, word for word, in the Asiatic • 
style : 

u To the most splendid, most Christian King Heraclius of 
Georgia and Armenia. 
"My King, 

"All things that have been made from the beginning of 
the world to this day, are by the will of God, according to the 
Testament. All things were made by him, and without him 
was not any thing made that was made : God created the heaven 
and the earth, the sea and the land; and it is he that made 
you king over two nations Armenians and Georgians. Glory be 
to God the Father of our I,ord Jesus Christ, that made you de- 
fender and protector of those christian nations, and of their 
faith; who have been many hundred years under the hands of 
Persian unbelievers, and are now delivered by the mighty hands 
of your Majesty. The same God will also, I hope, deliver those 


Christians who are under the hands of Othmans, for there is no 
resisting the almighty hand of God ; and whosoever trust in him 
shall not be ashamed. It was he that delivered Israel, by the 
hand of the prophet Moses, out of the hands of Pharaoh ; and 
fed them with manna, according to the holy text, which saith, 
men did eat the bread of angels. May the same God preserve 
and strengthen the wrist of your Majesty, to defend us from the 
encroachment of barbarians. Amen. 

"Again, having heard the same of your Majesty's glorious 
conquest, by which you have possessed the two ancient king- 
doms of Armenia and Georgia, and that they are at present 
under your Majesty's protection; being desirous, from my soul, 
to offer your Majesty my service, I hope you will make no diffi- 
culty to accept it; as money is far from the desire of your 
Majesty's servant, who wishes nothing but to serve him who has 
the rule over his nation for which I am here, I want nothing. 
I have a great friend here, and that great friend is my pro- 
tector; and that protector is the son of the king of England. 
If it please your Majesty to instruct me of your will and plea- 
sure, that I may petition this great prince, in order to obtain 
leave to come and serve you as an European officer, according 
to my low abilities, that I may teach your soldiers to fight like 
Europeans, who are very well known to your Majesty, who with 
a few overcome many. 

"Your Majesty has heard of the German nation, who, with 
no more than twenty thousand men, are able to give battle to a 
hundred thousand Mahomedans or Turks, who are enemies to the 
Christian nations. I would also acquaint your Majesty how it is, 
or by what means, that the European nations are such con- 
querors, and so brave warriors. It is a rule among them, that 
whoever is desirous to become a warrior, first is obliged to enter 
the house of exercise which they call here an academy, to learn 
or to study, four or five years, the art of war ; that is to say, to 
learn the art of building strong castles, the like of which are not 


to be found in all Asia; and also, the art of managing great 
guns, in such a manner that none of our fortifications can stand 
before them for three days; likewise the manner of incamping 
with judgment, and the way of ranging the soldiers, so that they 
are like a wall of iron, not to be broken and, after having 
thoroughly completed his study in that art, he leaves the place, 
going and offering himself and his service to his prince, or king 
and country, and by long experience perfects himself in that 
great art. For the art of war here is not to be understood 
easily ; it contains many things difficult ;to be known, and far 
preferable to the practice of Turks or Persians. See, O mighty 
King! it is not so much by strength of arms that these nations 
are called conquerors, as by wisdom and art. Here every thing 
is by art and wisdom, for without wisdom a nation is not a 
nation; and those who compose it are blind and unhappy, ac- 
cording to the Old Testament, which saith, God made the heaven 
and the earth by his infinite wisdom. I say, whosoever follows 
wisdom, he is beloved by God, since from Wisdom proceeds all 
manner of goodness: also a man is not mighty without wisdom, 
not wise without righteousness. The antient Romans, who were 
so great before our Saviour's birth, gave laws and subdued all 
nations of the world. This was by art and wisdom, although 
they were heathens and idolaters but they were virtuous, and 
lived with good morals. Another example is the late glorious 
Peter the Great of Russia ; who would not have been so great a 
warrior, and his country would not have been so blessed and 
flourishing, had not he came over hither to learn wisdom; who, 
when he was in Holland, served in a place of ship-building like 
one of the labourers, and humbled himself therein since whoever 
humble th himself shall be exalted. And when he returned into 
his own country, he was full of all manner of wisdom, by which 
he made himself the father, as well as lord and king of his 
country. These are the things which have made the people of 
Europe conquerors, and esteemed wiser than all the nations 


upon the face of the earth. For among them are learned men, 
who study the way in which God has made all things according 
to nature, by which they are able to do things of great wonder 
and usefulness. They send persons likewise into every part of 
the world, at a great expence, to learn all things that are pro- 
duced upon or under the earth, by which they are increased in 
wisdom and rules. Their cities are very great, their people are 
happv, not being afraid of famine and dangers ; and they are 
under excellent laws, by which no man is suffered to do wrong 
to another, though he may be weak or poor. But this nation, 
this great and mighty nation, O my King ! where I live, is not 
only great and wise, but also a destroyer of the devourers of 
mankind. I am surprized to see, that even the sheep in this 
country rest in quiet, without the least fear of wolves. May the 
great God grant your Majesty's subjects to follow their example, 
to grow wish and conquer under the wisdom and courage of 
your Majesty, to whom God grant long life, to trample your 
enemies like dust under your feet. 

"May it please your Majesty* to know who your servant is, 
that raises his head to speak to you, and takes pains to know 
these things, with much labour for your Majesty's service, to 
whom God grant victory — The name of your servant is Emin the 
son of Joseph the son of Michael, the son of Gregory, who is 
descended from Emin ; who, in the da}- when Armenia was 
broken under the battle-ax of Shah Abbas, was minbashy in the 
service of that prince. After settling his family in the city of 
Hamadan, from him your Majesty's servant descended, and he 
is called after his name, being born at Hamadan : but our 
captivity was grievous under the Persians, who since Maho- 
metanism, as it is well known to your Majesty, are grown quite 
barbarians, not being so civilised so they were in ancient times, 
(according to the histories I have read in this blessed island,) so 
that my father flew from Hamadan in the time of Shah Thamaz 
Khuli Khan into India, to a place called Calcutta, where the 


English have a fort and soldiers, and great trade, though their 
country is six months voyage from Bengal. There my father 
has been a merchant to this day, and would have me follow the 
same way of life ; but I did not submit to him ; for I inquired 
of my father, from my infancy, the reason why we were perse- 
cuted by infidels, and why we resided so contemptibly among 
lawless nations. They were afraid, to answer me, and my heart 
was grieved ; and I had none to comfort me in my grief : for I 
said, the ants that creep upon the earth have a king, and we 
have not; and the nations of all countries deride and persecute 
us, saying, you are masterless, have no king of your own, and 
resemble the Jews, scattered on the face of the earth : you have 
no love for one another ; you are without honour, and by the 
disunion of your nation, all nations insult you; you are con- 
temptible, and without zeal; and you are as great lovers of 
money as the heathens were of their gods. I could not bear all 
these reflections. Whilst I groaned, but found none to heal the 
wounds which I bore on my heart, I observed watchfully the 
Europeans and their wise customs; their shipping, far better, 
both for sailing and for war, than the ships of the Indians : 
above all, the practice of their soldiers, who, if they were 
thousands of men, by one word of command from their officer, 
instantly, all together, move and act as if they were but one 
single man. Then I thought within myself, that it was God 
that had put in my heart to think on all things; therefore, I 
spoke not to my father, but was in hopes in my heart, that if 
I went to England, I should learn the art of war; and I was 
encouraged, for I then heard a little, but not much, of your 
Majesty's name, until I came hither, where I learned that your 
Majesty was established in your kingdom, and had routed a 
great army of Persians. See, O my King ! what a great thing 
wisdom is, by which this nation knows our country better than 
we do; and this nation is awake, but we are asleep. On board 
the ship I' worked like a sailor ; and afterwards when J came 


hither, I was so reduced, that I was forced, through hunger, to 
offer myself to sale upon the Exchange, to be sent into the new 
world. O, my king ! do not pity me, even at the time when 
you hear, or see me sacrificed in your service ; but pity those 
servants of Christ who stand in need of pity. But the omni- 
potent God saved me, by the hands of an English gentleman ; 
and the same God, who heard the cryings of my heart, did 
inspire the heart of a generous nobleman, who is one of the 
pillars of the throne of England. He ordered me to write the 
counsel of my heart, and made me known to the son of the king 
of England, who sent me to a place of education, where I have 
learned, according to my ability, something of the art of war. 
My ambition is, to lay my little knowledge at the feet of your 
majesty, and to serve you with the best of my capacity; for 
know, my king, that, what is not built on knowledge, though 
it is very strong and lofty, is as if it were built upon sand. 
Therefore, my purpose is to go well instructed into your Majesty's 
service; and to carry with me, men skilful in all things (if you 
give me an encouragement,) to strengthen and polish your king- 
dom, like the kingdoms of Europe ; for you have a good country, 
and command over many brave men; and if you would gather 
together the Armenians, a rich and trading people, who are scat- 
tered to the east and the west, to the north and to the south, 
under the protection of your majesty's arms in your own country, 
no kingdom in the east would be like your kingdom for riches 
and glory. May the eternal God, the Father of our I v ord Jesus 
Christ, sharpen your scymitar upon all your enemies, and 
strengthen the wrist of your Majesty's right hand, to protect 
our distressed nation, according to the wishes and labours of 
your servant Emin." 

The author received no answer to this letter, though he was 
assured by a Georgian, that the prince had his letter sent him 
by Mr. Shaw, with an Armenian from Basra. 




Letter to Mrs. Montagu from the Hague. 

[Sir Joseph Yorke — Mr. Mitchell — Frederick of Prussia — his reception of Emin — 
Frederick's consideration for his soldiers — Dangers of riding with royalty in 
the dark — Frederick's kindness to an old German — After the levee — Mr. Mit- 
chell's report and his orders to Emin — No fighting for Emin — At Munster — At 
the Hague — General Yorke again — Return to London.] 

Note on Sir Andrew Mitchell— Correspondence — Emin's letter to Mrs. Montagu 
describing Frederick of Prussia — To Lord Lyttelton — Extracts from Mrs. 
Montagu's letters. 

Narrative resumed [Lady Yarmouth — Emin received by Mr. Pitt.] 

To Mrs. Montagu. 

Madam Hagu the 8 th August 1758 8 Clock 

Just eight days I rimained at Harwich on account of the 
Contrary Wind, at last arrived here with a pleasent voyage. On my 
attending General York, it was agreed that I should go to my 
Brother King of Prussia., now madam I am going, farewell my most 
beloved Queen, pray for your Slave, that he may return safe and 
put you on The Throne of Persia. You shall set on his right Hand, 
as he made you get up from your Chair, and stood at his right, I 
am the same man and will fullfill what I foretell. 

If you assist your Slave any way, (according to your Com- 
mand) my Lady Anson will put you in the way, by writing only to 
her Brother, and will remitt it to me, but not now madam, a 
month hence will be time enough. 

Forgive me I cannot write a long Letter we are setting out im- 
mediately, first to Prince of Ferdinands, then to the King of 
Prussia, I will be happy if I find Grace in his Favour, and if not, 
I care not, remember me to M r Montagu and to D r Monsey, and 
to all inquiring Friends. 

I have the Honour madam to be your faithfull Slave & servant 

I On the back of the letter.] J' Emin * 

To Mrs. Montagu in Hill Street 
Berkly Square 


To be forwarded to her any Part 
of England. 



When Emm got the money by his father's order from Mr. 
Davis, his Royal Highness then had laid down the command of 
the army, which lord Ligonier* took up, having before signified 
to the duke of Marlborough, his refusal to take any volunteer 
with him. The duke of Northumberland, approving Emin's new 
plan of going into the Prussian army, he lost no time, but set 
out with a courier for Harwich, thence to Helvoetsluys, and 
then to the Hague. He there waited on Sir Joseph (or General) 
Yorke, at that time plenipotentiary, with a letter from his sis- 
ter the late good lady Anson, recommending him very kindly. 
This noble gentleman received Emm with the utmost politeness, 
and offered to give him any sum of money he should want; but 
he did not accept of it. Sir Joseph entertained him three days 
at his table, and furnished him with a letter of recommendation 
to Air. Mitchel, which made him more happy than he ever was 
before, since he assured himself of reaping great fame, or falling 
in an action like a soldier. He, in company with the courier, 
in open hard waggons, travelled from stage to stage for a fort- 
night, before he could find the hero's army; till one morning 
early, two hours before sun-rise, he met the king on horseback, 
at the head of his army on a march ; who no sooner saw the 
waggon, with two persons in it, than he asked Mr. Mitchel in 
French, who was the second person with the courier ? The 
ambassador said to the author, " His majesty asks who you 
are?" Emin answered, "I am a man." "What sort of a. 
man?" said he, "what is your name?" "My name," he re- 
plied, " is Emin : I am an Armenian." Then the king said, " Is 
he the man that the duke of Cumberland has patronized ? " 

* Ivigouier, John (Jean I^mis;, Karl L,igonier and Field-Marshall 1766. A French Huguenot 
born in France 1C80, died in 1770; came to England 1697, entered the army under 
Marlborough 1702. Commauded the English infantry at Fontenoy, 1745; C.-in-C of the 
British at Raucoux 1746, knighted by George II. on the field of Dettingeu 1743. 

" By universal consent he was regarded, whether in the field or in the Council, as one of 
the most brilliant and successful soldiers that ever served the British Crown." — {England 
in the Seven Years' War, Corbett.) 

n6 Frederick questions him. 

Being answered in the affirmative — " Ask him, Mr. Mitchel," said 
the king, " if he does not know my orders, that a volunteer is 
not to be admitted into my army ? " He said to Mr. Mitchel, 
"Yes; but he hopes his majesty when he graciously considers 
how many months by sea and land he was come to spill his blood 
in his most glorious majesty's service under the hoof of his horse, 
he would have no objection to the boldness of the liberty taken." 
His majesty said "Ma foi, c'est un brave garcon, je souhaite 
qu'il y fut dix-mille hommes de la meme disposition que lui ; " 
that is, Upon my faith, it is an honest fellow : I wish 
there were ten thousand men of the same inclination with him. 
He then asked, through Mr. Mitchel, "where is your equipage?" 
Emin answered, "In that portmanteau," which weighed hardly 
eight pounds ; containing half a dozen of shirts, as many pair 
of stockings, with a pair of spare boots, and a coarse checkered 
linen bag, proportionable in length and breadth, to be stuffed on 
occasion with straw at night for his bed, while he covered him- 
self with his cloak. This management pleased his Prussian 
majesty more than if he really had ten thousand mountaineers 
of Armenia with him. A young English gentlemen, named, 
Mr. Cox, a near relation to lady Anson, had laid out near 
2000/. sterling, in an equipage, with proper letters of recom- 
mendation, to serve as a volunteer in his majesty's army ; but, 
at the distance of two hundred miles, his majest}' being apprized 
of his coming, sent a trumpeter to prevent his proceeding 
further. The author recollects the poor gentleman, and the 
ardour he had for a military life ; and thinks, he was killed 
either in the expedition to Cherburg, or in the battle of Minden. 
When this conversation past between his majesty, the am- 
bassador and Emin, the king ordered Mr. Mitchel' s led horse to 
be mounted by the author, not forgetting to say all this while 
the whole army were upon halt. Then his majesty conferred 
the honour upon him, just as he was going to put his foot in 
the stirrup, of saying, " Montez prince des Arnienieus." , This 


appellation, though pronounced in a grave tone of voice, }*et the 
author never felt in his mind an inclination to be in the least 
proud of it ; he only thanked his Maker, who did not let him 
drop to pieces in his past hardships and adversity, but pre- 
served him to be taken proper notice of by the princes of the 
world. The writer begs leave to inform the kind reader, that 
he is not vain in himself, nor dares to think himself worth}* of 
that title conferred in jest; and even if it had been in earnest, 
it would have been a matter of indifference to him; for when 
he was honoured with riding with the king, almost tete-a-tete, 
from twelve at night to eight or nine the next morning; he 
observed most studiously, that several times when the king 
rode up to the soldiers left behind, out of the way of the 
army's march, to recover from a little fainting sickness, he 
spoke to them in a very familiar manner. Those of the same 
age with his majesty, he called his brothers ; and if younger 
than himself, he said my son ; and if a little older, my father. As 
he used to carry a pint flat-bottle of brandy in his coat pocket, he 
made them welcome to it, giving each a sip, and pouring with his 
own hands into theirs, exactly a small glass full ; he kept the 
rest sparingly, lest there should be more in the way who might 
want it. The author likewise observed, that many of the sol- 
diers supposed his majesty to be one of the officers, not know- 
ing him personally ; he took care to make himself known to 
them, and no sooner had he told them that he was Frederick 
the king, than the poor men got up through joy, pulled off 
their hats, ran instead of marching as fast as they could, as if 
they had never been sick, and joined their respective corps. 
Therefore, it is not surprising, that a prince of remarkable 
humanity, should heal, by a single expression, the wounded 
heart of an honest man. This was the way of his Prussian 
majesty, even* morning on a precipitate march ; and it afforded 
ample satisfaction to Emin's wandering mind, to see a mighty 
prince , in various stations of life ; sometimes a father, at an- 


other time a brother ; sometimes a physician, then a nurse, to 
his subjects ; which conduct many princes in the West, and 
more in the East, may hear with admiration and be ashamed, 
more particularly some Indian or Armenian Banians, who become 
insupportable when they are ; in good circumstances, thinking 
themselves worthy to be worshipped as gods, like Alexander the 
Great, when he was told by the priests in Persia, that he was 
the son of Jupiter. Whoever has not seen his majesty in person, 
and knows him by hearsay only, will form a different Idea of 
him ; as a great author in Europe used to plague him by 
writing and publishing books against him : but that author's 
nation are equally envious with the Persians in the East ; who 
chuse death, rather than hear of their neighbour's prosperity. 
As Emin is neither of one nation nor of the other, and has not 
learning enough to treat upon the subject, his impartial good 
friends will easily understand his rough way of expressing 
himself, and that he has not travelled in Europe like a blind- 

While the king of Prussia was in alliance with the French, 
they thinking to make a fool of him, though against their secret 
will, raised him to the stars. But when for the interest of his 
country he changed the confederacy, he was no more a darling 
with them. The late old writer embraced the opportunity with 
his natural fund of satirical wit, and exerted himself to the 
utmost to load his works with sarcasms ; and had the king of 
Prussia been a warrior only, like Charles XII. of Sweden, and 
not a learned man, M. de Voltaire would have written his his- 
tory in an hundred volumes but as he was not only a king, 
but father to his country, and did every thing in his power to 
make it nourish, it is natural to suppose he will be envied; 
and those who envy one another, are excusable ; for it is in 
the natural disposition of mankind to be envious : even the 
ancient holy fathers of the church, as we see by their books, 
are brimful of envy ; and how is it possible that laymen should 


abstain from it ? Therefore, good readers, nothing is perfect in 
this world composed of four elements. God, who is above us 
all, alone is perfect. 

On the third day of the army's marching, the wandering 
author's horse, whinnying, started at something in the dark, 
about three in the morning, when he was riding on the left 
hand of the king. He justled the king with such force, that he 
was very near oversetting the hero and his horse in a deep 
ditch to his right. Emin, frightened at the accident, spurred 
his horse on to about fifty yards distance. His majesty with 
difficulty preserved himself from falling, and called to Emin, 
saying, "Come back; no harm is done." 

When the army encamped near Frankfort upon Oder, Mr. 
Mitchel took him to the levee, which proved the first and last time 
of his being admitted, though he had the honour of riding with 
his majesty. The king stood in the street surrounded by his 
generals when Emin and his friend Mr. Mitchel went in, and 
, stood at the extent of the circle made by them. The}* saw an 
elderly German standing behind those stately officers, and en- 
deavouring to force himself between them to see the king ; but 
to his mortification he was pushed back by them, so that he 
could not come near. The poor man did not in the least seem 
to be discouraged ; but, the sweat running down his face, still 
persisted, and would push in notwithstanding their being angry, 
so that it became at last a direct contest between the general 
officers and the poor farmer. When the king took notice of it, 
he seemed to be displeased with his officers, told them to make 
way for the man to come in to the king, and asked him what 
he wanted ? He answered, that " he had heard the name of 
the king, but never saw him : he wanted nothing ; but only 
longed with all his heart to see him who fought battles in 
person to defend his poor subjects." Uttering these words, he 
went to prostrate himself upon the ground to kiss the king's 
feet. His humane majesty caught the man in his arms, and 


embraced him like a tender father. With tears trickling down 
his cheeks, and lifting up his hands to heaven, pronounced these 
words : " O great God ! all the whole powers of Europe are 
united to crush us: preserve and defend thy people!" The 
generals, in the mean time, being affected, wept like children. 
The king spoke to the man with all the kindness imaginable, and 
said ' ' Now, my father, you are satisfied ; you have what you 
have wished for : what am I to expect in return from you ? 
We are at war : of what use will you be to me ?" The honest 
German said, that he had seven sons, all soldiers in the army, 
ready to fight for his majesty and himself to pray for the 
success of his arms ; which answer much pleased the king ; 
and then he went away with joy, perhaps equally contented as 
Emin was, when in Calcutta he kissed a hundred times the feet 
of the captain who granted him a note to be received on board 
the ship. 

When this remarkable scene was over, the king whispered 
his usual orders to the generals, and, coming up to the end of 
the circle stood looking Emin full in the face for ten minutes, 
surveying him from head to foot; then turning himself towards 
the officers, he stood five minutes more by the young Armenian 
soldier. No sooner had he moved to the middle of the place, 
than Mr. Mitchel winked at Emin, who made a bow and with- 
drew. Not an hour and a half after he was in the quarters, 
Mr. Mitchel himself entered and ordered dinner, wishing Emin 
joy, and saying, " When you were gone away from the levee, the 
king spoke to all the generals to take notice of 3^ou, and treat 
you politely : he recommended you strongly to general Sedlytz, 
to be under his command intirely : he will be watchful to see 
how you behave in an action, which may be the means of 
promotion. He expressed himself very warmly to them, saying, it 
is the most extraordinary instance of the kind known before, for 
an Armenian to emigrate from the East to Europe, to improve 
himself in the art of war. He ordered an allowance for ,you, a 


ducat a day, kitchen furniture, three horses, one for you to 
mount, the second to be led, the third for a servant to ride 
near you at hand, always ready in case of an accident. I find 
you will see hot work : he is going to fight the Russian army. 
His majesty has also favoured you with a covered chaise to 
carry your insignificant portmanteau, which he first saw in the 
cart with our courier : its smallness alone made him take such 
notice of it, and confer on you so great an honour. But still, 
my friend, you must leave this place and the king's army im- 
mediately after you have dined, and set out, proceeding to our 
army commanded by prince Ferdinand in the Hanoverian terri- 
tory : and I must not have you hesitate, nor say any more 
about it : as it is my order, you are to obey." The first joyful 
happy news was disagreeably followed by the woeful sentence 
which Mr. Mitchel passed, dashing against each other with equal 
violence, and resembling two monsoons meeting, which, when 
united, form a terrible storm, able to overset the strongest ship, 
t or the loftiest towers. This deprived Emin of a noble alterna- 
tive, either to meet an honourable death in the field of battle, 
or to reap the fruit of reputation. Yet this usage he suffered 
with patience from that honourable gentleman : and to satisfy 
the mind of the good reader that he bore it with fortitude, and 
did not in the least despair, he* took his leave of Mr. Mitchel, 
and went away. 

After several days travelling, he reached the English army 
in the bishopric of Munster, and waited on the late duke of 
Marlborough, who gave him a horse without a saddle, and 
recommended him to general Schulenburg. The campaign was 
over, and nothing more to be seen. He set out thence, stopped 
in his way at the Hague, and waited on general Yorke, who 
expressed great surprize at Mr. Mitchel' s treatment, and said, 
He was very sorry he did not write directly to the king in 
Emin's favour, by which means he might have remained there 
to see .service, and to satisfy his inclination. His Excellency 


treated him with all manner of politeness, entertained him five 
days, and favoured him with a letter sealed and directed to his 
banker, an English merchant, in Amsterdam. When the contents 
of the writing were read, the gentleman said, "Sir Joseph Yorke* 
has been pleased to order me to supply you with a great sum 
of money." Bmin wrote immediately to his Excellency, and 
thanked him, without accepting any of it. Then he went 
thence, crossed the Channel, arrived again in London, where he 
recalled to mind five long years' hunger and thirst, and took his 
lodging in Pall Mall. 

{From Bisset's Memoirs of Sir Andrew Mitchell, 1850.) 

Sir Andrew Mitcheia, K.B. (1708-1771). In 1742 he was appointed 
Under Secretary of State for Scotland and entered the House of Com- 
mons in 1747 for the county of Aberdeen. In 1756 he was appointed 
envoy to the King of Prussia. 

George II. commanded Mitchell to beg that the King of Prussia will 
grant him (Mitchell) permission to attend him in his campaigns. By the 
express orders of the King his master, Mitchell (vol. i. p. 204) accom- 
panied Frederic in all his campaigns, and was by his side throughout the 
whole of some of his hottest and hardest fought battles (as, for instance, 
the sanguinary battle of Zorndorff, in which to use his own words, the 
balls fell around them like a shower of hail), and, though a civilian, saw 
more of the realities of war on its largest scale than many a man who has 
written himself Field-Marshall (vol. i, p. 94). 

In 1764 Mitchell went to England where he remained upwards of a 
year. In 1765 he was made a Knight of the Bath ; in the spring of 1766 
he returned to Berlin and died there, January 1771 (vol. ii, pp. 358, 360). 

* General Sir Joseph Yorke, K.B., was A.D.C. to the Duke of Cumberland at Fontenoy. 
He was Plenipotentiary at the Hague in 1756 and later, and he sent to London, in 1756, a 
complete account of Marshal Belleisle's plan for the invasion of England. Belleisle was 
C-in-C. of the Atlantic coast of France. 

Sir Joseph Yorke married Christiana, only daughter of Hans Henry, Baron de Stock en, 
of Denmark, and was elevated to the peerage as Baron Dover in 1788. He died in 1792, 
when the title expired. His grandfather, Philip Yorke, father of the iat Ear! of ilanhvi.-ke. 
was a solicitor at Dover, >> 


Mr., afterwards Sir James Harris, who succeeded him, was created 
Earl of Malmesbury, while he who did and suffered what no English am- 
bassador did and suffered before or since, died Sir Andrew Mitchell, 
Knight of the Bath. 

On August 22, 175S, Lord Lyttelton writing to Mrs. Montagu alludes 
to the estate full of coal, copper, and other mines lately inherited by her 

husband — "I suppose this will find you got down to the bottom 

of your mines .... Since the time that Proserpina was carried by her hus- 
band to his Stygian empire, the infernal regions have not seen such a 
charming goddess. But is it sure they will let you return again to day- 
light ? Upon my word I think you are in some danger since the Habeas 
Corpus Bill was thrown out .... Yet I verily think Baron Smith will 
release you in spite of them all, and even if he should fail, you have still 
a resource, Emin shall come back and deliver you from the shades as 
Hercules did Alcestis." {Letters of Elizabeth Montagu, Climenson.) 

Sept. 9, 1758, Lord Lyttelton writes congratulating Mrs. Montagu on 
the King of Prussia's " most glorious success, (the victory of Zorndorff, 
August 25) but I am in pain till I hear what has become of Emin." 

On Sept. 9, Emin wrote to Mrs. Montagu from the Duke of Marl- 
broough's Quarters, " whither," writes Mrs. Climenson " he had retired 
disconsolate at not being allowed to fight in the battle by General Yorke, 
Lady Anson's brother, to whom he had been recommended by her. 
Emin wished he had a letter to the King, and was furious at General 
Yorke's forbidding him to fight ; probably the General was too anxious 
for his safety." But, according to what Emin says in his book, it was 
Mr. Mitchell who would not allow him to fight, saying, i( as it is my 
order, you are to obey," in spite of all that Frederick wished to do for him. 
To my great disappointment, I have not succeeded in securing this 
letter, historically one of the most interesting of Emin's letters. Some 
time ago Mrs. Climenson disposed of it to Sir Herbert Raphael, who gave 
it away to someone — but to whom he could not tell me, so that I have 
been unable to trace it any further. I can only quote what Mrs. Climen- 
son says — <s The following description of the King of Prussia is so inter- 
esting I insert it, the whole letter to Mrs. Montagu, a folio sheet closely 
written, being too long." 

I will do my endeavour to describe the King of Prussia's person 
and his way of living. He is no taller than Emin the Persian, he 

124 emin's description of Frederick's personal appearance. 

has a short neck, he has one of the finest made heads ever I saw in 
my life, with a noble forehead; he wears a false wigg, he has very- 
handsome nose. His eyes are grey, sharp and lively, ready to pearce 
one through and through. He likes a man that, looks him in the 
face when he is talking to him. He is well made every where, with 
a bend back, not stupid (sic stooped ?) at all, like many Europeans. 
His voice is the sweetest and clearest ever I heard. He takes a great 
quantity of Spanish snuff, from his nose down to the buckles of his 
shoes or boots is all painted with that confounded stuff. His hands 
are as red as paint, as if he was a painter, grizy all over. He dines 
commonly between twelve and one, and drinks a bottle of wine at 
his dinner. I was told that he was very unhealthy in the time of 
peace, but since this war he has grown healthy, and left off drinking 
a great quantity of coffee, which he did formerly. All the satisfac- 
tion that I have, which is great enough that I have seen Caesar alive, 
nay twenty times greater, he is more like King Solomon, for he rules 

his nation by wisdom and understanding His armies are not 

only disciplined to the use of arms, but very religious, and say their 
prayers three times a day ; • it is never neglected, even when they are 
on the march. 

Emin winds up with a message of apology to Mr. Burke for not 
having written to him from want of time. (Letters of Elizabeth Montagu.) 

Discussing his own personal appearance with his reader, Henri de 
Catt, Frederick said to him, "My hat matches the rest of my clothing; 
it all looks well worn and old, and I like it a hundred times better than 
if it were new. I hold neither for ostentation, show, nor vanity; that 
is how I am, sir, and you must take me as I am. One thing might be 
better, and that is my face, which is always daubed with Spanish snuff. 
This is an abominable habit which I have contracted; and you must 
confess that I have somewhat of a swinish air — confess now." 

*' I confess Sire, that your face, as well as your uniform, is very much 
covered with snuff." 

" Eh, Sir, that is what I call being a little swinish. When my good 
mother was alive, I was cleaner, or, to speak more exactly, less unclean. 
My affectionate mother used to have made for me every year a dozen 
shirts with pretty ruffles which she used to send to me wherever I might 
be. Since the irreparable loss of her which I have suffered, nobody has 
taken any care of me ; but let us not touch that chord." (Frederick the 
Great, Memoirs of his reader , Henri de Catt, 1758-1760.) 


To Lord Lyttelton. 
My dearest Lord ( Se P° rr J 7S$) 

I am vexed at Heart that I cou'd not have the Honor to 
write this Letter from the Army of the King of Prussia, with an 
Account of the Glorious Battle and of Victory over the Russians of 
Gastrin, than of hence, where I am doing nothing by idling away my 
time. I believe I have traveled so wisely to go, and to be in that 
Battle, when I heard at Hagu that the Russians were coming to 
Prussian Country, as the King of Prussia marched from the Seige of 
Almutz to the releive of his Country, but I was unlucky enough 
not to be permitted to be in the Battle, where I might seen, and learn 
some Knowledge ; besides the Honour which is do to me after going 
through so much Fitigu, not only impoverishing myself, but very 
near killed without Sleep, or Rest, all the way from Hagu to Silicia. 
I have no Complain to make of His Prussian Majesty, for he was 
very gracious to me, in leting me march with him 4 days at the 
Head of his Noble Army, but of some body else, which M rs Montagu 
will inform your Lordship of it. For it is needles for me to say 
more, and your Lordship Trouble to read. But if you be desirious 
to know of my Present Situation here, is miserable, and disagreeable 
enough. I rather be (the few Months that I am to remain in Europe) 
with your Lordship, than here doing nothing like a Vagabond. 
Tho His Grace is very kind to me but my good Lord, that will 
never teach me to learn the Art of War. I never was so comfortless, 
as since I left my Friends. I am resolved to return, if I am not 
detatched to some Corps in few days time. I might if I had money 
of my own. It is just enough to keep me alive, and no more to 
spare to buy me a Horse. 

Our army is near enough to shake hands with the Enemy, but 
there is no Talk of a Battle yet, and shou'd I be so happy to see 
one, while remain here, I wou'd take upon me to give your Lordship 
as good account, as I can. Prince Ferdinande was here about some 
days ago, who without any Bodies Interest took a very great Xotice 
of me. His Highness had another Letter with the particulars of the 
Battle of Custrin from the King of Prussia; that after the Battle 
they found twenty six Thowsand Russians killed in the Field, and 
hundred and sixty Cannons taken with four or fife General Officers. 
The Loss of the Prussians was but six hundred, and about as many 
wounded. This was a great Stroke, but realy my Lord I think I 
have been used barbarously not to have some little share of it. 
Had not I been a Christian belive me I wou'd cut the Head of the 
man off who prevented me. I trie and use all the means to forget 
it, but is imposible. I am ready to burst in Two, and shall remain 
unhappy till I receive a Letter of Consolation either from you, or 
from my Magnanimus Queen of the East, Glory of the World." Then 


I may comfort my poor self a little, otherwise I can't. Mv best 
Respects to my Lady to M« & Miss Lyttleton. I am with- the 
utmost Gratitude, and Veneration 

My dear dear Lord 
Your Lordships 

Most Obedt most gratefull obliged humble Servant 

J. Emin. 
Marvel at the Duke of Marlbroughs Quarter 
in the Bishoprick of Munster Sep r nth jy^g 

P.S. If you Honour me with a Letter send it to my D r 
Monsey and he will convey it to me. 

On Dec. 2 Mrs. Montagu writes to her husband, 

M Emin is come home, he has a great loss of the Duke of Marl- 
borough* who called him his Lion, and kept him always with him. 
He has been a sort of aide-de-camp to Count Schullenburg ; he 
has lately been in Holland, where the Armenians have promised 
to assist his schemes. Lady Yarmouth has him with her in a 
morning, and promises him her interest with a very great man,f 
Lord Northumberland, Lord Anson, and General York are to be his 
advocates with Mr. Pitt. He is an astonishing creature to take thus 
with all kinds of people. He hopes to go home in January in a 
sort of public character. He is full of anecdotes of the King of 
Prussia. He says his eyes and forehead are just like mine, and he 
is as particular in his description of him as a portrait painter 
would be. He marched with him seven days ; the Prussian Hero is 
as easy and familiar as a private man, knowing his character will 
give him more respect than his rank ; it is not advisable in general 
for Princes to lay aside their rank lest they should not otherwise 
gain respect, but a truly great man is above all respect that is not 

In the "Letters," vol. ii, p. 241, Mrs. Climenson writes, "not only 
did he think Mrs. Montagu equal in cleverness to Frederick the Great, 
but he considered her forehead and eyes like his, to the great indignation 
of Lord Bath and Dr. Monsey, who pronounced it impossible she should 
resemble so blood-thirsty a character." 

* The Duke died of a fever at Minister in Westphalia, on Oct. 28, 1758. 
+ George II ? 

lady Yarmouth's good-nature. 127 

The next morning he waited on the late lady Yarmouth,* 
with a letter from her dear son count Walmoden, commissary- 
general in the Hanoverian army. After some compliments 
passed, her ladyship said in French, "what is your desire? 
Why did not you accept my son's purse of a hundred ducats 
which, when you took leave of him early in the morning, he offered 
you in our army at his quarters ? You have had nothing in all 
the campaign for your pains." He thanked her ladyship, and 
said, he wanted for nothing but her interest in his favour, that 
he might see the late Lord Chatham (at that time Mr. Pitt), 
who had made a point to make himself inaccessible to Emin. 
She said to him, " Go home, and I will speak to his majesty who 
will directly request Mr. Pitt to see you." No sooner was he in 
his habitation, than a servant was sent by Mr. Pitt, for Emin 
to go to him. He went to his lordship, who lived then in St. 
James's Square. He there saw the great Mr. Pitt, who ran and 
took him in his arms, and said, "Well done, my friend! upon 
my honour I declined giving you an audience, on purpose to 
discover if you had art enough to find a way to see me. I 
have spoke of you both to my sister Mary,f and your good 
friend Mrs. Montague. When you came to my house, I ordered 
my servant to say that I could not see you, which disobliged 
them both ; but I told them my reasons, and that I did it 
with a design. Now I find you were awake, and at last you 
have succeeded, and I hope you will succeed in every thing you 
undertake ; and from this moment I will regard you equally 
with your other friends. I am ordered by his majesty to let you 
know, that he is graciously pleased with your conduct in his 

* Amelia, daughter of Johann von Wendt, born 1704, married Gottlieb Adam won 
Wallmoden. She attracted the notice of George II. at Hanover in 1735. In 1739 she was 
divorced from her husband, and in 1740 created Countess of Yarmouth. After the death of 
George II. she returned to Hanover in 1765. She had two sons, the younger Johann 
Ludwig, born in 1736, was brought up at the English Court, entered Hanoverian service, 
and held a high command. 

f Youngest sister of Mr Pitt, a "very pretty, modest, sensible sort of young woman" 
(Mrs, Montagu thus writes of her), a great favourite of her brother's. 


army, which count Walmoden has given a particular account of ; 
and his majesty has commanded me to inform you, that you 
may have your choice of two things; either to be honoured 
with a commission in his army, or to have one in Bengal, 
where your father and friends are." Bmin returned his humble 
thanks, saying, He had what he wanted, which was the honour 
of seeing him. He then took leave, and went away with in- 
finite satisfaction. And this circumstance made more noise than 
the reception of the king of Prussia. His majesty did not fail 
even to acquaint the late duke and duchess of Northumberland, 
of wandering Emin's behaviour in Germany ; which he himself 
thinks but trifling, though his friends commended it, out of 
mere partiality, for his further encouragement, to make it more 
easy to push him on, and to pave a way for his honest design ; 
for that reason alone they spread his character every where, to 
make him a little considerable, well knowing he was as poor as 
Job ; yet he could have subsisted upon little with content, so 
as not to be an incumbrance to any one of them for their zeal. 


From the Original at Hagley Hall. By kind permission of the Owner. 




Letters to Mr. Davies — to Dr. Monsey — to Lord Lyttelton — A missing letter from 

f Decides on going to Turkey, thence to Armenia — Leghorn — Mr. Kinlock — 
Emin " a dangerous fellow " — Severe illness at Florence — Horace Mann — Mr. 
Thompson of Leghorn — Emin reciting his adventures like Othello — Governor 
of Leghorn grants him a passport — Mr. and Mrs. Charles Evelyn — Voyage to 
Alexandretta — First stage of journey — Emin poses as an Englishman to the 
terror of a Turk — Aleppo — Journey through Armenian villages — Erzroum — 
Snowbound till April — Etchmiatsin — Dogs set on him by hoi}' monks — 
Penance for killing a dog. property of Holy Church — Companions in peni- 
tential chamber — Set free by the Catholicos — Returns to Aleppo — To England 
— Dr. Patrick Russell's letter.] 

Letter to Mr. Davies. 

A copy in the possession of Mrs. Montagu, undated, but probably written 

about this time. 

I have a Favour to beg of you which is this, that you woud 
write to your Correspondent Mr. Maningham to prevail on my Father 
to send me an Order on you for £^00 Sterling, to be paid me at 
such time as I am returning to the Indies or to my Father for I 
do not desire to have it before that time. 

My reason for desireing this Money its that I may be able to 
purchase certain warlike Accoutrements Mathematical Instruments, 
and Models of different things which will be necessary to me. 
17 129 


Be pleased to acquaint my Father that I have again put into your 
Hands the £60, ,0, that you were so good to pay me by his Order, 
and if he seems to doubt this, may I beg you woud order M r Maning- 
ham to pay the whole £60, ,0 to my Father and I will give you up 
your Note of Hand or allow it on the Balance whichever you please. 

If my Father will not pay to M r Tarkan the £r2, ,10s. or 100 
areat* Rupees that were sent to purchase a pair of Pistoles & which 
I paid you Yesterday I must beg you woud order M r Maningham 
to pay that sum of £12, ,10, , to my Father, and he will then I am 
sure pay it to M r Tarkan. 

To Doctor Messenger Monsey. 

(April 26) 

my dear Friend r 759' 

I thank my God, and Protector, now am going au with 
a chearfull Heart & satisfaction to my mind All these I own to 

whom I have obtain Wisdom, & Understanding, and he will 
stand my my designs in rediming my disstressed Countrymen, 

Fear not, nor greive f of Emin your Friend, do not pity, and 

say O' poor Emin, but say thus, let per. Live and die like a 


Give me leave to make this my Will, and you my Absence,, 
you are to act for me as if I was present. What you do according 

shall be always right, and remain in full force. I inclos'd in 
this a cop Exchange amounts to 1-28 Dollars in english money 
two hundred & k Sterling drawn upon M r Richard Willis's Part- 

ner, M r Paton at Leghorn that I am to have it, but in case any 
accident shoud happen to me or I shoud happen to die in the Way, 
he is to pay you the above some two hundred and thirty fife 
Pounds, and you to receive, or your Order, and do what you think 
best with. And another Note of M r Williss by which you will see 
he has insured everything I take with me on board of Prince Edward 
I have paid him four Guineas for insuring of it ; that if I shou'd be 
taken by the French, you are to be advis'd by him, and receive the 
Money for me which is eighty Pounds, so far right and hope you 
will understand it sufficiently. 

I have received my first years Pay from my noble Friends for 
which I thank them with a greatfull Heart, and I hope one day to 
have it in my Power to return them. Permitt me to give you the 
Instruction for the second year of Their Favours how you are to 
proceed in it. llowings are the Gentlemen & Ladys who will ad- 

vance the Money 

* Arcot, It seems that Rs. 500 were equal to £60 in those days ! « 


• 52,, 

10 „ 

.. pd. . 

. 25 

»i >} 

; . .not pd. 

. 26,, 

5 1. 

. . not pd. 

. I0„ 

10 „ 

. .not pd. 

. 2I„ 

y) j> 

2o£ bank note . 

. 2I„ 

>> 'J 

. .not pd. . 

• 5„ 

5u >> 


£ s. <f. 
Earl of Northumberland my Prince & Patron 50 

Guineas pd. 
dy Anson a Bank Note of 
dy Sophia Egerton 25 guineas 
Lord Lytteton 

161, , 10,, „ 

to receive this as soon as they returned from the 
for the next Winter, and apply to M r Willis the 
nt my Friend that he shall write to his Friend 
at Constantinople or any par of Turkey to pay me 
some of money or to my order as you will desire 

[ This letter is very worn and ragged, and a piece is missing here.] 

nor my Lady Sophia 

The rest are to continue besides the Arch Bishop of Canterbury 

my Lady Anson will instruct you about that 

so that my dear Doctor you are to send the Advice before 

the month of November or December next 1759 that 

I shou'd be able to receive it in 1760 in the month of 


out of the above money is to be paid eight Pounds and no more 

to my Taylor M r Hiatt and to have reed in full and 

send me the remainder whatever it is that is you are 

to pay whenever you see my hand Writting and not before Witness 

m ? Hand Joseph Emin. 

the 20 th april 1759 

To Doctor Mousey. 

I set out for Battle tomorrow morning. 

To Lord Lyttewdon. 

28 April 1759 
My dearest Lord, and noble Counsellor Exeter. 

I was unfortunate for not finding your Lordship awaked, last 
Saturday to take my proper Leave, but I own I was not sorry 
because it woud renewed, and make still more the great Greif of 
my Heart. For it is better for me to be allways flying from a thing 


that is tender and pityfull, lest it shou'd have more effect on my 
mind than it is necessary. To tell you the truth my Noble Lord, 
I was wastly glad I cou'd not see My Comfort, and my Heart M rs 
Montagu, for I shou'd have cried, and shed Tears like a Child, tho 
I tried the night before when I had the Honor to supp with her 
Ladyship, but still I was upon a very weak foundation of shewing 
my Tears. And upon my Word I have been ever since extreamly 
angry with myself to think how much like a Boy my Heart behaved 
on those Matters. Shame for me, and how little, I have made my- 
self. Had I been Father of Dozen Children I ought not as much 
as to fetch a Sigh, therefore it shews I am yet a Puple and hope 
to behave better, or behave like a man, when I am among my 
Countrymen, where I shall find the World, not the School. 

I have been here my good Lord since last Monday, and am 
afraid to stay here more than I wish to stay. Our Captain says fort- 
night. I doubt it will be more than that, very little advantage to 
my Purse. I lodge with one M r Newhorn. I dined with the Dean of 
Exeter* few days ago, he is very well, he desired me to be remem- 
bered to M rs Montagu the same I entreat your Lordship with my 
humble Respects to her, and tell her I am always her slave I am 

my Lord your Lordships 

most obed* and humble Servant 

p.s. J * Emin * 

If. you honor me with a line let it be inclosed to the Dean he 
will send it to me. 


[Mrs. Climenson refers in her book to another letter of Emin's, dated 
June 9, 1759, written on board the Prince Edward from Genoa, where 
the boat was in quarantine. I have not the original of this letter. 
There was a mention of the voyage in it, two ships having chased the 
boat for two hours off the coast of Spain, and the letter seems to have 
been an interesting one, so that it is to be regretted that I do not 
possess it. Mrs. Climenson says that Emin was on his way to cross Turkey 
to join Prince Heraclius with letters of recommendation from his father 
and the principal Armenians of Calcutta, also a letter to the ,f Archbishop 
of Armenia," but there was never any such person as an ' f Archbishop 
of Armenia." Apparently the reference is to the Catholicos, or Supreme 
Patriarch of the Armenians.] 

* I<ord Lytteltou's brother Charles was Dean of Exeter. 


Here Emin thought proper not to lose any more time, 
and consulted the earl of Northumberland, about going in one 
of the Turkey Company's vessels to Aleppo, and thence to the 
Armenian mountains. His lordship, approving of it, favoured him 
with a few guineas ; the late Charles Stanhope, Mrs. Montague, 
the late lady Anson, Miss Talbot, and the late lady Sophia 
Egerton, likewise added a few more ; and these, with part of 
his father's money saved he paid to one Mr. Willes, a merchant 
in the city, from whom he took a draft ; and when he arrived 
at Leghorn, he received the sum of 250 Venetian zechins from 
his partner Mr. Panton. Mr. Kinlock, who was going to take 
the office of consul at Aleppo, and who had promised before, at 
Dr. Campbell's in London, to protect him at Aleppo, in case of 
necessity, now made an apology, and said, He was very sorry 
he could not perform his promise, since the merchants of the 
Turkey Company had strictly charged him to have nothing to 
do with Emin, for fear the Turks should be apprized of his in- 
tention, and the Company should be drawn into a scrape. 
"Take not even the least notice of the Armenian," said they, 
"for he is a dangerous fellow." Mr. Kinlock shipped himself 
off from Leghorn to Aleppo ; and, sure enough, Emin the mad- 
man was left behind, entirely helpless and destitute of friends, 
vexed to the very soul, not knowing what to do with himself, 
and surprized at the barbarity of both Mr. Kinlock and those 
fearful merchants, who were cruel enough not to acquaint him 
with their intention while he was in London, where he might 
have taken some other step. 

He remained at Leghorn six weeks in that comfortless situa- 
tion ; having hardly an acquaintance but Mr. Panton, who was a 
merchant, with an indifferent way of thinking too common with 
that cast, and no other ship to sail for Scanderoon,* he hired a 

* Alexandretta, Turkish Skanderun or Iskanderun, from Iskander (Alexander the Great). 
This porij was founded by Alexander the Great in 333 B.C. 


poor* chaise, and went sixty miles up to the beautiful city of 
Florence. On the way he was taken ill with a very severe pleu- 
risy, the common disorder of the country, which is reckoned the 
most dangerous of all indispositions. No sooner had he reached 
the city, with much ado to keep himself up, than he took a 
lodging with one signor Giovanni Baptista, who with difficulty 
understood him ; but when he came to know his disorder, with 
great humanity sent immediately for a surgeon, who bled him 
four times in twenty-four hours. His medicine, prescribed by a 
physician, was to drink only milk-warm water, as much as he 
wanted, with a lemon squeezed into each draft, in a large tea- 
cup. The doctor attended him once every day, for two parloes, 
which is equal to an English shilling ; and the honest surgeon, 
twice a-day, for one parlo. In seven days he recovered so as to 
breathe freely, when he went to wait on Mr. Mann, then envoy 
from England, now Sir Horatio, f This noble gentleman received 
him very kindly, treated him most politely, and told him, He 
was in the wrong to come out so soon after so dangerous a dis-_ 
order. The three other Italian gentlemen, who dined with us 
that day, were surprized at his rashness, and said, " No person, 
in the same illness is allowed by the physicians to appear out 
of his room for at least six months." What they said was too 
true, for, after dinner, he went home, and fell into the severest 
relapse imaginable, as if he had been stabbed under the right 
breast, through to the blade-bone. He lay almost breathless, 
which obliged him again to lose blood twice more, and to 
continue drinking the same warm water with lemon juice, till 
he happily recovered. Mr. Mann's politeness, with a general in- 
vitation to his table, made him pass three or four months pretty 

* Post ? 

t Horace Maun, born 1701, died at Florence November 1786. Diplomatist and virtuoso. 
In 1740 envoy extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary to the court of Florence, retain- 
ing that post until his death. His principal duty was to watch the Old Pretender ( | araes 
Stuart). Chiefly known from his correspondence with Horace Walpole 1741-86. (Century 


comfortably ; when Mr. Panton wrote from Leghorn, that there 
was a Dutch ship from Amsterdam, which would sail for Scan- 
deroon in three weeks' time. This he told Mr. Mann, and re- 
turned to Leghorn; but was still in doubt to venture upon the 
passage, for fear of the Turks laying hold of him at Aleppo. 
He could find no other method ; he had no friends to consult, 
or have recourse to ; and seemed as if he was hanging in the 
air by a single thread, not knowing what would become of him ; 
when, to his surprize, Mr. Thompson, an English gentleman in 
the naval service of the republic of Leghorn, met him in the 
Square, and told him, That the governor desired to speak to 
him ; and hoped he would dine with him, if not otherwise en- 
gaged, as he never had the honour of seeing him in that town. 
The kind sound of this message made him to hope for some 
consoling event. Good Mr. Thompson said, " Come, let us first 
go to my house, if you have nothing to do." Emin complied ; 
and when he came there, found a French lady, Mr. Thompson's 
wife, with a beautiful daughter by her first husband, very polite 
and hospitable. The natural curiosity of that wise nation 
made her very inquisitive concerning Emin's case, who, without 
the least reserve, told his whole story ; having been several 
months deprived of the company of his angelic female friends 
in old England. Mr. Thompson was interpreter ; and Emin, like 
Othello the Moor of Venice, Mrs. Thomson hearing his tale like 
a tender mother ; and the young lady, resembling the lovely 
Desdemona, drinking up each word with thirst, and, with tears 
in her eyes, pitying him, and fetching deep sighs ; which extra- 
ordinary sensibility of a charming girl, hardly twelve years of 
age, was so affecting as to make both father and mother weep. 
Woe to Emin, if it had not been for the virtues of the fair sex, 
in whose chaste friendship he has experienced greater confidence, 
probity, and humanity, than in all his count rymen, and even 
in his own relations ! And he adds, for that reason, the Eu- 
ropean , ladies are treated like queens by their noble-hearted hus- 


bands j on the contrary, the Asiatic slaves use their wives like 
servant-maids or slave-girls ! When he ended his tale, the good 
Mrs. Thompson desired him, with great politeness, to dine at 
their house as long as he staid at Leghorn. 

The tragedy being over, Mr. Thompson and he went to the 
governor, who, without any ceremony or question, said to 
Emin; "Sir, though you have said nothing to us, yet we know 
very well all your motives, and your honourable design, from 
the first time to the last of your being in England, and at this 
place; we are well acquainted with every circumstance of the 
hardships you have undergone for the good of your country. 
Mr. Kinlock did very wrong, in respect to the merchants' charge; 
and your English friends were too thoughtless of all your pains, 
in not procuring for you an empty protection which would have 
cost them nothing. Do not make yourself uneasy, I will give 
you an Imperial passport, seeing which, the Turks will not 
molest you. Mr. Kinlock acts as consul for this port as well as 
for the English Turkey Company." He added, that he was sorry^ 
for that famous English nation, who are apt now and then to 
neglect a man of merit. At dinner, Mr. Thompson acted a 
second time as dragoman between Emm and the governor of 
Leghorn ; who with cheerfulness expressed his satisfaction, rinding 
the narrative exactly agreed with the intelligence he had before. 
The meal being closed he ordered his secretary to write a pass- 
port, which was translated by an Arab inula into Turkish, some- 
thing in this form: "This is to certify, and to give notice, to 
all the Pashas or Governors in the kingdoms of the Othmans, 
that the bearer, Joseph Emin, an Armenian, native of the city 
of Hamadan in the kingdom of Persia, having been in our 
Imperial service of the republic of Leghorn, we have been 
pleased to invest him with our most august Imperial commission, 
to pass your dominions unmolested, into the mountains of Upper 
Armenia, to collect different kinds of flowers, or roots of various 
herbs, or such birds as we have not seen, or are not to be found 


in our climate ; to send, or bring them with him, for our Im- 
perial museum. Further, should he the said Joseph Emin, our 
most beloved faithful servant, stand in need of guards, to travel 
with more safety, you are to grant them to him without any 
objection, and even with respect and politeness ; the same shall 
be considered as done to us. We have in like manner been 
pleased to grant, and have granted him a permission to shew 
this passport to our palioz Kinlock in Aleppo, to respect and to 
protect him in case of necessity. Given under our hand and 
seal, dated at Leghorn, in the year of our Lord Jesus Christ 
1760, and in the month of October." 

The most humane governor said, " This pass will entirely in- 
demnify and keep you frqni that people's pretensions : 
whether 3-ou succeed in your plan, or not, we shall be very glad 
to hear from you and here is a letter likewise to Mr. Kinlock, 
who will receive you with politeness. Go on and prosper, 
without fear; put your trust in God, who will take better 
care of you than all mankind." 

Mr. Thompson, on Emin's inquiry, informed him, that his 
excellency the governor was a prince of the blood of France, in 
the service of the German emperor.* Sir John Evelyn's grandson, 
his old school-fellow, the elder of the two brothers at Mr. 
Middleton's academy, was then married to an English lady at 
Leghorn ; and behaved, with his family, very hospitable to him 
during the time he staid there. His younger brother John, 
Emin's friend, died of the small-pox, while at school in London. 
He omitted inserting this before, and, in gratitude, esteems it 
proper to be mentioned here.f 

* The real Emperor of Germany — the Emperor of Austria. 

f About this time Emin wrote another letter to Mrs. Montagu, which I do not possess. 
Mrs. Climenson says, vol. ii, p. 168, of Mrs. Montagu's " Letters," " Emin after a serious illness 
was setting off on his dangerous journey through Turkey, and on September 20, wrote " To 
the Montagu the Great," ending up with *' My dearest, brightest and the wisest Queen of 
the East, your very affectionate and faithful, obedient humble servant and soldier Emin 
of Hasna^ari in Persia." (There is a place called Hassansari in Persia, but not Hasnasari.) 


Emin, a fortnight after, took leave of his friends at Leghorn, 
the governor, Mr. and Mrs. Thompson, her amiable daughter, 
Mr. and Mrs. Evelyn, who distinguished herself like the other 
ladies of her country,* and gave Emin so large a cask when he 
went on board, that it served exactly every morning at break- 
fast for five persons, in a pleasant passage of thirty days ; 
namely, Emin, the Dutch captain, his two mates, and a cabin- 
boy, and that with a voracious sea appetite, till they arrived at 
Scanderoon, the corner of the Mediterranean. According to the 
usual custom, he sent to acquaint Mr. Hay, an eminent mer- 
chant, to whom he had a letter of recommendation from his 
most celebrated friend Mrs. Montagu. After five or six days, 
he received an answer by an Armenian cowass (or a mule-driver), 
with four horses, which carried him, with his baggage, and the 
Dutch captain. 

The first stage, after about four hours travelling, is at 
Bay long, on a high mountain, in the beginning of the heavy rains. 
There they alighted at a mountaineer's house, called Chapan 
Oglu, a head of banditti, and a great robber ; who very for- 
tunately was not at home, which prevented their arms from 
being taken away. There was only his concealed lady, with a 
few slave-girls to attend. They slept very uncomfortably, and 
in the morning set out on their journey, with a stout fellow 
armed, belonging to the thief, on pretence to guard them. In 
the mean time the rain poured down like a deluge. After 
travelling four hours, when they arrived at the foot of a barren 
rocky mountain, their faithful guardian stopped in the road, 
demanding a brace of pistols which Emin had in his girdle-sash, 
kept dry under a fur coat and an English cloak, besides twenty 
zechins ; threatening, otherwise, to kill both the captain and 
Emin. The author was advised by the Armenian not to speak 
Turkish ; and, while the mule-driver stood as an interpreter 

* Mrs. Evelyn was the daughter of Capt. Fortunatus Wright of Liverpool, who com- 
manded the Fane and King George privateers, and perished at sea in 1757. 


between the Turk and the captain, Emin said nothing all the 
while, which made the Turk surprizingly mad. He said to the 
Armenian mule-driver, " What sort of a Frank is this ? He is 
not in the least frightened like others." He replied, " He does 
not understand the Frank language ; he is an English moun- 
taineer : you may see his hand is on his pistol, ready cocked 
under his cloak ; he waits to receive your fire first, and, if you 
miss him, depend upon it he is sure of killing you ; and I see 
your piece is as wet as dung, and his dry, loaded with English 
powder." On which bloody argument, the Turk spurred his 
horse, and stood a great way back, saying " Now I see a true 
Englishman, of whom we have been told often, beating their 
enemies with a quarter of their number : do, tell him to give 
me some bukshish for coming so far with him, instead of twenty 
zechins." Emin gave him a quarter of a piastre, equal to five 
annas. During this time, the Dutch captain thought he was 
attacked by the soul-taker Israfil, the angel of Mahomed ; 
begging of the English mountaineer Emin, to give the devil any 
sum he demanded, for which he would pay double, so as to get 
rid of the fellow. The poor Dutchman was so frightened, that, 
when they came to Aleppo, he fell sick, and very narrowly 
escaped dying. Here ended the first chapter of his dangerous 

In three days they reached that beautiful city, where Mr. 
Hay kindly received him. He waited on Mr. Kinlock the palioz ; 
and, in a week's time, bought three horses, hired three Armenian 
servants, and set out with a large caravan, just in the beginning 
of the winter, directly to the north of the continent, or Armenia. 
The rain continued : and, in seven or eight days, turned into 
snow ; without ceasing for one hour. Emin had with him a 
pair of pocket compasses, and a map of Asia made at Paris, the 
gift of his good patron the duke of Northumberland. He en- 
couraged his servants to leave the caravan, and with great 
difficulty they were persuaded at last ; the poor fellows thought 


they should have been lost without a guide, not knowing he had 
the instruments of guidance, the fruits of European wisdom, in 
his pocket, the compass and the map. For the first two stages, 
when they were arrived with perfect exactness, they thought 
Emin was an angel in a human shape, more particularly seeing 
him in every village respected by the Turks ; not that he 
shewed the pass, which he never made use of ; but, as he un- 
derstood the language, he shewed not the least glimpse of fear, 
like the poor Armenian merchants, but behaved in such a 
domineering way, that the Turks imagined he was some great 
Armenian, a favourite of the sultan, with a firman in his pos- 
session. They were obliged to be very complaisant and civil to 
him, as well as to his servants, who, poor creatures, never felt 
themselves so happy in their lives, nor travelled so freely, com- 
manding over their own lords and masters. They travelled 
twenty-eight days in the rain or snow, over a great many moun- 
tains ; when, before they entered a village called Yengy-coch, 
they saw the spears of the Turkish troops stuck up before each 
door, by guess about 500 ; these happened to be the broken 
part of the army against prince Solomon, the Emerate Georgian. 
Emin said to his men, " You may stay in that village, and rest 
for the night in an Armenian house ; I will go on, lest those 
devils should be inquisitive about me." Leaving them behind, 
he pushed his way through deep snow, and after three hours 
more travelling, came to another Armenian village called Jinis, 
just in the dusk of the evening. When the countrymen saw 
him mounted on a fine grey horse, they took him to be a 
Turkish trooper ; but when he spoke to them in their own 
language, it made them very angry ; they ran to their clubs, in 
order to beat him heartily, using menacing language, and asking, 
How he durst travel alone without a caravan, since he was a 
Christian ? Emin, seeing this behaviour, and before they could 
begin their rough operation, spoke to them in the Turkish 
language, and threatened to have all the villagers put to the 


sword by the troops on march, who would be there the next 
morning. No sooner had they heard the sham Turk, whom they 
took to be a real one, than the poor creatures w T ere frightened 
out of their senses, and a hundred of them came down upon 
their knees, begging for mercy, and promising a sum of money, 
if he would forgive them, and not think about it any more ; at 
the same time expressing their fidelity to the Othmans, who are 
the only people able to travel alone, in the depth of winter, or 
at any season of the year. 

Emin, pretending to be satisfied, promised faithfully to say 
nothing about it. Then alighting from his horse, he was con- 
ducted by them with respectful awe to the burgomaster's warm 
house, where they killed a sheep, and took very great care of 
his horse, with trembling fear. When the pilou and cabat was 
ready for supper, Emin ordered all the people to go to their own 
houses, but granted the burgomaster and his brother the favour 
to remain in the room, to serve and keep him company. The 
victuals were laid, the table cloth upon the ground : that day 
being Wednesday, and a fast day, he seemed backward in eating ; 
the Armenians thought his anger was not over, and that he 
wanted to be bribed ; for that diabolical custom reigns among 
the Turkish troops, who, on their march, for one or two days halt 
in Armenian villages, where they grow sulky on purpose, neither 
eating themselves, nor letting their horses feed, till they exact a 
sum of money from the poor landlord. They were going to make 
a contribution, when Emin ordered them not to stir from his 
presence ; and began to speak very familiarly to them, saying, 
" You, Christians, what is the reason of your objecting, if any 
of your countrymen should take a fancy to be a warrior ? And 
why are you not free ? Why have you not a sovereign of your 
own?" The answer they made was, "Sir, our liberty is in the 
next world ; our king is Jesus Christ." Emin said, " How came 
that about? Who told you so?" They answered "The Holy 
Fathers of the Church, who say, the Armenian nation has been 


subject to the Mahometans from the creation of the world, and 
must remain so till the day of resurrection ; otherwise we could 
soon drive the Othmans out of our country." Emin said, 
" Now, my friends, I will reveal a secret to you, if you will 
swear by the Holy Gospel, not to behave as you did before." 
They said, " Yes," and did swear. He said, "In the first place, 
take away the meat, for I am a Christian, and fast as well as 
you." Then taking out of his pocket the Geographical History 
of Moses Khorinesis, he sent for a priest that could read a little, 
shewed the genealogy of the kings of the Armenians, and quoted 
our Saviour's words to the Disciples, who asked him, Who should 
inherit the kingdom of God ? He answered, (( Whosoever shall 
leave behind him his father, mother, brother, and wife, lift up 
the cross, and follow me." He then said, "You must have 
heard of the Christians of Frankestan, who, if they had listened 
to their priests, and had understood the Gospel in the manner 
in which our holy fathers have explained it to us, (which may 
God avert !) they would have been as great slaves to the 
Mahometans as we are now. The meaning of shouldering the 
cross, is the ensign which the brave soldiers carry against the 
Infidels, to fight and die under it ; those being the true Chris- 
tians, who can inherit the kingdom of God ; and not they that 
lead a lazy cowardly life, like us, who are become cattle, de- 
voured by wolves : witness David's Psalm " Be not ye as the 
horse, or as the mule, which have no understanding, whose 
mouth must be held in with a bit and bridle." For example, a 
rational being should not suffer himself to be a wilful slave to 
others ; he ought even to be cautious not to be domineered 
over by his own fellow-christians ; since God has created them 
all free alike, to be ruled or governed by good laws, with the 
same justice to the rich or to the poor ; shewing that every 
man is honourable, otherwise he is no better than a beast : for 
example — Man that is in honour, and understandeth not, is like 
the beast that perisheth." «. 


Emin going on with this harangue, was interrupted by the 
secular priest, who cried out very loud, " He is in the right;" 
and running out of the house, called all the people of the village, 
men, women, and children, who came all in a flock, and would 
ardently kiss Emin's feet. He had not, like the holy fathers, 
ambition enough to let them, but received every one of them in 
his arms witn equal affection, saluting them all without distinc- 
tion. There was then seen a sort of joyfulness and lamentation 
mixed together, worthy to be described by any man of elo- 
quence. The honest secular cried out, "My dear brethren, love 
and respect him ; for he is the very man prophesied of by St. 
Nerses the Great, about six hundred and thirty years ago, who 
will be the instrument of delivering us from the hands of our 
oppressors, and of the enemies of our faith." 

The landlord, with several others, started at the priest, and 
said, fC What was that you pronounced ? or why are we kept 
in ignorance?" He said, "My dear people, what signifies 
oulling off shoes and stockings before we reach the bank of the 
rivulet ; every thing in good time : besides, the holy prophecy 
is for 666 years to be fulfilled ; during that period, we must 
continue as in subjection; 638 years are expired, there remain 
28 years more to complete our persecution ; then we shall 
become free ; then no power in the world can oppress us. Our 
guest must have seen a great deal of the w r orld, as we may 
judge by his conduct, as well as by his great father; you may 
be judges yourselves : you were frightened at first, when you 
imagined he was a Turk ; for your harsh behaviour on his 
saluting you first in a Christian language, any person in his 
place, even myself who am a priest, would have received the 
contribution money you offered to give him, and would have 
gone his way ; nor could any person have known the im- 
position, which you, through your terror, forced upon yourselves. 
I say, he is the very man ; but he must wait, and go through 
various, scenes of life twenty or thirty years more. I tell it to 


his face ; it is not he that does these things, it is the great 
God above, who has protected him, and turns his heart which 
way he pleases, as he did to Joseph and David." The people, 
in a goodnatured tone of voice, said to him, " Good father, you 
never before preached so well in your life to us." He said, 
" Yes — I think myself inspired ; particularly when I behold the 
countenance of our noble guest, who keeps silence till we make 
an end of our speech." 

In this happy way passed the time till two o'clock after 
midnight, when the congregation departed from Bmin, and that 
with reluctance. The next morning the servants arrived safe, 
but with dreadful news. They said, " Sir, you have acted very 
prudently to leave us behind. After we halted, the Balugbashi 
(or colonel) of the Turkish cavalry sent for us, threatening to 
cut off our heads if we did not tell the truth ; adding, the 
armed Gaur, your comrade, on a Turkish horse, who went 
through this place did not alight, nor took any notice of me ; 
who is he ? We answered that we knew nothing of him ; we 
know so far, that he came from England, and hired us as 
servants : he minded neither the Pasha, nor the English Palioz- 
beg; for twenty-eight days we have been coming day and 
night ; and we only hear the people, Turks and Christians, 
whispering, that he is the adopted son of the king of England, 
and has a white Firman from his august majesty the Sultan, 
Grand Signior of Osmanlus : that is all we know of our lord 
Emin ; and he is a man, who seems never in his life to have 
dreamed fear • he made us leave the caravan against our will ; 
we thought he would kill us, if we disobeyed. Upon our answer, 
the froth of his fury abated ; he grew very cool, and ordered 
the Armenian master of the village to give us very good accom- 
modation, and treat us with great hospitality, which is the 
natural disposition of our Armenian countrymen. But the poor 
villagers suffered much, paying unlawful contribution money to 
the Deirlish Bolukbashy and to his troopers; who said, You 


are Gavers* as bad as Georgians, who have destroyed mam- 
thousands of us ; therefore we will oppress you, to have satisfac- 
tion on them." Some boiled meat was then ordered and Emin, 
with his servants and the villagers, sat down together, and 
made a very hearty breakfast, eating enough to serve for a 

Extracts from Correspondence, 1759-1766. 

On Sept. 24. 1759, from "Wimple Street, Cav. Sq." Edmund Burke 
wrote a long letter to Mrs. Montagu requesting her to use her influence 
to procure for him the Consulship of Madrid ; in the course of the letter 
he says, referring to Emin, " I dwell with far more pleasure on my ac- 
knowledgments for what you have done for my friend in so obliging and 
genteel a manner. He has but just now succeeded after a world of de- 
lays, and no small opposition. He will always retain a very grateful sense 
of what you have done in his favour." 

November 5. 1760 Lord Lyttelton wrote to Mrs. Montagu assuring 
her that Emin, who had been reported murdered by the Turks, had got 
tjack safe to his father, t then goes on to say, "I presume he will go to 
some Indian Nabob or Rajah, and then you may have the pleasure of 
tracing his marches on the banks of the Ganges, and over many regions 
where the Gorgeous East showers on her Kings Barbaric Pearls and Gold, 
and if he is successful large tribute of those pearls and gold will come 
to you." 

Dec. 14, 1760, after a Drawing room held by George III. Dr. Monsey 
to Mrs. Montagu, " Serenissima Principessa ! There are no bounds to 
Pride, because an Earii is fallen in love with you, you must kiss a King, 
and just as he is on the brink of matrimony. .. .Emin has miscarried 
in Persia, and so now you will let yourself down to the deluding hopes 
of being Queen of England." 

In this method he sowed the corn grain of true religion, and 
planted the admirable zeal of military spirit every where he 

* Giaours, i.e. infidels. 

t A piece of intelligence invented for the occasion. 

% Lord' Bath, aged 76 ! 



travelled ; and after two days journey more he arrived at Arz- 
room, one of the capital towns of the higher Armenia. The snow 
being very heavy, almost five feet deep, the Armenian merchant, 
upon whom he had bills for the money paid at Aleppo, could 
not advise him to proceed to the destined place. Against 
his will, he was obliged to take advice, and spent exactly 
thirty- two days in staying there. The secret of his design be- 
came common in everybody's mouth, Armenians and Turks ; the 
first terrified, the other grumbling ; till one day a very hand- 
some young Janizary came into the inn, or caravanserai, where 
he lodged in one of the chambers, and asked him, if he would 
lend his pack-horse for three or four days work, to bring saman 
(or chopped straw) from the country. This way he took to put 
him out of humour, and draw him into a formal scrape : but 
Emin managed his temper, made the handsome Janizary sit by 
the fire- side, called for coffee, and sweet-meats made of Grales 
treacle ; ordering in the mean time, his own favourite grey horse 
to be saddled for the Turkish guest, and the pack-horse, with 
a servant to attend, to do the loading work; and if he chose, 
to keep them as a present ; only desiring the party for the 
servant to be sent back, with good news of his health. 

At this liberality the Janizary was astonished, got up, and 
swore by the head of Mahomet his prophet, that he would ac- 
cept neither, after experiencing such politeness ; saying, " I was 
sent by a great man to try your temper, and see what sort of 
a man you were. The Armenians say, you are a man come to 
free them ; but (God forbid) had you behaved in the least stub- 
bornly, the intention of my lord, as well as the rest of the Jani- 
zaries, was to have cut you in pieces. Since you have shewn 
that you have a brave and generous* heart, and are a lover of 
us soldiers, nobody will molest you. I wish to God you may 
succeed, when we Musulman Janizaries may be an example, in- 
stead of serving under or bending our necks to the slavish 
Pashas, who in their youthful days, even from their childhood, 


have been used like women, and when grown up men, are 
created governors and Janizary Agular, to command and domi- 
neer over us brave fellows. Even our pretended Sultan is a 
slave, born of a slave, a Georgian handsome wench." He then 
said "Alaha amanat alasen*;" that is, May your kindness be 
deposited with God's reward. 

In the 'evening, about six o'clock, twenty Janizaries and a 
Kahwachi with a large pot full of coffee, were sent by Hajybeg 
their leader, with his compliments to Emin Armany Begy, or, 
the Eord Emin the Armenian; saying, "God send his peace 
to you ; rest satisfied without molestation ; while 3-ou continue 
in this town, you shall be esteemed equally with the light of 
our eyes ; and when you depart, we pray God to prosper you ; 
and may the gates of success be opened before your noble 
undertaking, Amen ! " Emin drank a dish, treated the twenty 
stout fine fellows out of the same cup, and gave only half a 
piaster to the coffeeman, with return of compliments to Hajy- 
beg their chief. 

The reader will be pleased to know, that these brave fellows, 
to the number of several thousands, are Janizaries, natives of 
that city ; jealous of the Aga, their colonel or Pasha, who are 
commissioned from the Porte to take the command, they are 
always in revolt ; and at that time, very luckily for Emin, they 
had driven the governor and the colonel into the citadel, a place 
built in the middle of the town on purpose for such an occasion, 
where the Pashas might shelter themselves till the difference 
standing between them could be settled, otherwise Emin would 
have run a great risque of his life. In that town of Arzroom 
inhabited 12,000 Armenian families ; the Turks are double that 
number ; and they observing the unexpected, uncommon, ami- 
cable correspondence between Emin and the Janizaries, were 
greatly surprized, imputing it to the attribute of God's mercy 

* The long s in the original is indistinct Whether this word is Alasen or Alafen it is 
difficult to sav. 


that he passed indemnified through so many ravenous tygers 
and lions, repeating the following verse of the sacred Psalms to 
him : Thou shalt tread upon the lion and adder ; the young 
lion and the dragon shalt thou trample under foot. 

The snow began to melt away in the middle of April, when 
Emm took leave, of his friends, and got out for Bayazid, whence, 
with no less danger of robbers all the way, about twelve days 
journey, he arrived at Etchmiatzin, (that is to say, Christ des- 
cended,)* commonly called the Three Churches, a large monastery 
where the reverend Jacob Catholicus of the Armenians dwelt, 
who had that very year succeeded to the most glorious seat of 
his deceased ancestor. According to the established order, pil- 
grims were lodged and entertained there three days ; and when 
the ceremony was over, Emin went out, took his quarters in 
another monastery called Gayanna, under the direction of bishop 
Aharon, an acquaintance of his grandfather Michael, not gratis, 
but for three rupees a week for lodging only. After inquiry, 
he heard, to his sorrow, the death of Avah Vardapit, (or monk 
Avah,) among the five chiefs of Kharabakh, originally called 
Artzakh, that is to say, Green Garden ; where, after a great fall 
of snow in winter, it melts away in twenty-four hours, on the 
meadows, so as to let the sheep graze upon them. 

It will not be little amusing to give some account of this 
monk: — When he was but a young deacon in the monastery of 
Ganzasar, seeing the Iyazguies, or the inroaders of Dagiston, making 
an excursion into that quarter of Armenia, enslaving the people, 
carrying off their cattle and flocks ; his martial spirit could not 

* Not Christ descended, but the Descent of the Only Begotten. St. Gregory the Illu- 
minator, the patron saint of Armenia, saw a vision of Christ descending at this place, and a 
church was built on the spot. Etchmiatsin is the seat of the Catholicos, the Supreme Head 
of the Holy Apostolic Church of Armenia. There are three other churches besides the 
Cathedral in the Vank, or monastery, which is the residence of the Catholicos. One which 
is near by, but in a separate walled enclosure, is the church dedicated to St. Gaiane, a 
martyred nun. Another, situated about a mile and a half away, is the church of St. Rip- 
sime, another martyred nun; a third, which is now in ruins, is the Church of the Angels, 
or celestial beings (Zvarthnuots). u 


bear the insolence of the enemy: he took up arms, headed a 
handful of brave veterans, and by dint of extraordinary courage 
and prudence, beat them in several pitched battles, and obtained 
many victories over the armies of some pretending princes of 
Persia after Nadir, when that empire went so topsey-turvey, 
that to this day it cannot be settled through their impenitent 
wickedness. "In a word, he was acknowledged to be one of the 
greatest generals Armenia ever produced. Prince Heraclius was 
very fond of him ; and some Mahometan khans were obliged 
to preserve his friendship by flattery, and great presents. By 
his horsemanship, and his dexterity in using the scymitar and 
fire-arms on horse-back or on foot, he never missed the mark. 
It was said, his amazing voice was stronger than that of Nadir 
Shah. In the beginning of an action, he used to sing a warlike 
song ; and in that same tune, challenged the whole army of the 
enemy in single combat : he was so formidable, that none durst 
shew their heads out of the columns. But to Emin's great 
misfortune, in the year 1760, he was killed by a mount ainer 
sitting in ambush behind a rock. Then perished the only father 
and general of those five unworthy chiefs of Karabakh,* who 
since that fate are become the vassals of a Musulman Taracama, 
which appellation signifies, the low class of Turkmans of the clan 
of J avan Shur. This mortifying discouragement disappointed 
Emin from proceeding to the place above-mentioned, where his 
intention was to join the monk, and to form a body of men ; 
then go to prince Heraclius with a good grace, agreeably to his 
offered service by the letters sent five years before from 

He lived in that melancholy situation from the first week 
of Lent, on his arrival at the Three Churches, to the last week 
on Good Wednesday, when he thought proper to go thence ten 
miles to the town of Traveen. The little money, about 200 

* The.dve rneliks of Karabagh. Their history will be found at the end of Part II. 


chequins, which he saved from the expences of a fatiguing 
journey of almost three months, he delivered to an Armenian 
merchant, of whom he received a bill to be paid at Timiz, the 
capital of Georgia, where prince Heraclius was. On his coming 
back that very afternoon, his servant on the pack-horse, which 
being loaded with barley corn for the food of three horses, was 
too heavy to keep pace with him, told Emin to gallop on, lest 
the gate of the monastery should be fastened before he reached 
it ; which regularity is observed exactly half an hour after sun- 
set. Emin set his horse on a gentle trot, and came near 
another monastery on the right of a very smooth plain, within 
half a mile from his abode ; and on the left was a flock of 
sheep, which the author did not conceive to be the property of 
Etmiatzin. The shepherds took him to be a Turk ; and he 
took them to be Mahometans. They set a dozen large furious 
dogs before and behind to annoy him from going on ; and 
attacked him so close as almost to pull him down from his 
horse. He bore the insult about five minutes, endeavouring, 
with great patience, to avoid mischief, till the poor beast could 
not move forward, and one of the dogs jumped up and fixed his 
teeth in the horse's upper lip. This provoked him at last to 
shoot the dog with his pistol, the gift of his friend lord Boling- 
broke ; the rest ran away and cleared the passage ; and the 
shepherds stood back threatening him in Turkish, as he had 
committed a murder in killing a valuable dog of the Three 
Churches. It happened very luckily both for Emin and for 
those saucy fellows, that at the time of firing the pistol, he 
broke the butt in two, and the sharp iron part ran almost 
through the palm of his right hand; by which he was so much 
disabled, that it intirely took away his strength, and prevented 
him fortunately from cutting down all six of them in a heat of 
passion; he not in the least imagining the stupid unchristian 
consequence of it. 

He had hardly got into the court of the church, when there 


came in two of those fellows as spies, who finding by inquiry 
that the murderer was an Armenian, told him, in menacing 
language, that he should surfer for it. The next morning, which 
being Good Thursday,* about eleven o'clock, the chairman 
of the patriarch Jacob sent the same ruffians. Who should 
they be but monks, who were the cause of the mischief. They 
said, in a 'domineering haughty way, "You are wanted!" 
When he went, he was carried up to the top of an oven, under 
which the heavenly bread of the holy monks is baked, a place 
half as big as the black-hole of Calcutta : the height of the 
ceiling is about six feet and a hah, as hot as can be imagined. 
If the purgatory of the Christians should be as hot, the Lord 
have mercy upon miserable sinners ! That place is built on 
purpose to confine transgressors ; f and he found sitting in it a 
monk in a profuse sweat, with another Armenian, a layman, in 
irons. The gaoler took one of the irons from his foot, and 
clapped it upon one of Hmin's, so that the left foot oj: each was 
locked in; and they had the singular advantage of speaking to 
one another without any body's attempting to creep between 
them. Emm, in a natural way, began to inquire first of the 
holy monk the reason of his being put in that comfortable 
mansion ? He did not at all like to answer the civil question ; 
but was very ready to tell the crime of Emin's fellow-prisoner ; 
and said, "That man, whose foot is fast in iron with yours, Sir, 
is guilty of fornication : he is of Tefiliz, an Armenian, married 
there; and he came hither, where he married again, his wife 
living in that city : and he is to have God knows how many 
hundred Busbands on the soles of his feet ; for he is but a 

* Holy Thursday. 

t The extremes of heat and of cold seem to have been the favourite penances imposed 
by the holy fathers. The Monk Avak (Thali Mahrassa), whose history will be found later 
on, together with an account of the five Meliks of Karabagh, was imprisoned in the ice- 
house, to be frozen while my ancestor was put in the bakehouse, or rather, in the space 

above the oven, to be baked! I am told that these chambers of penance are no longer in 
use as such. 


poor man, and has no money to pay to save himself from that 
severe punishment. As for your case, I can tell you, that you 
have committed a greater crime, equal to a murder, in presuming 
to kill Etmiatzin's dog: you must pay very dear for it, other- 
wise you will receive the same chastisement." Emin said, "It 
appears that you understand the law, but it is a pity you have 
not been cautious enough to preserve yourself from this pur- 
gatorial disgrace; and I dare say you have committed a still 
greater fault, which you are ashamed to confess." He then 
laughed heartily, which made the people come out and interrupt 
their droll conversation. They silenced the monk, and told 
Emin that his coming into that hot hole was a good omen, and 
that he would one day or other become a great man; as they 
have had experience that every one of the monks who had been 
put there for some misdemeanor, in the end, became either a 
bishop or a patriarch. Emin concurred with them, saying, 
"You are in the right; for I feel the effects of it already:" 
as in reality he had been out of order five or six days before, 
that warm room made him perspire so as to be quite well. 
They said, they did not know who or what sort of pilgrim he 
was; but he must be possessed with great faith, since in so 
hot a situation he was happy, and could express content, not 
in the least like the other two hard-hearted prisoners, the one a 
priest, the other a fornicator, who had been there three weeks ; 
and if in their minds they had repented, it was ten to one but 
God would have put mercy into the heart of Catholicus to 
relieve them from their disgraceful misery. In that very junc- 
ture, the patriarch* coming from Iravan, sent immediately and 
took Emin out of prison, where he was kept but two hours. 
Had not his holiness been absent from his seat, Emin could 

* The Catholicos Jacob, (or Hacob), V. of Shamakhy (the name of his diocese as bishop 
before becoming Catholicos, which before the present war extended over the governorship of 
Dagestan and the district of Shamakhy), elected Catholicos November 1759, died in July, 
1763. O. S. 


never have been gratified with the curiosity of seeing that 
singular place of purification, the excessive heat of which has 
sublimed many into bishops and patriarchs. 

On the ensuing Easter Sunday, which is kept by the Ar- 
menian Christians all over the country with great solemnity, the 
pilgrims, according to established custom, make presents to the 
patriarch of as many zechins as they can afford ; some a hun- 
dred, some more, some less, agreeably to every one's circum- 
stances, with a sheep for an introduction to kiss his hand and 
obtain his benediction. Emin followed the example, bought a 
very large sheep for three rupees, and with a Turkish zechin in 
his hand, entered the room to present them, and on his knees 
went to kiss the patriarch's hand. His holiness laid both his 
hands upon his head, and began to say some prayers, and 
blessed him, which continued almost half an hour. This extra- 
ordinary ceremony had never been seen before; and the jeal- 
ousy of the surrounding bishops, monks, and deacons, made 
them burst out to a declaration in these very words : ° May it 
please you, holy father, this man does not deserve so long a 
benediction, which your holiness is bestowing on him : the 
presents he has made are but trifling and insignificant; put 
that aside, his daring presumption in killing the faithful dog of 
the holy Etzmiatzin is no less than murder." His holiness said, 
"Yes, I know that; but it is very well he has not killed half 
a dozen of you; and I am extremely sorry for your want of 
understanding, and more so for my chairman Petrus Vardapied* 
(or the monk,) who prefers a beast of prey to a lamb, and 
committed him to purnatoon (or the oven room). I must tell 
you, this man is not come here for pilgrimage; as I can see in 
his countenance that it is for something greater: what it is we 
do not know; but be assured, that he is the only faithful son 
of the church of Christ; he does not look like a merchant. I 
wish to God we had many like him." 

* The head of the Synod, acting in the absence of the Catholicos, 


Bmin kissed his hand a second time, and went out with 
double blessings from the holy patriarch. But instead of setting 
out to the North, and meeting the famous prince Heraclius of 
Georgia, considering the smallness of his finances, and his want 
of any recommendation from a man in power, which would be 
the means of losing his character, and rendering him contemp- 
tible in the eyes of his highness' s wicked subjects, he thought 
proper to take the money from the merchant, and return back 
to Aleppo, and thence to England, in order to take a better 
method, which shall be inserted hereafter. 

Three days before his leaving that place, he committed one 
of the greatest faults, in composing a letter to prince Heraclius, 
that a mad-man in Bethlem could have imagined, and which 
hardly any one else in the world would have acknowledged, thus 
exposing his weakness to the public. Criminals at the bar, 
fearing a conviction, and hoping for mercy, sometimes confess 
their guilt; but Kmin, from a sense of his duty, will give the 
genuine narrative of his insignificant life, with a sacred regard 
to truth alone. The purport of the letter was this : 

"To his High Mightiness Prince Heraclius of Georgia, 
whom God preserve. 

"May it please your Highness to hear the petition of your 
faithful servant. Five years ago I wrote a very long letter to 
your Highness from England; the palioz of the English, Mr. 
Shaw, at Basra, delivered it to an Armenian merchant, called 
Melchon of Tefniz, your subject, who has safely presented it to 
your hands. As I have not received the favour of your 
Highness' s answer in a period of so many years, it has dis- 
couraged me; and obliged me to return to the country, whence 
I have been coming to this place, with great danger and 
fatigue, crossing seas and travelling in depth of winter through 
the snow over the high mountains of Syria, Cardistan and Ar- 


menia. Part of an instruction of my father from Bengal I am 
bound in duty to inform your Highness of : He says, that upon 
condition you will be graciously pleased to confer on me the 
most singular honour of thinking me worthy to be made, by the 
order of the church of God, your Highness' s son-in-law, and will 
grant a certificate, signed and sealed by your Highness, and 
attested by two bishops or ' priests, he orders me to repair to 
your court; but if you consent not to this condition, he, my 
father Hovsep, has charged me not to venture entering your 
territories. I have shewn this letter to Zakaria the Armenian 
archbishop of your capital Teffliz, who will set out from this 
place in a few days, and has promised faithfully to deliver it 
into your Majesty's glorious hands. Your faithful servant will 
remain in anxious hopes of receiving an answer to it by the 
way of Arzerum and Aleppo to England. I am, &c. &c. Dated 
at Etzmiatzin in the month of April 1760." 

After this mad act, he set out, with his servants, by the 
same route by which he came, without caring to join a caravan, 
though travelling alone was dangerous. When he arrived at 
Arzerum, Carapit Aga the Armenian chief, banker of the Grand 
Signior's Vizir, begged to go as a guard with him as far as 
Cumercap, a village where the banker's house and family dwelt, 
situated near the town of Aga, on the mountainous bank of the 
Euphrates, almost perpendicularly steep, within the first two 
stages from Arzerum. After travelling about two hours early in 
the morning, when the sun began to shine pleasantly over those 
beautiful hills of helpless Armenia, which seemed bewailing the 
loss of a true father, from the foot of an eminence he discovered 
at the top, a body of fifty-two Turkish horsemen with bright 
arms, and all their horses harnessed with silver. The distance 
between them was about three hundred yards : both parties were 
alarmed. The Turks, every one of them, dismounted, except 
their chief, just in the middle of the road, calling aloud to 
the Aimenians to get out of the way. They were but six horse- 


men in all, with the two packhorses with wine and provision, 
heavily laden under the servants, and a bad horse belonging to 
the Armenian banker Carapit Aga. He, at the sight of the 
Turks, turned back frightened, and saying to himself, " O God : 
these are the very robbers who infested the road we have been 
told of at Arzerum." The indiscreet Bmin could not bear the 
pusillanimous behaviour of these servants of Mammon; he pre- 
sented his piece, already cocked, threatening to fire at him if he 
offered to stir, and ordered his two armed servants to watch the 
man's motions, lest he should be weak enough to flie away. He 
then pushed on his horse to the hill where the supposed robbers 
stood. In the mean time, Carapit finding the danger of running 
away was double, and of standing to face the enemy but one, 
was compelled to follow in haste with the servants. When 
Bmin was within pistol-shot, he was just going to fire at the 
Aga, whose troops pointed their guns at him; but, instead of 
firing, dropped them, through a panic, upon the ground. Carapit 
cried out, "Hold your hand, for God's sake! the gentleman is 
my particular acquaintance, named Aly Aga, one of the principal 
men of Arzerum." Both parties then mixed amicably, without 
committing any further hostility. The Aga was so frightened, 
and looked so pale, that he could not answer the banker's com- 
pliments, though repeated several times. His men asking Cara- 
pit who that mad Christian was ? he answerd, " He is a moun- 
taineer of Armenia, brought up from his infancy in war by the 
famous English nation." To which they said, grumbling, "that 
is the reason he is not afraid : had he been an Othoman subject, 
he would not have behaved in so bold a manner." 

Several instances of the kind happened all the way to 
Aleppo, with which he thinks it not worth while to fill whole 
pages; but has the satisfaction to say, that the modern Turks 
are not the same with the ancient, who carried every thing be- 
fore them, penetrated as far as Europe, and possessed the august 
throne of Constantine, to the inexpressible disgrace of Christians, 


whose horrible ecclesiastical quarrel alone, made thern subser- 
vient, even to the meanest and most despicable Turks ; whose 
piratical diabolical law never would sutler them to execute or 
punish a Mahomedan for shedding Christian blood. A dog has 
more humanity shewn to him than the first class of men, the 
fathers of tjae church; who, nevertheless, are their chief ad- 
vocates,* praying day and night to prolong the sovereignty of 
the Mahomedans ; and Emin, wounded to the heart, often heard 
them cursing their own flocks, and extolling the ravenous wolves. 
With such unnatural and unmerciful bosom friends, how is it pos- 
sible they should become free from slavery unless the laymen 
shake off the mean ambition of raising money to be deemed lords 
over the poor, by making presents to believers in Mahomed. If 
they would bestow a quarter of the, money upon their own chil- 
dren, to give them a proper education, and enable them to dis- 
tinguish a rational being from a brute animal, so as to multiply 
the number of good plants and pluck up the weeds, they will be- 
csme a free nation. 

When he had conducted the Armenian banker Carapit to 
Aga, the next morning he went one day's journey with his ser- 
vants to Mashker, an Armenian village on the confines of Syria, 
where he staid four months. The men of that place generally 
go to Aleppo and to Smyrna, where they enter into the service 
of European gentlemen. Their Aga, an Osmanlu Turk, inquiring 
the reason of Emin's making so long a stay there, they pacified 

* The reason given to me by an Armenian ecclesiastic for the strange fact of the 
Armenian clergy at that period preferring that their people should remain under Mohanie- 
dan rule is, that they feared the consequences of coming under the authority of Georgians 
or Russians would be that Armenians would be drawn away from their national church, 
and become absorbed into other nationalities, losing their individuality as a nation. 

But there is another side to this question. In Mahomedan countries all important 
matters are referred to and arranged by the mollahs, or priests, aud the opinions of laymen 
carry no weight ; if any question of moment to Armenians, civil or religious, should arise, 
they are told to send their priests to settle it, and ecclesiastics thus acquire power that 
they could scarcely possess under Christian governments. The old lure of temporal power 
again ! 


him by saying, there was a plague in the city of Aleppo, of 
which the Franks are afraid ; and that obliged him to stay 
away till it was over. This eased the Turk of his well-founded 
jealousy; and he told the people to treat Kmin politely, as he 
had seen the Franks in Constantinople, upon the same occasion, 
go and live in the country till the plague is over, where they 
are treated by the Musulmen with great civility. Here he did 
not fail to instil, as well as he could into the ears of the Chris- 
tians, the principles of zeal and honour. Thence he went to 
Aleppo, and a week after to Scanderoon, where he embarked on 
board of an English Turkey ship, and in three months and a 
half arrived in the Channel, where he performed quarantine ; 
and after that arrived in London : the whole journey from Eng- 
land* to Etzmiatzin and back, lasted exactly thirteen months, 
which none of his noble friends would give credit to, except his 
princely patron the late duke of Northumberland, who stood by 
him like a tender father, having seen a letter from Dr. Patrick 
Russel, then at Aleppo, (now in Vizagapatam), to the merchants 
of the Turkey Company, to this effect : " Emin came hither, set 
out in the depth of winter, went to Armenia, and came back 
again like a comet, but did no damage to the world ; for finding 
the Armenians equally few in numbers, and reduced thoroughly 
to slavery, he resolved to go among the Turkman clans, wild 
mountaineers, about Antioch and Scanderoon, and harangue 
them into a design to take possession of this city of Aleppo, 
and then proceed upon farther exploits. When he came hither, 
with his two servants, I and Mr. Hay his friend, with immense 

* The dates he gives of this journey are confusing. This much is clear, that he left 
England in April, 1759, from the dates of his letters to Dr. Mousey and Lord Lyttelton. In 
November 1760, from Lord Lyttelton's letter to Mrs. Montagu, he was still absent. He re- 
turned in 1761, so that he was away two years, not thirteen months. In about eight months' 
time, he says, he left again for Russia, October, 1761. The date of the passport given him 
at Leghorn is probably 1759, not 1760, and the Easter spent at Etehmiatsin seems to be 
correctly dated 1760. After this some months were passed in Armenian villages and in travel- 
ling, before he reached Aleppo on his return journey. See letter on p. 160. 


difficulty and many expostulations, dissuaded him from that dar- 
ing dangerous undertaking. Who without money could effect so 
great a design ? It was by his Christianity chiefly that he was 
bent from it, which is greatly to his honour; his principle of 
true religion being predominant over his ambition, made him 
listen to us., Otherwise, any being in his stead, with such a 
favourable opportunity, having already paved the way to a 
promising field of action, would have persisted. The earl of 
Northumberland has great merit in finding out Emin by his 
lordship's surprising him, and in patronising him who is really 
worthy of esteem from every man of spirit. If he had not 
hearkened to us, the consequence of his enterprize would un- 
avoidably have been fatal to all the Christian subjects in the 
Othman empire; nor could the Europeans have been prevented 
from sharing their fate." 

This letter was unknown to Emin, till his lordship, a few 
days after, said to him, "How came you to have so many people 
about you ? I know you had but 150/ when you went away." 
He answered, he did not know how, but he wished the Ar- 
menians had been possessed of the same, or half the spirit of 
the Turkmans and Curds ; he should not have had the morti- 
fication of returning to England, where his friends hardly be- 
lieve that he went as far as Scanderoon. His lordship said, 
"Do not mind, my dear Emin; I will convince them all who 
have been your friends, and will continue their friendship to- 
wards you : " then, with the utmost tenderness, he advised him 
to stay in England, whether he chose to enter into his Majesty's 
service, or to have a commission in the East India Company's 
establishment. Emin would by no means be persuaded; and 
told his Grace he would go over to Russia, if he would consent. 
He said, "The difficulty will be greater: Mr. Elton, an English 
gentleman, was in Nadir Shah's service, and raised a jealousy 
in the Russian nation, who will be strongly against letting you 
pass through their territories." The duke asked again, if he 


wanted money ? made him accept a few guineas more, and paid 
also for his passage. Emin took leave, and went to his lodging : 
this was in April, 1761. 

To Mrs. Montagu. 

(May 5 776/) 

To the Wisdom of Europe Sister to the great King of Prussia ex- 
cellent Mrs Montagu. 


Csesar by force of Arms made the Romans acknowledge him 
their Lord, and Bmperor ; and you by the excellency of your Sense, 
Compassion, and Generosity, have gained the whole Affection of my 
Soul. And have made such, Impression upon it, by this favour of 
yours, dated the 2 I st of the last Month, that you may realy com- 
mand me as your Slave, and sale me to a perpeual Captivity after- 

How I was overjoyed to see once more my dear dear, and 
dearest of all M rs Montagu's Letter ? that ever since I am hardly 
able to contain myself for Joy, & Happyness. I thank you ten 
Thowsands times, with an honest heart, for the Tenderness of your 
great Heart, and. the kind assistance you offer, which there is ng 
Occassion for. I want nothing at present, nor wish for anything 
else, but to see your real person when I might prostrate myself at 
your Feet, to satisfy my ever longing Heart, and to assure you that 
my not writing to you before now, was for a particular Reason which 
Doctor monsey has perhaps already acquainted you with. I fear 
we shall stay in this Creek of Water longer than fourty days. It 
is vexation without remedy to think to be so near to one's Friends, 
and not be able to enjoy them; — Tell my Lord Ly tie ton I insist 
upon his Lordships wormer Friendship, and not so cool as he hither- 
to has been. Let him not immitate the modern English, let him 
learn of you how to love his inchangeable friend Emin, for if he 
does not, I will him, does not signifie I deserve his Notie. Since I 
left Exeter two years ago, wrote from Italy, from Turky to his 
Lordship, but I never as much as had a Line from him. — Doctor 
monsey will shew you a Letter of mine to a certain Lord, I entreat 
your excellencies oppinion thereon. I hope you, take care of my 
dear D r as he has of your Health, and spared few ounces of the 
Stock of affection preserved for me. — Pray who is this Miss Pitts, 
a new one not that my miss Pitts, but another, that Doctor Mousey 
seems by his writing to be charmed by her Cleverness, and who is 
desireous to see me. I beg she will put a cuple of good Stones in 
her Pocket, lest she shou'd be terrified of seeing a black Tyger as 


Doctor calls me. However jocking apart she does me a great 
Honor, if it be pleased your Majesty after the Examination of her 
Beauty, she may be inlisted in the Book of Sarraigly. As for her 
Qualifications and TaHents, I doubt not but you have already by 
this time saved me that trouble. And further to consider whether 
your goodness will not be jalous of collecting so many precious Jewels 
together, on this Point I leave to your great Wisdom, and be sci- 
lence for J;he future. Pray make my kind Love to Misses Talbot, 
and learned Miss Carther, I reced your and their Letters of the 
last year in lesser Armenia. But alas I am told I have lost my 
dear Friend Lady Anson. There is a Shock for me, sufficient to 
move Mount Atlas. I v ra Y God to preserve you & the rest of my 
Friends. I never knew what was the Loss of a Friend before, nor 
so much sensable of before her my heart is ready to brake for her, 
the only comfort I have, to hope that she is in y e happyness of 
Heaven, for she was realy an admirable Lady, and true Friend to 
Emin. I am almost in Tears for her I shall say no more about it. 
If you see my Lady Sophia remember me to her, my Respects to 
my Lord Bishop of Bangor, and my Love to their serophim Chil- 
dren, adieu, and believe , . , 

my dearest madam 

Your ever Affectionate and obed* 
gratefull humble Servant Emin. 
5 th may 176 1 in Handgate Creek 
on board of the Ship Northumberland. 

(Pray how is my brave Friend M r Montagu do ? I wish him) 
(well I hope to have the Pleasure of seeing him again my compli-) 
(ments to him also to Mess" Ettingfleet and Price.) 

{On the back of the letter) 

Mrs. Montagu. 

Hill Street Berkly 
Square London. 



[ Letters of introduction- for Petersburgh — A reception at Lady Yarmouth's two 
years previously — Lord Huntingdon — Emin's description of Frederick of 
Prussia — Lord Huntingdon's dinner — Suggests that Emin shall establish a 
new religion — Emin's rebuke — Reported to Prince of Wales, who wants to 
help Emin — Lord Northumberland objects — " too much money will do him 
no good " — Ready to live upon air to please his lordship — Sixty days, London 
to Riga — Mutiny on board — Emin pacifies sailors — Emin's praise of British 
navy— Devotion of Miller the German to Emin at Riga — Petersburg — Mr. 
Keith — Count Vorontsov — Empress's kind thoughts for Armenians — Her 
death a misfortune for Emin — Letter to Lord Lyttelton from Russia.] 

tTE staid in London about eight months, very busy all the 
time to find ways and means for going to Petersburgh. 
The late earl of Bath, after dinner at Mr. Montagu's, saw Emin 
much dejected. Mr. Montagu said to his lordship, " Our friend 
Emin cannot get a letter of recommendation from any gentle- 
man to Russia." His lordship immediately answered, that he 
would give him one to Mr. Keith, envoy to that court. Mr. 
Jonas Hanway,* author of the History of Nadir Shah, procured 
him a pass from prince Gallitzin the Russian minister, to whom 
Emin had before the honour of being introduced by the late 
lady Yarmouth. Dr. Seeker, then archbishop of Canterbury, 
wrote a letter to Doctor Dumaresque, chaplain to the factory ; 
Miss Talbot to the princess of Georgia ; and Dr. Mounsey of 
Chelsea-hospital, to Dr. Mounsey, unseen ; his relation, chief physi- 
cian to the late empress Elizabeth. When he had secured all 

* Hauway, Jonas. Born at Portsmouth Aug. 22, 1712, died«in London Sept. 1786. 
Traveller and philanthropist, became partner of an English merchant at Petersburg in 
1743, in '43 — 44 made a mercantile journey to Persia, where he suffered many misfortunes, 
publishing an account of his travels in 1753. His later years were occupied with many 
philanthropic schemes, especially on behalf of poor children. He advocated the establish- 
ment of Sunday Schools. He is said to have been the first habitually to carry an umbrella 
in the streets of Iyondou. (Century Cyclopcedia.) 



these letters, he waited upon his patron the duke, who was much 
surprized and equally glad of the success he had met with. 

Two years before his proceeding on this journey, it hap- 
pened one day, that the foreign ministers, after waiting on his 
Majesty, came to lady Yarmouth's apartment, to pay their res- 
pects to her ladyship, and among them was lord Huntingdon. 
In conversation, the king of Prussia became the subject. His 
lordship said, "It is singular that we cannot have an exact like- 
ness of his majesty painted, nor can I discover the reason of 
it ? " Kmin said, "My lord, the reason is very plain, a child may 
know it very easily by looking at his face about half an hour." 
His lordship smiled, and the rest of the gentlemen were some- 
how startled ; they had taken but very little notice of him 
before ; they asked him if he could tell the reason ? He said, 
"Yes," and added, "that the king was not made like the rest 
of mankind ; that he changed his complexion with every thought 
that passed in his mind j that sometimes he looked pale, and at 
another time fresh-coloured, white, black, yellow, in short he 
answered all sorts of colours like a camelion ; wherefore it would 
be impossible for a painter to draw a true picture of him." 
On this solution, every one of the company cried out, "that is 
the very reason — well said ! this is Asiatic penetration : " then 
they took proper notice of him ; and this pleased lady Yarmouth 
as much, who took that opportunity to introduce him to all of 
them in form ; and among the rest, to Prince Gallitzin.* His 
lordship putting a second question, "What is the cause of his 

* Prince Alexeij Mikhailovich Galitsin, Russian ambassador to England during the reign 
of the Empress Elizabeth of Russia. When Peter III. succeeded Elizabeth in January 1762, 
Galitsin, who was a patriotic Russian, unaware of Peter's infatuation for Frederick, told 
Lord Bute that his master the Tsar would never surrender the Russian conquest of Prussian 
territory. He also wrote to Petersburg that the English did not want an eternal war on 
their hands simply to oblige the King of Prussia. The affairs of Frederick were in a very 
serious condition, but with the death of Elizabeth everything changed as if by magic. 
The German Tsar signed a treaty giving back to Prussia all the territory Russia had won 
during the five previous years, and Frederick was saved from the misfortunes that were 
threatening him. 


assuming those different colours.?" Kmin answered, "When 
he looks fresh, he thinks he is sure of conquest ; when pale as 
ashes, he is afraid of being crushed by the united powers of 
Europe ; when yellow, he fears Voltaire will publish a scan- 
dalous book again to smite his mind, and so forth." On the 
second explanation, his lordship with both hands moved his 
chair, and sat close to him, and invited him to dinner that day, 
if he was not otherways engaged. The foreign ministers spoke 
in French to lady Yarmouth, with a satisfied pleasing counten- 
ance ; and said, "Although we thought before he was not 
worthy of the notice taken of him by the nobility of England, 
now we are very well convinced that he deserves to have 
honours conferred upon him, and that his Royal Highness the 
duke, and the earl of Northumberland, had really great merit 
in patronizing hirn. The levee broke up ; the gentlemen went 
away ; and though Emin understood what they said, yet lady 
Yarmouth took pains, with great good-nature and satisfaction, 
to express it to him. 

According to his promise, he went to lord Huntingdon's;* 
at dinner there were two brothers, doctor and captain Hamilton, 
the second of whom was equerry to his present Majesty, at that 
time Prince of Wales, and lord Huntingdon was then his master 
of the horse. 

When they had dined, the conversation turned upon various 
subjects, and his lordship in a bantering good-natured way, said 
to Emin, "Your best method will be to compose a new sort of 
religion like Mohamed, and reform your countrymen to your 
way of thinking; otherwise the religion they have now, will 
never suffer them to follow, your example, so as to become a 
free nation. I dare to say, you know of the reformation among 
the English ; who if they had continued papists, might have 

• Francis, 10th Earl of Huntingdon, b. 1728-9. Carried sword of state at coronation of 
George III. 1761 ; died without issue 1789, succeeded by bis sister Elizabeth, who married 
the Earl of Moira. 


been retained slaves to this day." This proposition, though de- 
livered in jest, agitated him not a little, by mentioning the pol- 
luted name of that Arabian impostor; and he said, "If your 
lordship will not be displeased with my boldness, I w r ill tell my 
opinion on that head?" His lordship said, "Not in the least." 
Then Emin began with his rough comparison, proceeding thus : 
"My lord, it appears to me that you are very learned, and 
your elegant conversation is most improving to the minds of 
every hearer; but you seem exactly like a surloin of beef turn- 
ing upon a spit, and roasting before a very large fire in a chop- 
house ; where the customers coming in one after another, the 
master of the house, with a sharp carving knife in his hand, 
like a Turkish executioner, cries out, What will you please to 
have gentlemen ? Roasted beef, master, they say : he cuts the 
outside and inside of it, where it is best done, serving his cus- 
tomers ; who being satisfied, and the reckoning paid, the beef still 
going round on the spit by the help of the jack, till at last it 
is eaten up, and reduced to the very bone, without the least 
benefit to itself. Now, one may look upon you just in the 
same light; and nothing surprises one so much as to find her 
ladyship, your mother, so very religious,* and your lordship so 
irreligious. Several free speakers like you, have brought down 
the true Christian character of the most noble English nation to 
the lowest degree of heathenism; and even propagated a notion 
all over the eastern quarter of the world, that (which God for- 
bid) the English are not Christians." This grave repartee made 
his lordship hang down his head, and both the brothers cried 
out laughing, "He serves you right, my lord, upon our honour; 
we will acquaint his Royal Highness with every word Mr. Emin 
has said to you." Some days after captain Hamilton sent for 

* Selina, Lady Huntingdon (1707—1791), daughter of Washington Earl Ferrers. Cele- 
brated after her husband's death for her Methodistical religious convictions. Founded 
many chapels and became the leader of a sect of Methodists known as " Huntingdonians," 
and the " Countess of Huntingdon's Connexion." 


him, and acquainted him, that he had been very industrious in 
giving an account to his Royal Highness, of every syllable that 
passed at dinner, between him and lord Huntingdon ; that his 
Royal Highness was greatly pleased, and said to his lordship, " I 
am very glad you have at last met with your match." He 
graciously inquired, if it was the Emin who had been in the 
late campaign in our service, and whether he was rewarded for 
his trouble or not? "We said," added the captain, "that we 
believed not; and now, my friend, it is high time for you to in- 
form your patron, that the prince is much interested in your 
behalf; so that his lordship, who attends every levee day, may 
agree with his Royal Highness to do something for you." 

Bmin mentioned this to the duke, who went to the prince; 
his Royal Highness favourably inquired about the matter, and 
expressed himself very ready to assist Emin. The duke said, 
"He is already provided for," meaning by his Grace; and add- 
ed, "He shall have any sum of money he chuses." The duke 
told Emin what his Royal Highness had said ; adding, " It is 
not proper you should have more money than is necessary ; you 
came hither without any ; without language or friends ; and, by 
your own activity, made yourself known to the greatest princes 
in Europe: you have letters of recommendation to the court of 
Russia, who will certainly write to prince Heraclius, and he im- 
mediately will employ you in his service; by which means you 
will be as rich as any prince in Asia." Emin said, "My lord, 
your advice is excellent, but I shall never be able to compass 
my design without money, or being independent; at least that 
country is very well known to be poor ; if not, prince Heraclius' 
father would not have gone to Russia, to solicit like a beggar 
for assistance." The duke said, "No, my dear Emin, you are 
mistaken; he is gone for some greater affair unknown to us." 
Emin said, "My lord, when I was in Armenia at Etzmiatzin, 
the archbishop of Teffiz told me, that king Tahmuras of Georgia, 
through mere necessity being at variance with his son, was sent 


to Moscow to be maintained by the Russians. Has not your 
lordship read of Sir John Chardin's Travels, which say, that the 
Georgians are the handsomest, the worst, and the poorest of 
mankind ? " 

"No, no, Mr. Emin, you will do very well with prince 
Heraclius." "Yes, my lord, if I were independent, I should do 
better with all the world ; but since your lordship has that great 
opinion of your humble servant, that he can live upon air, he 
shall say no more about it ; he is ready to obey your command 
in gratitude, even if you order him, he is ready to shoot him- 
self at the feet of your lordship; that the world may have the 
pleasure to say, Emin behaved obediently and gratefully to his 
last breath, to his princely patron." 

To Mrs. Montagu 

[July 1 761) 
To the Queen of Universe 

I have an Oppointement to see at my own Cottage one of 
my Countryman from the City, at ten oClock. If I shou'd be able 
to get him away, about eleveven I shall obey your Orders, but if 
not you will I hope forgive me, and wish you all the Health, and 
Happyness immaginable. I dined with Miss Talbot Yesterday, she 
has told me what your great Soul wish to tell. I cannot part with 
you forever, therefore let me not see you any more, it will hurt me 
to the very Soul. If it be worth your while, write to your dis- 
tracted Slave from the Country ! Don't you be uneasey about me 
at all, if you hear me not successful, I am resolv'd to die for my 
Country, I will do all to help towards it. adieu 

my dearest Madam 

Your most obed* and obliged hum : Ser* 
and gratefull Slave 

Tuesday morning 
July 7 1761. 

{On the back of the letter) 

Mrs. Montagu. 


This consultation being over, the duke gave him a hundred 
guineas, and promised him two hundred more, to remit after 
him a hundred each year, and to continue for three years and 
no longer. What could Emin do, but make much of a little. 
Mrs. Montague, Lady Sophia Egerton, and Miss Talbot, made up 
about sixty pounds ; Lady Anson, his valuable friend, was dead ; 
he was therefore worth 160/. deducting 30/. for fitting himself 
out ; paid five guineas to the captain of the ship ; took leave of 
his friends, and set out on the 15th of October 1761. He arrived 
with moderate wind in eight days at Elsinore, a sea-port town 
in Denmark, where he stayed two days ; on the third day setting 
sail, on the fourth a storm arose with such fury, that nothing 
could equal it ; in a few days more made the Island of Born- 
holm. Here the sailors embracing the opportunity, (which was 
very near proving fatal to the ship, and all who were in it,) 
half a dozen of them got drunk, set the whole place in an 
uproar, and did not care a pin for the captain. Emin had 
much ado to quiet them. At last every one of them got on 
board ; and no sooner was the anchor weighed, than a contrary 
wind began to blow three times stronger than before ; half of 
the crew mutinied, and laid a scheme to kill Emin (the only 
passenger) and the captain, because they advised them not to 
drink more than was necessary, and then to carry the ship to 
France, at that time engaged in war with England. Emin find- 
ing no other remedy, to quiet them, he, with the captain, re- 
solved to shoot 'the ringleader, a very stout young man, a 
deserter from a man of war ; the rest seeing what was going 
on, submitted to join Emm's and the captain's party, and with 
much ado the young lion was secured in irons. The captain 
drew up an affidavit of their unruly behaviour, and the poor 
fellows every one of them signed a paper, confessing themselves 
guilty of a conspiracy. Exactly in fifty days, they with great 
difficulty came to an anchor at Riga. 

It may not be unpleasant to say something of the passage. 


The ship being a prize from the enemy, which, when in their 
own possession, carried fifty guns, with 600 French sailors in it, 
was bought by the Russia merchants in London, and converted 
into a timber ship. In that hard weather (in the month of 
November), on the terrible Baltic, where the buntings froze up 
to the thickness of three inches, and all the ropes in proportion, 
the ship like a snowy mountain sailing upon the water, there 
Were no more than eight men to take in, reef, or furl the main- 
sail, when there was occasion. This shewed the difference 
between the English and the French, for the whole ship's crew, 
with the captain, mate and passengers, were no more than twenty- 
four hands. These are the brave men to be admired with 
awe — who are ruled by the wisdom of Old England — the very 
bulwark of that famous nation — who maintain the liberty of it 
in the midst of so many malignant jealous princes of Europe! — 
Brave fellows! what hardships they go through! how un- 
sparingly do they work for a livelihood ! to the shame of many 
Jew-like Christians in the East, who live and loll in a slavish 
idle life, like so many beasts! 

When the captain was going on shore, he took the bloody 
affidavit to punish them all by the Russian law. Emin 
snatched the paper out of his hands, and tore it to pieces ; 
saying to the captain, "How can you be so cruel, and act so 
rashly ? Who will work your ship back ? Do not you know the 
severity of the law of Russia ? Yourself must remain in the 
place, before the bloody affair is decided. 1 Come, come, be 
quiet; forgive them; they are all honest fellows." They came 
all on the gangway, crying out, " God bless you, noble stranger ! 
Excuse us, we do not know your honor's name : we are in 
duty bound to acknowledge, if you had not been with us on the 
passage, we might have perished through our own foolishness. 
It was owing to the brandy we bought in that Danish island. 
We beg both your and the captain's pardon; since you have 
made peace between us and our commander, we pray Cod to 


prosper you in all your undertakings." Here every thing ended 
amicably. The captain and Emin went on shore at Riga, where 
the captain was not a little sensible of his passenger's good be- 
haviour • did not fail to inform several gentlemen of his 
acquaintance, a few English, and many Swedes and Germans, 
who all came and thanked him. 

The house where he took up his quarters belonged to a 
German, about fifty years of age, named Miller, who had been 
settled and married there for several years. He was originally 
a journeyman baker, and saved enough to make up a 
capital, so as to set up a sort of eating-house, which went on 
pretty briskly. He used to go to Poland, and buy horned 
cattle, providing ships with beef, by which he made a fortune 
of 60,000 dollars. By his first wife, who was then dead, he had 
children, a girl and a boy ; he married his daughter, and 
himself married a second time; and by his second wife he had 
four more. Emin made an agreement with him, to pay half-a- 
crown a-day both for his lodging and boarding, and stayed 
exactly ten days in the house. Miller the landlord became so 
fond of Emin, as to sit up and keep company with him every 
night till almost two in the morning; something more than 
common appearing in his countenance, which made Emin sen- 
sible he would speak it out ; this he. did at last, after many 
apologies; and said, " Sir, excuse the liberty I am going to 
take; I know you are going upon very great business; as far 
as I can learn, you have but little money, and I am worth 
many thousand dollars; I can spare 2000 of them, with perfect 
good-will, towards the expences of your journey : I shall be 
extremely happy, if you will be kind enough to accept of it; 
no soul in the world shall know of it, and I will not even take 
notice of it to my wife. Please to take it here, or by a bill on 
a merchant at St. Petersburgh." Emin thanked Mr. Miller for 
his generous offer, but would by no means accept of it; and 
said, "Your good-will is sufficient; you have an encreasing 


family ; it is best that the money should remain where it is ; 
as for my part, I am a single man, and can make a shift any 
how to live and manage for myself." Mr. Miller was not in 
the least pleased with his refusal; he seemed in great pain, as 
if he had been stabbed with a dagger to the heart, and still 
continued urging, like an affectionate father, till at length he 
began crying like a child, and said, " Sir, if you do not accept 
of it, you will break my heart." Yet all his expostulation was 
to no purpose. Mr. Miller, finding the impossibility of prevailing, 
stood up, and said, "Good Mr. Bmin, since you will not con- 
sent to oblige me in this trifle, I give you my hand and heart 
to share your dangers; I will go and serve you with the half 
of my fortune, while the other half will very comfortably main- 
tain my family; and my wife (thank God) has both sense and 
prudence enough to take care of them : my male children, when 
of a proper age, will come and find us out in any part of the 
world." Having said these words, — he ran out, and brought the 
Bible to swear upon. Bmin entreated him to put up the sacred 
book ; and, finding it impossible to dissuade him from his generous 
heroic resolution, he said to him, "My worthy friend, I am going 
upon an imaginary plan, exactly like that of making a solid figure 
of a man's shadow; unless the Supreme Being shall please to 
turn it into something substantial. Should it happen to fail, I 
should never forgive myself if any accident should befall you, and 
I should be the occasion of ruin to your harmless lambs and 
family; I should consider myself then as a rogue, villain, or an 
impostor. But so far I give my word of honour, that if success 
favours me in my undertaking, you may depend upon it, my blunt 
pen will find you out in any part of Europe. I beg you will say 
no more about it ; let us sit down half an hour longer, to enjoy 
the society of our true hearts, which the Great God has made 
under the same planet." The poor man then shed tears 
bitterly, and said no more. This amiable conversation began at 
midnight, and ended at half-an-hour past two in the morning, 


when every one else was asleep in the house. Emin had a good 
mind to repeat to him his Grace's prediction, That too much 
money would do him no good; but he thought proper to say 
not a word of it, lest he should hear a sarcastical answer. Mr. 
Miller then changed the subject, and told the history of his life, 
which was very entertaining, and equal in variety of hardships 
to that of Emin; who dares to declare, *that the German 
nation, by what he has seen in Westphalia, are equal in good- 
ness both of heart and tongue to the English themselves. God 
seeing the plainness and honesty of their hearts * has given 
most of the sovereignty of Europe to that nation; as for 
example, the king of England, the empress of Russia, and the 
rest; and should any learned man be curious enough to trace 
the genealogies of other European princes, he will find their 
ancestors to be all of German extraction : *and this is a proof,* 
that simplicity is more acceptable to God, than cunning and 
artfulness : for instance, who is more cunning than the Jews, 
Hindoos, and others that are no better than they ? Every one, 
according to his merits, is stationed by the invisible hand of the 
Almighty, so as to let his truth shine over all. The good Mr. 
Miller, and his friend Emin, at three jn the morning parted, and 
each retired to his bed. 

After two days more, he hired a covered cart for Emin, 
who took his leave, and proceeded towards St. Petersburgh, 
where he arrived in twelve days from Riga. He waited on the 
chaplain doctor, who received him with great politeness, and 
invited him to live in the house with him all the while he 
stayed in that place. The other letters introduced Emin to other 
gentlemen; the first, to Mr. Keith, f the next, to count Worron- 

* * Passages that I was very sorely tempted to suppress. They are reprinted only in 
consideration of the fact of their having been written over 130 years ago. 

t Mr., later Sir Robert, Keith (only son of Col. Keith of Craig, Kincardineshire), British 
Ambassador at Vienna 1748, whence, in 1753, he had sent news to England of Frederick the 
Great's attempts to discover the strength of the Jacobite party in England and Scotland in 
order to make trouble for George II., writing strongly against Frederick's "ill-faith and 


zoff,* the Russian Imperial chancellor ; then to doctor Mounsey ; 
the fourth letter was from Miss Talbot to the princess of 
Georgia, her correspondent by the means of doctor Dumaresque, 
who, to Emin's great misfortune, was then dead. She being 
married to prince Dolgorucky, the letter he gave to the prince 
her husband, who is uncle to prince Heraclius by the mother's 
side. If this lady had lived, Emin might have succeeded in 
some points, as he owed so much of his success to the noble 
ladies in London. The gentlemen to whom he was recom- 
mended, divided Emin's time so, that he could never dine at 
the doctor's; who was very glad of his being taken so much 
notice of, and accompanied him wherever he went like a guar- 
dian and a father. A few days after, Emin's character excited 
the curiosity of St. Petersburgh, like the dromedary brought over 
by a Greek, and exhibited in London. 

Mr. Keith, doctor Mounsey, and doctor Dumaresque, by the 
desire of count Worronzoff the chancellor, took Emin along with 
them to the house of that nobleman, who asked him several 
questions, doctor Dumaresque acting as interpreter between 
them. "Your intention," said he, "as I understand by the 
letter from prince Gallitzin, is to go to prince Heraclius in 
Georgia. He is very poor, and his father king Tahmuras is 
come hither, to beg our assistance both in money and troops; 
what can you do there in a prince's service, where those two 

ambition." In 1758 he was transferred to Petersburg to counteract Franco- Austrian in- 
fluence. From the beginning of 1762, when Peter III. succeeded the Empress Elizabeth, he 
rendered great services to Frederick of Prussia, as his strong Prussian sympathies greatly 
pleased Peter, who almost worshipped Frederick. Keith mediated between Russia and Den- 
mark during Peter's reign. He returned to England in 1762, after Catherine II. ascended 
the throne, and died in 1774. He was a cousin of George Keith, 10th and last Earl Maris- 
chal of Scotland (the friend of Frederick the Great), whose brother James Keith served the 
Empresses Anne and Elizabeth of Russia, and later entered the service of Frederick, who 
made him Field-marshal. 

* Count Mikhail Larionovich Vorontsov, Grand Chancellor to the Empress Elizabeth, the 
highest dignitary of the realm. An honest and patriotic Russian, who endeavoured to resit 
Peter III.'s Prussianising of his country, but was of too weak a personality to succeed in 
opposing it. 


great articles are wanting?" Emin answered, saying, "May it 
please your Excellency, neither of the two are in fact wanting, 
with sense and proper management; the country is one of the 
richest upon earth, and produces two very valuable articles of 
commerce, silk and cotton. As for eatables and grains of all 
kinds, no country is so plentifully supplied with them; and 
great part of the people perhaps have hardly tasted water, for 
wine is their common drink; they have good meat, and all 
sorts of grain and honey in abundance : so that, with a little 
European management, that country may nourish and be happy, 
without being obliged to depend upon any other nation; when, 
in the mean time, the Armenians will join with a good will to 
expel, as they easily may, the Mahomedans out of their country. 
Therefore I am sorry for king Tahmuras, who at the age of 
sixty-five years, almost worn out in his wars against the Lazgi 
mountaineers, comes so far for succour. God, when he created 
man, gave him a head, with two hands to take care of it; but 
if those hands are not sufficient to help that head, they deserve 
to be cut off. A little smattering of a Turkish education will 
make a poor Georgian slave-boy, when he grows up, created a 
basha or grand vizir; while a naked mountaineer Armenian, at 
the head of 200 men, will be able to beat a whole Turkish 
army. Another goes to Constantinople, and becomes a head 
banker of the Grand Signior; a third works for his passage as 
a groom, with some horses from Basra, on board of an English 
ship, becomes master of some lacks in Calcutta, where he dom- 
ineers over his countrymen like Nadir Shah; while your Ex- 
cellency's humble servant, who now has the honour of standing 
before you, ran away from his father in Bengal, without shoes; 
and having worked on board of an Indiaman, became a porter 
in L,ondon for almost five years, and rushed through thick and 
thin, till he made himself worthy to be taken notice of at 
present by your Excellency. Therefore, why may not the Ar- 
menians or Georgians be as enterprizing in their own country, 


as they have shewn themselves by frequent examples ? The 
difficulty lies in the beginning of it. When they have once 
opened their eyes from the slumber of ignorance, they will go 
on as well as their neighbours." This speech of Emin pleased 
his Excellency the chancellor so much, that he became his 
friend as warmly as Mr. Pitt in London ; and with inexpressible 
cheerfulness said to Dr. Mounsey, "Prava aschen khorosha 
gavarial vot eta. dobri challavete ; — that is, Well spoken, he is an 
honest man." He then ordered one of his attendants to go with 
his compliments, to call king Tahmuras. When he came, the 
chancellor took Emin by the hand, and put it into the king's, 
saying, " This is the only man recommended to us strongly by 
our noble friends in England. We can with great security present 
him to your majesty. Bestow him upon your poor country as a 
treasure who will, we are in great hopes, rise with artillery, ammu- 
nition, and every thing necessary, provided you will hear him." 

Upon this sudden scene, the mighty king was surprised as 
if in a dream ; he stared about five minutes at so small a 
body, the Georgians generally being tall and stately; thanked 
his Excellency for his great present, and with humility and 
cheerfulness lifted up his hand and head, praying to God, and 
hoping that his son Heraclius would concur with Emin, and 
hearken to his counsel ; and he declared that in reality they were 
more in want of men of knowledge than of any thing else ; and 
that, if it pleased God that he should live, Emin should be his 
second son, and esteemed next to prince Heraclius. Emin, upon 
this, with great respect kissed his majesty's hand, and was 
honoured with being kissed by him on the forehead. His Excel- 
lency ordered dinner. The king was placed between Mr. Keith 
and the chancellor, with an interpreter standing behind the 
chairs : the rest of the company sat at the same table ; and dur- 
ing dinner, the English envoy was giving an account of Emin's 
transactions to the chancellor in French, and he, by the Georgian 
interpreter, explained it to the king. 


When dinner was over, Tahmuras took Emin in his chariot 
to the house where he lived; delighted much in his conversa- 
tion; gave him great hopes that they should succeed in defend- 
ing their country from the encroachments of the Mahomedans; 
and said, "He did not in the least doubt that, by the means 
of Emin, the Armenians would soon unite with the Georgians 
to shake off entirely the yoke of subjection," not knowing 
thoroughly the jealous disposition of his son Heraclius. After a 
conversation of two hours, Emin took his leave, when the king 
desired him to make the house his own, and come there as often 
as he pleased. He went thither constantly every day, and dined 
several times with Tahmuras at the chancellor's, but more 
commonly at Mr. Keith's, who was to him as kind as ten 
fathers. Doctor Mounsey in particular, and his lady, were equally 
polite : he told Emin twenty times, that the late empress Eliza- 
beth,* who was then sick and inaccessible, had declared that if 
Emin was fortunate enough, and she should recover from her 
illness, "he shall be taken," said she, "better care of, and proper- 
ly sent to Armenia, so as not to be much indebted to the 
Georgian prince. The Armenians are an honest and faithful 
people, for whom my dear father Peter the Great had taken 
considerable pains; and had he lived longer, would have de- 
livered them from the slavery of the Mahometans. Poor Emin ! 
who without either a real friend, or money, treads the same 
steps with equal zeal of patriotism, shall not want help or a 
friend, if I can but recover from this disorder." But, alas! to 
the great misfortune of Emin, and to all the Armenians, she 
died in the month of December f ; and exactly a fortnight after, 

* Elizabeth Petrovna (1709-1762), daughter of Peter the Great, and Empress of 
Russia 1741-62. Founded the' University r "of Moscow and the Academy of Fine Arts at 
Petersburgh. During the Seven Years' War, her army entered Berlin in 1760, and had it 
not been for her death on Jan. 5, 1762, and the sudden change in Russian policy brought 
about by her successor, Peter of Holstein-Gottorp, Frederick the Great might have been 
completely defeated. 

t O. S. 


died king Tahniuras of Georgia. Emin was left again fatherless 
and motherless. 

Doctor Dumaresque, during the time, used to come home 
very late sometimes at one, sometimes at two o'clock in the 
morning, and found Emin always up in his room, where they 
talked another hour before they went to bed. He generally 
happened to have been sitting with the present empress Catherina, 
at that time duchess of Holstein, whose celebrated character is 
known to the world, and her very name a terror to the proud 
Turks. She hearing of Emin's motives, often signified to the 
doctor her opinion, that if there was a sort of government 
or principality in Armenia, it would be of great consequence to 
the empire of Russia, especially in time of war, since they would 
harrass the Turks pretty smartly; and as they are an industri- 
ous nation, not in the least wicked nor treacherous like the 
Georgians, they might thrive better, so as to become a free and 
flourishing people. (Her late achievements in the past war 
against the Osmanlus justified her sentiments.) 

To prevent Emin from being too vain of himself, Dr. Duma- 
resque said to him, " Before you came to this place, or were 
taken notice of by the English nobility, her Imperial majesty 
hardly missed in conversation mentioning Armenia, when he 
happened to speak of the Persians or Turks." He must not 
forget, in. gratitude to his German friend, Mr. Miller of Riga, 
that unknown to him he had wrote a letter to his correspon- 
dent, a German gentleman, and an eminent merchant in Peters- 
burgh, to offer him the same 2000 dollars which he refused at 
Riga. Emin thanked him again, without accepting the generous 
offer, which surprized the merchant, who was well acquainted 
with many English great men, and knew Emin's narrow cir- 
cumstances as well as they did, but was not thoroughly acquain- 
ted with the pride of his heart, who would by no means be be- 
holden to any nation but the English; nor, like some mean- 
spirited persons, scrape the rust of the world from different people. 



As for his beloved English, they are both father and mother to 
him; and from them, whatever favour he has received, it is his 
principal ambition (though they by no means expect it) to re- 
turn it tenfold when able ; but if he continue poor, which cannot 
be helped, it ever shall be as it has been, his duty to remember 
their goodness all the days of his life, and record it from genera- 
tion to generation. 

Letter to Lord Lyttei/ton from Petersburgh.* 

My Lord 

What will your Lordship think of me, not writing to you for 
this long time, I hope not ungrateful. If I am not mistaken your 
Lordship did order me expressly by the word of mouth, that ex- 
cept I had a particular business or I should have found myself at 
a loss of an advice for which I was to apply there by Lines to your 
Lordship, who had always been my counsellor, and brisk spurer on. 
This order of your Lordship has deprived me of the Happiness of 
corresponding with your Lordship which makes me extremely un- 
happy. It seems your Lordship is tired of me, nor can I go on 
rightly when I reflect suspiciously thereupon. I am now realy for 
want of your serious and good advice, concerning a distressed 
country, which I shall question, and explain in as few words, as 
my none Education will permitt, as follows. I. In what manner can 
be a country maintained, and depended against a warlike nation. 
2. How is to raise money of such country which is totally ruined nor 
has any sort of Revenue. 3. What method he is to take with the 
people of such Country to reason with and bring them to Industry 
who are as obstinate as Bares. These are the obstacles before me, 
if I should be the help of God overcome all, will your Lordship 
then think me worthy of your friendship, or say that any body else 
could do the same ? I have wrote everything concerning my present 

* A copy of Mrs. Climenson's Letters of Elizabeth Montagu, in two volumes as published 
in 1906, was enlarged by the late Mr. A. M. Broadley into eight volumes by the addition of 
about 400 portraits and engravings, and of thirty-seven autograph letters acquired from 
Mrs. Climenson. These volumes came into the possession of Mr. E. S. Pickard, Stonegate, 
York, and were advertised in his catalogue at £35 for the whole work. A friend sent the 
advertisement to Mrs. Climenson, who, seeing a letter of •' Emin the Armenian " included, 
informed my cousin Mrs. Gregory, then in London. The latter wrote to Mr. Pickard, who 
very obligingly sent her a copy of the above letter, which reached me in Calcutta — after edi- 
fying the censor at Bombay — just in time to include it in this book, which was already in 
the press, at the correct period of the date of the letter. 


situation to Madam Montagu, she will acquaint you, at your Leisure 

or when your Lordship pleases. But at present I have nothing else 

to say but beg your Lordship's permission to subscribe myself my 

Lord your Lordship's __ u ,. . L1 

Most obed*. humble servant 

St. Petersburgh, 
the 14th January 1762 and 30th. 


(On the back 0/ the letter.) 

To Lord Lvttelton. 



[Proposal that Emin should enter Russian service — Firm in his desire to help his 
own country — Keith procures letter to Heraclius from Vorontsov — Over the 
snow to Moscow — to Astrakhan — Death of Peter III. — Kizlar — Armenian and 
Tartar entry excites suspicion of Russian general — Objects to passport — Emin 
returns to Astrakhan — Rentil, a Swede — Moscow again — Government there for 
coronation of Catherine — An unknown friend — Interview with Vorontsov and 
Galitsin— Consideration of Peter the Great for Armenians — Promised passport 
— Pleurisy again — Offered command of Armenians — Refuses — Penniless again 
— Lord Buckingham's nerves — Mr. Boad's help — " Damn all great men!" — 
Kindness of Englishmen unwillingly contrasted with behaviour of Armenians 
— "A soldier must speak the truth ! "] 

\ FTER the death of the empress and king Tahmuras, 
Peter II.* succeeded to the throne. His Excellency Mr. 
Keith, Dr. Mounsey, and Dr. Dumaresque, proposed to Emin to 
enter into the Russian service, since the new emperor was very- 
fond of soldiers, and it would be of consequence to him; but 
Emin would, on no consideration, consent to become a turn- 
coat, still continuing firm in his resolution to proceed for Geor- 

* Peter III., son of Charles Frederick, Duke of Holstein, and Anna, daughter of Peter the 
Great. Born at Holstein 1728, succeeded his aunt the Empress Elizabeth Jan. 1762, assas- 
sinated at Ropsha, July, 1762. Peter II. was the son of Alexis, son of Peter the Great, and 
reigned 1727-30. 


gia and Armenia. His Excellency approved his sentiment, and 
procured a pass for him, with a letter of strong recommenda- 
tion from the chancellor count Worronzoff, his friend, to prince 
Heraclius, written in Russian, and translated by Dumaresque 
into English. 

The purport of it was as follows : 

"To Prince Heraclius. 

"The bearer of this letter, Joseph Emin, an Armenian Chris- 
tian, native of the city of Hamadan, in the kingdom of Persia, 
educated in England, and brought up in the art of war, made 
some campaigns in Germany, where his conduct merited him 
the notice and friendship of that renowned nation ; and there, 
hearing your name extolled as one of the. greatest captains and 
officers in your situation, inclined him to come and enter him- 
self into your service. His noble friends in Iyondon, and our 
Imperial envoy prince Gallitzin thought proper to favour him 
with letters, recommending him strongly to our notice and pro- 
tection. When he came hither with those credentials, we judged 
it best to present him to your late father king Tahmuras, who, 
seeing his conduct, took great notice of him, and promised to 
take him to Georgia before his death. Almost in his last will, 
he told him to go to you without fail or delay. To this he 
readily consented. In case you should not be pleased with 
him, or disagree with him, it is our pleasure that you let him 
return back to us in a most satisfactory manner, since he may 
be employed by us with great pleasure, in our august Imperial 
service : his character and good conduct being better known to 
us. Given under my hand, count Worronzoff, high chancellor of 
the empire of Russia," &c. &c. 

With this letter and passport, Emin set out in the middle 
of March, in a sledge, over the snow to Moscow, and went 
thence to Astrakhan, where, hearing that the snow of the Cau- 


casian mountains had stopped the passage, which is commonly 
every year choked up from the month of January till the month 
of May or June, he thought it necessary to send a padamar 
with letters to prince Heraclius, and to the Armenians in the 
mountains of Karabagh (or the Black Garden). It took exactly 
five months before he received answers. The prince saying 
nothing worthy of insertion, that the Armenians would serve 
and die under his horse's hoofs. He stayed about nine months 
at Astrakhan, where, after travelling from place to place, and 
spending half of his capital, 130/., he heard that Peter the 
Second was no more. He had reigned exactly one year,* from 
the first of January 1761, to the first of the same month 1762, 
leaving the empire to his wife, the great Catherina. 

At last, thirty Armenian lads, with their arms and horses, 
joined Emin ; and, in the month of May, he set out from Astra- 
khan to Kizlar, the frontier town of Russia, chiefly inhabited by 
Armenians and Georgians. About five hundred yards to the 
east of it is a small fortification, built with mud only, and with 
four bastions to it, big enough to hold a battalion, and the 
general with his family ; and besides, a large room for about 
thirty or forty sons of Lazgey mountaineer chiefs, as hostages for 
their father's good behaviour, to keep them quiet from revolt or 
inroading : these, like a sort of prisoners, are paid by the govern- 
ment, and relieved every three or six months by their brothers, 
or near relations, in turn. 

As horses are very cheap in those parts, the Armenians 
hearing of Emin's arrival, about three hundred of them, two 
miles from that place, not considering the bad consequence of 
that imprudent measure, made a grand entry with him, together 
with five or six hundred Tartars on horseback; men who five 
under tents thereabouts, on the banks of the river Tuvky, and 
who joined the party out of curiosity as mere spectators. This 

* A mistake. 


terrified the pusillanimous general Stupition so much, that he 
drew up the bridge and crept into the fort; the rest of the 
Armenians and Tartars, with their families, coming out of their 
houses, with a joyful clamour, saying, "Here comes the prince 
of Armenia!" so that any person in Stupition' s stead would 
then have been frightened. Emin acted very cautiously, and 
would not take a quarter without the general's order; he there- 
fore sent a messenger to know his pleasure. In the meanwhile 
he pitched tents in an open place between the fort and the 
town; but had much ado to persuade the mob to go away from 
him. The general sent word, with compliments, that he had in- 
structed Galust, the chief of the Armenians, to accommodate him 
in his house where he alighted, and took quarter. The next 
morning the general came to visit Emin, who returned the com- 
pliment in the evening, and showed the passport; which Stupi- 
tion, on seeing the name of Peter the Second to it, did not 
at all approve, but took it from him and kept it, telling him he 
would consider it. Emin dined with him that day and the next ; 
and on the fourth day after his arrival, the general, with a com- 
pany of grenadiers and six hundred Circassians and Tartars, came 
to him; and after some cringing whining ceremony told him, 
that the pass was not clear, being made in Iyittle Petrus's time; 
adding many abusive expressions concerning the deceased. He 
astonished Emin with this unpolished barbarity; and added, that 
Petrus was not worthy tc reign, nor had sense enough to know 
the laws of the Russians, which strictly forbad suffering a mili- 
tary man to pass the frontiers of the empire. Emin made no 
objection, but told the stupid general, that he was very sorry to 
find a man of his rank possessed of so foul a mouth, and spit- 
ting out such poisonous unbecoming words upon the character of 
an unfortunate prince, who was the grandson of Peter the Great 
of glorious memory, that enlightener of the Russias, and lawful 
husband to the famous empress Catherina. He added, "What 
is the reason you brought so many fighting men ? and on the 


day of my coming hither, you run, like a lusty fellow, into the 
fort ? It seems you are afraid of a single Armenian, who is 
ashamed to see a Russian general like you frightened at the 
sight of a mob, who were all the time your own subjects. Such 
a general as you, is more fit to graze cattle than to com- 
mand a fort on the confines of an empire." The man looked as 
pale as death, and uttered hardly a word for five minutes, the 
accompanying Circassian and Tartarian officers, with the rest of 
the troops on horseback and the grenadiers in a circle, seeing this 
behaviour of Emin, which may appear rash to the reader, it 
gave those barbarous wild mountaineers a very great opinion of 
his undaunted resolution; and they took care ever after to re- 
port it among the Lazguis, from whom it spread all over 
Georgia, Turkey, Armenia, and even to Persia. In that critical 
juncture, they began to mutter to one another in the Tartarian 
language, saying "This man, while he is alone, has so great a 
liver, (the Asiatics commonly call a man of courage a man of 
liver), how much greater will he have if he command a thousand 
of us?" Stupition began to hang his head, and said, "Sir, I 
am afraid for your person, if you lie in this house without a 
proper guard. I have authentic intelligence of five hundred men, 
about two days journey from this place, waiting to lay hold of 
you." Emin said, "No, Sir, they wait to join me, an Armenian 
Christian, whose principles are well known all over Europe, and 
in England in particular, where I was esteemed worthy of being 
recommended to the court of Russia : but I understand your 
meaning ; that I am your prisoner ; do your duty, post the guards 
properly, lest you should run away, as you did some days ago." 
The intention of general Stupition in making this difficulty, 
was grounded to extort a sum of money, since it was hinted to 
Emin, through an Armenian, that if he would fee the party 
handsomely, he might go with safety by the general's free per- 
mission uninterrupted. He thought Emin was worth a great 
many thousand English guineas j since a ridiculous report went 

184 Emin's imaginary million. 

about then, and remains to this day all over Persia, that he 
was favoured by the son of the king of England with a million 
sterling, and had such certificates or Bank notes, that in any 
part of the world, the merchants who should see them, would 
immediately pay any sum of money he pleased: but they little 
imagined that his finances, at that very time, were reduced to 
three hundred Russian dollars; and the million was three hun- 
dred pounds allowed him by the earl of Northumberland. The 
late king George of England had presented him before, by the 
late lady Yarmouth, with 25I. in Bank notes; and after waiting 
at the late duke of Cumberland's levee door without daring to 
enter, when he did enter with the late lord Ancram,* who 
thought even that was too much, he had the singular honour to 
kiss his Royal Highness' s hand, by virtue of which Emin 
maintained the character of the richest man in the world. It is 
ten to one but the Russian Stupition might have heard of this 
mighty sum, and believe it to be fact; but the poor man was 
deprived of tasting any of its sweetness, which Emin was most 
spitefully unwilling to let him have. The argument ended, and 
sixty men with some grenadiers were posted round the house to 
guard Emin, who gave his thirty Armenian troopers leave to 
proceed on their journey to Teffliz, ordering them to wait for 
him till the next year. The poor fellows went away almost 
broken-hearted; and the sight of their distress would sensibly 
have affected any one of the least humanity. The Tartars, 
joined to the Armenians, made a loud lamentation, cursing the 
general most heartily. For all the strictness of the charge, and 
the strength of the guard, could not keep the Tartars, Circassians, 
and Armenians, from the house where Emin was a sort of a 
prisoner. This caused great apprehension in the general's mind, 

* William Henry, 6th Earl of Ancram, 4th Marquis of Lothian (1 720-1 775). A dis- 
tinguished military officer. From the rank of cornet in 1735 attained that of a general 
in 1770. He fought and was wounded at Fontenoy, in 1745 commanded cavalry at 
Culloden, and subsequently accompanied the Duke of Cumberland to the Continent. 

stupition's protest. 185 

and saved Emin from remaining there a long time, in a state 
highly disagreeable to a man of spirit. He remembered that 
when he was at Astrakhan, two gentlemen, Asbeg Tartars, came 
from Bokhor in their way to Peter sburgh upon some negocia- 
tion, and were detained by the governor, flayed* to the very 
skin, and kept there nine months; and, when he was coming 
away, they were not permitted to proceed further. The same 
might have been his lot, if those wild Tartars had not frigh- 
tened Stupition, who was glad to consent to Emin's return back 
to the capital. The general, who wanted activity with diligence, 
(qualities common to fearful people,) drew a formal protest, and 
made about four hundred principal Armenians, Georgians, 
Tartars, and Indians, sign their names to it ; setting forth, That 
in case the Armenian Emin, who came thither with a wrong 
passport, were suffered either to stay in the town of Kizlar, or 
to pass the frontiers, the whole mountainous country of Lazguis, 
and the inhabitants of the woody plains of Chacham and 
Muchkez, would flock to him; the consequence of which might 
end in dangerous troubles, and prove injurious to Kizlar. 

Having delivered this paper to a Russian serjeant, he 
ordered a squadron of twenty Cossack horses, with a Circassian 
centurion, to conduct Emin from stage to stage, relieving the 
guard with fresh troopers, to Astrakhan, to acquaint the 
governor with the business, and thence to set out with the ser- 
jeant alone and his two servants to St. Petersburgh. As the 
suspected track of land was between, and as the governor, to 
whom he had a letter of recommendation before from Count 
WorronzofT, was very firm, and wrote a letter to the general, 
and gave Emin a passport, persuading him to return again to 
Kizlar; he consented, and was preparing himself to proceed the 
next day : but in the morning, behold, there came a courier 
from Stupition, with a letter to the governor, urging him 

* Probably means robbed, despoiled of their property. 


strongly not to let him remain a day longer, nor permit him to 
return to Kizlar, since he, having the command of the frontiers, 
would not be the cause of letting him pass; and adding, "he 
is a dangerous Armenian, brought up in the military profession 
among the English; his presence will bring on a rebellion of the 
L,azguis mountaineers on our side, which the Georgian side of 
course will join ; you are sitting at Astrakhan in peace and 
quiet, not considering the difficulty and the danger of this 
command in the middle of so many wild barbarians; therefore 
I desire you will let the man return from whence he came, but 
will order the serjeant to guard him to his excellency the great 

The governor told all this to Emm, through Mr. Rentil, a 
Swedish merchant at that place, at whose house he had before 
stayed nine months, who being brought up in London, under- 
stood English perfectly well, and by whom Emin was treated 
with great politeness and hospitality. He was in great concern, 
expressing himself with extreme sorrow. When parting, Emin 
comforted him, saying, ff My good friend, I am very glad for 
what has happened: — in the first place, my little money is al- 
most gone; I am sure of being supplied a-fresh by my English 
friends in Moscow and Petersburgh. Stupition's ill-natured be- 
haviour, with an intention to hurt me, has made me more con- 
siderable in the opinion of that brave wild people, who if I had 
been allowed to pass, would have looked upon me as one of the 
common Armenians ; but this affair has gained me great reputa- 
tion; for they will not rest idle to propagate among themselves 
an opinion, that I must be a very able man, of whom the gen- 
eral was afraid, and prevented me from going on. In time, it 
will be of infinite service to me, when once I shall be in Georgia 
and Armenia, the poor ignorant men not knowing that I am 
but a school-boy in the art of war, for the Orientals are chiefly 
overcome by the sound of a great man, without which, let a 
person be ever so brave or rich, they care but very little for 


him. A man must spend vast sums of money, go through great 
difficulties, and run into many dangers in hazardous battles, be- 
fore he can be able to establish a name, and induce the minds 
of fighting men to follow him, especially when, by God's assist- 
ance, I shall come off with honour, to the joy of my country- 
men in Kizlar, and to the mortification of my enemies. As for 
the fearful Armenian merchants at Astrakhan, who are prophesy- 
ing that it will cost me 20,000/. to clear me out of the scrape, 
or that I shall be an exile to Siberia, I snap my fingers at 

Emin's good friend Rentil was made easy by this. He 
therefore took leave and set out, travelling back the same 1,500 
miles, over the best part of the kingdom. It was in the month 
of August, neither hot nor cold, but pleasant enough, with 
plenty of victuals, and very cheap, since the governor had 
charged the orderly serjeant that he should be treated respect- 
fully at every stage; and he had a waggon full of water-melons 
as presents. He did not go so expeditiously as before. In about 
thirty-five days he reached the city of Moscow, and saved 
twelve days journey to Petersburgh, by the empress Catherina's 
coming thither to be anointed ; and all the English gentlemen 
came a fortnight after to see the grand ceremony. Emin, with 
a rich Armenian, named Ivan Eavarwitz, the empress's head 
jeweller, and the serjeant, went on Monday morning, and waited 
upon the count WorronzofL The sergeant delivered the packet. 
His excellency, when he broke it open, asked him the reason of 
his coming from Kizlar ? He answered, " I came by the order 
of Stupition, and with a serjeant also to guard me all the 
way." The count was very angry, and immediately ordered the 
man to go out of the house. He then began to read the report, 
shook his head, and asked Emin, smiling, the reason of his being 
sent back so many hundred miles ? He said he could not tell ; 
but as far as he could understand, Stupition thought himself more 
wise in observing men than his superiors : and this prevented 

I$8 vorontsov discredits stupition's report. 

him from going about his business; ruined him by the expences 
of travelling backwards and forwards; and moreover caused an 
unnecessary trouble to his excellency. He ordered the Armenian 
Ivan I^azarwitz to tell Emin, that this very morning, before 
Stupition's report came, he had received a letter from a par- 
ticular friend of his in England, in Emin's favour, giving an 
account of his honest principles; "and," added he, "in my 
opinion, your character is superior to the treacherous letter of 
Stupition, and his report, which when one casts an eye upon, 
one forgets the contents of the letter from England; but when I 
look over the letter again, it has the same effect, and I shall 
prefer it to the report. Go home, and rest satisfied: we will 
take care of you for your own sake, and that of our good 
friends in England." Emin made his bow, and went away with 
triumph; but did not dare to ask who was that good angel of 
a friend who saved him from the destructive fury of Stupition, 
who thought him but a sheep ; but never had imagined that 
God's hand was upon his head wherever he went. 

After a few days refreshment, he was summoned to attend 
the secret college of foreign affairs, or secretary's office as it is 
called by the English; and when he entered the awful chamber, 
found there the count Worronzoff, prince Gallitzin,* the envoy 
his old friend, and a very good-natured well looking man an 
interpreter, standing by the side of the table. Emin did not 
miss the happy opportunity to express joy in his countenance 
on seeing the prince, and made dumb compliment with a low 
bow. He had arrived but a few days, and was created a 
second chancellor immediately. He smiled on Emin with good- 
nature in his looks. Worronzoff asked the prince if he knew 
him? He said, "Yes; and a very honest Armenian he is." 
They then ordered the interpreter to inquire of Emin from the 

* Prince Galitzin, having been appointed Vice-Chancellor, had returned to Russia from 


first to the last of his coming to that place. He said, he would 
answer every question they asked him with infinite pleasure. 
Then the examination began in form, and took up almost three 
hours. Emin did not conceal the smallest article, sticking close 
to the truth, and laid before them his whole mind. They said, 
" By your conversation, we are apt to think that you are des- 
cended from some ancient princely family of Armenia." He 
said "I humbly beg your Excellencies' pardon, if I do not 
deny it: but prince is he that acts like a prince. I am the son 
of an Armenian. There are many born handsome; but they 
are not like that man who acts handsomely, which is an English 
phrase. And how is it possible to find a prince in a nation 
who have been made subjects to Mahometans above 600 years ? 
They said, " What do you hope should be done for you ? — 
If you stay here in our service, we shall favour you with 
our friendship to your satisfaction." He said, he had not 
left his friends in India, to come to Europe for a livelihood, but 
for knowledge, to be of some use to his poor countrymen, who 
are an industrious, brave, honest people, and will soon become 
formidable, provided they can receive the light of understanding, 
to acknowledge, by real services, the goodness of Peter the Great 
of glorious memory, who took the greatest pains for them, and 
indulged them more than his own subjects. " How came you to 
know him so well?" said they. "By hearing of him from my 
father," answered he, "more than a hundred times, and by 
reading of his fame in England. 

"In the year 1727, his Imperial majesty endeavoured to fix 
upon some Armenian to be their leader; but, to my great 
sorrow, he could not find a person resolute enough to concur 
with his godlike magnanimous mind, and head that people. 
Mr. Hanway, in his History of Persia, says, That Peter the 
Great sent Israel the Armenian upon an embassy to Shah Sultan 
Husin, in Ispahan, who loaded him with riches enough to raise 
an army. When he came back, Peter asked his own people how 


the ambassador (unworthy of the title) was received ? They 
said, with great respect. But he changed the route of Peter, 
and passed through Shamakhy and Sherwan where 18,000 armed 
Armenians in a few days gathered about him, in hopes that his 
glorious Imperial majesty had commanded the Armenian ambas- 
sador to head them. This good news to a great and good 
mind must have afforded extreme satisfaction. All the valuable 
presents that were sent by the Shah, the generous emperor 
gave to Israel, not taking to himself the smallest part of 
them; and with undaunted resolution was going to confer on 
him the honour of a general, and the title of chief of the 
Armenians, when he, like a low despicable Jew, made an excuse, 
saying, that he was a merchant, and could not on that head 
obey his commands. Peter's great soul even tried and expostu- 
lated, but it was to no purpose ; he could be made nothing higher 
than a Banian. 

" A second instance of the same kind happened : — My father 
Hovsep having told me, that when Ispahan was taken by the 
Akhvans, a party of horse was ordered by Mahmud Shah to 
march up to Gilan, and drive out the Russians, who had it 
then in their possession. There was a Julpha Armenian, named 
L,azar, at the head of an hundred Armenian or Georgian dra- 
goons, who behaving as well as they could, put the Akhvans 
army into disorder, and coming up with the colonel of the regi- 
ment, defeated the enemy, an4 obtained a complete victory over 
them. The news being sent to Peter, and an account given of 
the conduct of these brave Armenians, his majesty sent for 
L,azar. On his arrival, he honoured him with the order of the 
garter,* and the commission of a general, with the command of 
12,000 men, to march and join the grand army against the 
Osmanlus, or Turks : yet this man, with the same mean excuse, 
shrugging up his shoulders, and scratching his ears like a brute 

* He means what he considered to be a Russian equivalent. 


animal, said, that he could not hold so great a command; 
which was again no small vexation to Peter. His extreme 
patience overcoming his anger, instead of degrading, he only 
pitied the Armenians, among whom could not be found a single 
person, at that favourable time, to head them. There was 
wanting your humble servant Emin to satisfy his majesty in his 
wars : but now you are at peace with the Turks : and as to my 
accepting your kind offer, for which I heartily thank your great- 
ness, it would be the means of eating the bread of idleness, and 
buying the cruel character of an impostor; when the world will 
say, Emin has broken his word : instead of going to Armenia, 
he made a pretence by the failure of a pass, and stayed in Russia, 
to live, like, the rest of his countrymen, a pensioner. If you were 
at war, I should by all means prefer entering your service in- 
stead of going to prince Heraclius, who is as poor as myself. 
In case of my not succeeding with that prince, I will do my 
utmost to return to Russia, since his Excellency has already 
graciously favoured me with a letter to Heraclius, ordering me to 
be sent back in a satisfactory manner." — When this discourse 
was ended, both chancellors wished him success, telling him never 
to mind returning to their country whenever he should think 
proper, where he would ever be received with great pleasure. 
They promised to give him a pass when he was ready to set 
out. Emin made another short speech, with prayers for the 
success and prosperity of the empire; then went to his lodging. 
He had hardly been at Moscow ten days, when he was 
taken ill with a severe fit of the pleurisy, the same disorder he 
was attacked with in Florence. To be short, he recovered in 
seven days, with great pain and difficulty. Prince Gallitzin then 
sent for him to his own house, and said, That they had ac- 
quainted her Imperial majesty with his design; that she was 
extremely pleased with the spirit of it, and willing to forward 
his honest pursuits ; but that he must wait with patience, as 
there was time enough for him to attain the end of his wishes. 


This singularly gracious message of invitation was received three 
different times, and even an offer made to give him the com- 
mand of the Armenians at Astracan, if he would consent to kiss 
her hand, and enter into her service; but he could not be per- 
suaded or moved from his former resolution; and they finding 
him obstinately unchangeable, were pleased at last to grant him 
a passport, which cost him but a single ruble, equal to four 
shillings of English money. 

Not having left a single penny in his pocket, he was now as 
distressed as ever, but did not in the least repent of refusing to 
accept the 2000 dollars from his German friend Mr. Miller of Riga. 
He borrowed twelve rubles of Sukiaz Vardapit, an Armenian 
monk, and desired him to keep it a great secret from the rest 
of the Armenian inhabitants of Moscow, lest they should grow 
cool from the warm reception of him in their houses; as he has 
on several occasions remarked, that if a nation be once subdued, 
their minds of course will be. A man ever so enterprizing, if he 
is found moneyless or poor, is despised by them, loses his credit, 
and is hardly ever taken notice of after a calamity. As the 
common people entertained an imposing opinion, entirely of 
their own composition, that the king of England had made him 
a present of a million pounds sterling such ignorant credulity 
might be fit for an impostor like Mahomet, to reform them 
which way he pleased, but not for Emin, who in gratitude to his 
English benefactors and friends, and in respect to his late 
majesty, did not contradict this fable in Russia, but told them 
the truth afterwards, in honour to his principles. 

His friends who arrived from Petersburgh were very anxious 
to know what was become of Emin : the chaplain of the ambas- 
sador, lord Buckingham, who had been there before they came, 
acquainted them with all his transactions; and added, that his 
lordship was frightened, and would by no means see him, but 
said, he was a dangerous mad-man. When he was so distressed 
for want of his lordship's interest to speak a good word for him 


to the ministers, the chaplain (whose name is forgotten) did all 
he could to introduce him to his lordship, but it was not pos- 
sible, he not in the least resembling the late envoy Mr. Keith, 
who was gone to England, and would have run into the mouth 
of a lion for him; nor were his two great friends Dr. Mounsey 
and Dr. Dumaresque present, both having gone away with 
Mr. Keith from Petersburgh. Though lord Buckingham* was 
taken more notice of than any other minister, and even played 
at cards with the empress, which might have given him courage, 
yet it was said his hands shook, and he could never utter three 
words together to her, but was all the time as timorous as if he 
had been sitting in company with a dragon, and afraid of being 

When Emin (by God's help), without money, or a single in- 
terposer, finished his business alone, he was not insensible of that 
angel of a friend, who had sent the letter to count Worronzoff. 
His lordship, hearing of all these proceedings, told his chaplain, 
Emin's good friend, that the Armenian was a devil. He begged 
the messenger of this speech to tell the mighty lord, that he 
was neither a devil, nor a child fit for school, but a man who 
knew himself to be a mortal. 

Mr. Boad, an eminent merchant, Emin's great friend, hearing 
all this, unexpectedly came to his quarters, where, through dis- 
tress, his heart was hanging by a single hair; took him into his 
chariot (which had cost ioool.), and carried him to the tavern, 
where his lady and the few English used in the day-time to dine, 
and in the night they went to their respective quarters to sleep. 
He there saw Mrs. Boad, his wife, and several gentlemen; she 

* John, 2tid«.Earl of Buckinghamshire, b. 1723, Ambassador to the Russian Court 1762, 
that Court having requested a nobleman to suc<!teed Robert Keith; resigned 1765, being re- 
called for the viceroyalty of Ireland, "would have been a good Lord-Lieutenant were it 
not for his family connections and his incompetent secretary." He was an amiable nobleman 
with pleasing manners and good intentions. Horace Walpole (see Diet, of National Bio- 
graphy) called him the " Clearcake," " fat, fair, sweet, and seen through in a moment." 
Until the creation of the marquisate of Buckingham in 1784, he always signed himself 
Buckingham — which accounts for Emin so writing of him. Died in 1793. 

2 5 

194 M R- boad's kind offer. 

desired her husband to take Emin to his lodging to drink a dish 
of coffee: she stayed behind, and he went with Mr. Boad, won- 
dering why they could not have coffee in the tavern. When 
they came to the house, Mr. Boad said, there was no necessity 
Emin should give himself trouble in relating his distresses; he 
knew the whole of his manly behaviour and he had no time to 
spare. He then said in a friendly manner, " Pray, Emin, why will 
you not go away from this place ? I know you have the pass- 
port, and suspect the reason of your delay to be this (taking 
money out of his pocket, and adding) — here are twenty-five 
Russian gold pieces (each worth twenty rupees), take them for 
your journey expences, and give me your note of hand; say no- 
thing, or I shall be very angry with you, and Mrs. Boad will 
never forgive you; it is her desire, and not mine; she has a 
great regard for you, and loves your spirit. I know your stub- 
bornness of temper, and that you think meanly of accepting a 
favour, as you did poor Miller' s offer : you kept it a secret from 
us, but a friend of his told me all that had passed between you 
and Miller at Riga; it is to your honour, but you are law- 
fully bound to hear me, as I am an Englishman, and not a 
German. Here are pen, ink, and paper ; let me have the honour- 
able pride to say, that the hero of Armenia is going with his 
own hand to subscribe himself my debtor." Emin could not re- 
fuse this friendly offer; he took the pen and wrote the follow- 
ing note : "I Joseph Emin, the son of Hovsep Emin, do hereby 
acknowledge and certify, I have received of Mr. Boad the sum of 
twenty-five Russian gold pieces, each equal to ten dollars, which 
makes 250 dollars. The said Mr. Boad, without my giving him 
notice of my distress, of his own accord offered that assistance 
which I in great necessity accepted, on this condition, that he 
would be pleased to receive the above-mentioned sum of twenty- 
five gold pieces, out of the sum which the earl of Northumber- 
land, my patron, will send or remit in a short time. Witness my 
hand as," &c. &c. With this Boad seemed to be satisfied, saying 


with a smile, " Damn all great men : Come, come, let me take 
you to your quarters." 

The Armenians, seeing this kindness of his worthy friend, 
began to make bows lower than usual, joining in belief with the 
common people's imaginary million, since they saw him paying 
the twelve dollars to Sukiaz the monk, on purpose to make a 
show. Two days after, comes again his friend Mr. Boad in 
his chariot, and says to him, "Come, Emin, let us go, my wife 
wants to speak with you." Emin had a couple of rooms in a 
large house, with a spacious court to it, where the church was, 
and several Armenian merchants lodged in different chambers of 
it; it was in a caravanserai, with the master of the house. 
These men naturally had the curiosity to learn every thing 
from his servant, of what passed between him and his English 
friends; nor did the servants want the quality of busy bodies, 
to brag of their master's being so much honoured. He went 
with Mr. Boad again to the same tavern, whose lady, as before, 
desired them to go to the same place to drink coffee. No 
sooner had they entered it, than Mr. Boad drew his sword, and 
laid it on the table : the coffee was brought by a Russian 
servant, who seeing the naked destroyer on the table, was 
frightened out of his wits. Mr. Boad, in a very grave tone of 
voice, ordered him to go out; he then shut the door, bidding 
Emin draw his sword, at the same time presenting him a dish 
of coffee, which he took with great composure, and said, "There 
is no occasion to draw." Mr. Boad filled a pipe with tobacco, 
and said to Emin, "I will tell you a story." He said, "The 
story-teller is at the table, there is no occasion to give yourself 
any trouble." "No, no," said he, "an Englishman will not take 
an advantage, unless you draw likewise : but I must tell my 
story first." Then said Emin, "Go on, Sir." Mr. Boad began 
thus : "As one day the king of France was sitting after dinner 
with his favourite Madame de Pompadour, all the servants being 
gone out, he wanted to light his pipe by the candle on the 


table; there was no paper, and they were at a loss for it: 
Madame de Pompadour put her hand into her pocket, took out 
an English bank-note of 25I. and applying it with her delicate 
fingers to the candle, lighted the king's pipe. This made such a 
noise, that afterwards, for three months together, it was published 
in newspapers all over Europe, as an act of liberality : she 
having at that time 200,oool. secure in our Bank of England. 
Where is the merit of that ? I, who have not the tenth part of 
that sum, am a man, and hearing of a woman, who, if she had not 
been the king's mistress, would be deemed no better than one of 
the common women in Covent-g'arden, will bid a defiance to 
those who praised her to the skies. As to lighting my honest 
pipe with your note, I swear, if you stir to hold my hand, or 
prevent the burning of it, I will run you through immediately." 
He then burned it to ashes, after lighting his pipe. Emin 
thanked him heartily for his uncommon mode of generosity, and 
the pretended challenge turned into a stronger amity, and 
eternal friendship j for, twenty-four years after, lord Macartney,* 

* George Iyord Macartney (1737-1806) was the only son of George Macartney of 
Ussanoure, Co. Antrim, and Elizabeth, daughter of Rev. J. Winder. Macartney matricu- 
lated at the age of 13 at Trinity College, Dublin. M.A. in 1759. Considered one of the 
handsomest and most accomplished young men of his day. In 1764 he was appointed 
envoy extraordinary to Petersburgh to conclude a commercial treaty with Russia and was 
knighted before starting. On his return to England was offered and declined the em- 
bassy to Petersburgh in 1767. In 1768 married Lady Jane Stuart (who died in 1828), 
second daughter of John, 3rd Earl of Bute, and sister to the Hon. Frederick Stuart, who 
had seen Emin at Northumberland House during his childhood, and renewed his friendship 
with him later in Calcutta. In J776 Macartney was raised to the peerage as Baron Macart- 
ney of Lissanoure. In 1780 he was appointed Governor of Fort St. George, Madras, where 
he arrived in 178 1. After Eyre Coote's victory at Port Nuovo, Macartney tried to treat with 
Hyder and with the Mahrattas. Coote objected to his policy and was supported by Warren 
Hastings and the Bengal Council, whose control Macartney opposed. Macartney drew up a 
treaty with Tippoo Sahib, which was first approved of in Bengal and then altered, where- 
upon he sent in his resignation. On his way home he visited Calcutta, where he had a long 
and dangerous illness. It must have been during this visit that he met Emin. Before leav- 
ing, the Board of Control offered him the Governor-Generalship in succession to Hastings. 
He returned to England 1786, and in 1792 became Earl Macartney, in 1796 Governor of the 
colony of the Cape of Good Hope. He resigned on account of ill-health, and died at Chis- 
wick at the age of G9. (From Dictionary of National Biography.) 


when he came from Madras to Calcutta, told him, that his 
friend Mr. Boad at Petersburgh spoke of him very kindly. 

Mr. Thomson, another gentleman resident at Moscow, made 
him a present of five of the same pieces. The Armenian gentle- 
man mentioned before, Ivan Lazarwitz, head jeweller to the 
empress, and his only friend among so many Armenians in all 
the Russian empire, seeing the English so willing to serve him, 
was obliged in honour to lend him twenty-five ten-dollar pieces, 
but never would be paid ever after. Before his setting out from 
Moscow, his patron the earl of Northumberland, by the hand of 
his amiable friend the late Miss Talbot, remitted ioo guineas. 
The Armenian's father Lazar, who was not acquainted with his 
son's liberality, gave him five of the same coin, with a large 
loaf of sugar weighing forty pounds, and five pounds of tea. 

Had Mr. Boad, or Mr. Thomson, been worth half as much 
money as Ivan Iyazarwitz, they would with pleasure have saved 
Emin the pain of being beholden to any great man existing : 
but, instead of that, the former was at that time 15,000 tumans 
in debt to the Russian government, and lost every part of his 
capital in merchandizing in the late war, amounting to 300,000 
rupees. The capital of the other, who was in a tolerable good 
way, was about 30,000 dollars. It was therefore great merit in 
the Armenian jeweller, whose father but lately died, leaving 
three sons and a daughter; and to the eldest son Ivan (Emin's 
friend) had left the grand manufactory, together with 8000 
Russian slaves bought by him; all which were then valued at 
40,000 tumans, or 800,000 rupees ; and he gave also to the 
other two sons, and to the daughter, 12,000 tumans each, and 
6000 tumans to the churches and the poor. With all this wealth, 
Lazar thought himself doing a generous action, in giving Emin 
five pieces of gold, with a loaf of sugar; and his son in lending 
him twenty-five pieces ! Emin should not have made this 
remark, to expose the Armenians' stinginess, but speaking the 
truth is doing justice to all; for a soldier in particular, whose 


tongue and heart should go together. If the Armenian mer- 
chants had half the attachment to liberty that they have to 
money and to superstitions, which are ruinous in many respects, 
they would have been made free long ago : but that horrid 
superstition has become so predominant, and so instilled into 
their minds, running through every muscle and vein, and so in- 
termixed with their blood and humour that they really deserve 
the pity more than the reflections of the public. They actually 
do not know what liberty is; could they once but taste the 
sweetness of it, and drive old women's stories out of their good 
hearts, they would certainly be a great nation. It has been 
Bmin's darling ambition only to tear off that obscure curtain 
from before their eyes, which motive forced him to go through 
such a multitude of toils. In any other case, he should have 
esteemed it imprudent to reflect on himself, as well as his poor 
countrymen, almost in every page of these memoirs ; but when 
the reader shall candidly consider the subject, he will find the 
writer acts, in speaking openly concerning them, for their own 
good, and by no means with an intention to give the smallest 
offence or dissatisfaction to them: on the contrary, his chief 
object is to rouse them from their innocent slumbers, which 
happiness, he is sensible, cannot be in any man's power to confer, 
unless God graciously bestow it on them. 


[Start for Astrakhan — Rentil's friendship — "Avoiding temptation" — Grand- 
daughter of Avan — Avan's history — Project of marriage — Emin " stonehearted 
like Charles XII. of Sweden" — Pathetic farewells — Kizlar — Russian general 
Stupition " grumbling like a bear with his tail cut " — His German wife's 
exaggerations — Escort of Cossacks — Journey through mountains — Tiflis — 
Heraclius — His nobles, "born 24 hours before the devil" — The graceless wolf 
of an old Armenian proverb — Kherim Khan threatening Tiflis — Emin enlists 
800 Armenians — Heraclius's cowardice and Emin's disgust — Revolt in Ispahan 
— Kherim retreats — Heraclius's jealousy and treachery — Emin's honest deal- 
ings with Heraclius — The price offered for Emin's blood — His enemies — Hera- 
clius bewildered — " All haramzadas and the patriarch just as bad ! "] 

TTAVING now provided himself tolerably well with money, the 
necessary evil of life, he took leave of all his good- hearted 
friends, set out with a single servant, a relation of his, in a sledge, 
by the Imperial order, in the month of March, and arrived in 
fifteen days at Astrakhan; where he surprized the prophesying 
Armenian merchants ; who, seeing him come back so very quick, 
in five or six months time, took for granted that he was the 
very man whom Haly Moses, the great patriarch, had foretold 
six hundred and twenty years before ; and bringing their chil- 
dren with them, prostrated themselves at his feet.. He begged 
they would leave off that slavish mode of paying respect, since 
he himself was one of them : but the next morning, when they 
came to visit him, and brought presents, he refused to take 
them, making apologies, and saying, that he had done nothing 
yet to deserve them : they were very fine rich pieces, various 
sorts of tissue, to the value of some hundred dollars. Mr. John 
Rentle and his wife, at whose house he lived before, were more 
rejoiced than all of the others together. Every one naturally 
wishes to see a man of an extraordinary character, or his por- 
trait when he is talked of, as either good or great. Mr. Rentle 
was in every respect brave and generous to the very soul, fit for 


200 emin's reasons for camping out. 

enterprizes in forming governments, and worthy of his illustrious 
nation the Swedes; but his very look, eyes, face, shape, and 
height, exactly resembling Bmin, who shall never forget him as 
long as he lives. He offered more earnestly than Mr. Miller to 
leave his wife for a time, and follow Emin's fortunes. 

Emin had now a house to live in, which saved Mr. Rentle 
the trouble of entertaining him; and to preserve himself from 
temptation, he went over the frozen river Edel, pitched a tent, 
and lived there three weeks, about half a mile from Astrakhan, 
till the snow melted and the roads were opened. His reason for 
so doing was very strong. When he was at Kizlar, he found 
Avankhan's wife, an old lady of sixty-five, with her grand- 
daughter, who had been absent from Astrakhan for some time, 
and were just returned from Borughan, a Circassian village, 
a-day's journey to the south of Kizlar, where people go to bathe 
themselves in the hot waters ; and those two ladies had been 
there for the change of air. He was advised by his friends to 
promise marriage to the young damsel of fourteen, as she was 
the only girl in that country of beauty and education, and of 
the most distinguished family in all Armenia. The history of 
her grandfather Avan* would take up volumes, if it were written 
in a proper manner. To make it short, he was born of a noble 
family in Stirvan, revolted, with eighteen others, and deserted 
from Calbaly, sultan of that province, whom he surprized by 
night on the Armenian side of the river Cur; and by firing re- 
peated vollies in different places, induced him to believe, that 
an army of mountaineers had surrounded him, so then he de- 
camped precipitately with 18,000 men, leaving behind him con- 
siderable booty ; which Avan's party, assisted by the neighbour- 
ing Armenian villagers, carried away : five hundred mule loads 
of fire-arms were distributed among the subjects of five chiefs 
of Karabagh ; where, by all accounts, there had been no more 

* Mclik Avankhan of the Armenians, Meliks of Thizak, See the " Five Meliks of Kara- 
bagh," at the end of Part II. 


than two match-lock pieces in each chief's arsenal. It was 
Avan the First who introduced complete fire-arms in those moun- 
tains. This happened some years before the destruction of Shah 
Sultan Husin. The last, when Peter the Great was alive, and 
not wanting to encourage him with his letters. The Armenian 
mountaineers from that time began to hold up their heads. Avan 
made himseri* an independent prince, with a formidable army, 
while he had to do with the Persians alone, whom he beat in 
several battles, killing no less than 70,000 of them; but when 
the Osmanlus took possession of great part of Persia, with a 
larger army, yet he could not have been overpowered, if the 
odious Turks had not brought with them the plague, which 
obliged Avan to go over to Russia. 

The writer is not sure he was created prince by Peter, or, 
after his death, by his niece the late Empress Anne. When 
he was in Russia, the government made him general ; and at 
the head of 12,000 men, he marched to Derbund, in order to 
enter Armenia, but died there soon after, to the great misfor- 
tune of the Armenians. His son, Prince Atlukhan, having been 
in that service long enough, was promoted to the rank of lieuten- 
ant general, but was unworthy to be called the son of Avan- 
khan ; and after a most debauched life died at the age of thirty- 
three years, leaving an only daughter, then an infant, and heiress 
to a great landed estate, besides an immense treasure in jewels. 
When Emin returned from Moscow, he found the grandmother, 
with her grand-daughter, returned from Kizlar. He chose to 
live in an asylum, rather than in a princess's house with peace 
and plenty, and with a young lady of fourteen, when he was 
about thirty-three. The old lady was ready to consent, and 
even to persuade, and nothing could have hindered his being 
married : so that he might have done very well, and by this 
time have been high in the Empress's service, whose predecessor, 
Elizabeth, was extremely fond of the princess, Emin's friend, 
and sent- three times for the young angel to see her, with the 



old dowager. Peter the Great also, the father, sent a letter to 
prince Avankhan,* in which the dear brother, and his glorious 
signature, promises that, as soon as she is married, provided it 
be to a soldier by profession, he shall be made a general. 

This gracious letter of Peter the Great, the young lady had 
shewn to Emin three times, perhaps with an innocent intention, 
that he might form an inclination to matrimony; but he was 
stone-hearted, like Charles the Twelfth of Sweden, and sacrificed 
all that prospect of advantage to the cause of his country, 
except the singular satisfaction of having acted honourably, in 
not causing a spot to be cast upon the reputation of that harm- 
less angel. 

The old princess sent over his breakfast, dinner, and supper, 
every day ; and each time with letters so moving, that they 
would have brought down an iron town ; but he only shed 
tears bitterly, and sent apologizing answers. The princess 
Avan was a woman of great natural sense, and finding he would 
not consent to coming over to live, was very uneasy lest he 
should catch cold, and proposed to him to sleep in a separate 
house ; but he could not be persuaded : he only went three 
different mornings very early, stayed just time enough to read 
the letter beforementioned, and immediately went away to his 
covered waggon. On the last day, when he took his leave of 
them, he said, he would be as good as his word, and return to 
them, if it should please God to grant him success in his plan; 
otherwise, he never should think himself worthy of being one of 
her Highness' s common footmen. The scene was pathetic ; all 
three were drowned in tears; hardly able to speak, hanging 
over one another's necks, and just able to bid adieu. Emin 

* Rafli says that Melik Avan died in 1744, and mentions the Empress Elizabeth's affec- 
tion for his grand daughter, but gives her a different name, Frejlin, not Marian, and if the 
latter was only fourteen in 1763, she must have been born after Avail's death. Ram also 
refers to Peter the Great's liking for Avan, and the latter's visits to Petersburgh, but as 
Peter died in 1725, the promise contained in the letter must have been intended for fulfil- 
ment in the case of a future descendant of the Melik's. 


only consoled his mind, by thanking his Maker, that he had 
done no harm, but had a good intention in that uncommon 
proceeding, when he might have married and acquired an im- 
mediate fortune, without being obliged to see the face of the 
Greek prince Heraclius, whose heart was full of envy and 

When he arrived at Kizlar, he waited on Stupition, who 
could not believe his own eyes, but thought he was in a dream, 
when he saw Emin with a powerful passport and a strong com- 
manding letter from two very great ministers, setting forth, that 
if all the Armenian inhabitants of Kizlar (excepting those who 
had been naturalized) should follow Emin Hovsepwitz, they 
were to be convoyed without any pretence or hindrance; and 
that whatever behaviour, good or indifferent, general Stupition 
should shew to the said Emin Hovsepwitz, should be placed to 
their account. And, to convince him more fully that he could 
be a judge of the character of Emin, and of his principles, it 
was added, "By our will and pleasure he is to pass through 
the town of Kizlar honourably, without any sort of molestation. 
And whereas by a calumnious false imputation, he was obliged 
to return to the Imperial college of foreign affairs; he there 
passed an examination, and came off with honour and applause. 
Given under our hands," &c. &c. 

Stupition, stupified and confounded, grumbling like a bear 
with his tail cut, did not know what to do with himself. He 
had been weak enough to believe his German wife, who said, 
that she had seen Emin in the king of Prussia's army, com- 
manding the death regiment of hussars, where he did more 
havock, and destroyed more Russians in the battle of Castrin, 
than the greatest part of the king's army. When her husband 
put the question to Emin, he said, he should be very proud if 
it were true, not of destroying Christians but of just fame; but 
that in fact he had been no more than seven days with the 
king. However, they took for granted that he was the man, 


but did not think proper to speak the truth. Then the lady 
thought herself very wise to prig up her head, and her husband 
looked vain, thinking he possessed a jewel of a wife. This 
happened before the report was made and he was sent back. 

Emm's name, through such report, grew every day more 
and more like a snowball, which in a few days melts to water ; 
for his English education had so good an effect upon him, that 
he never could be made so weak as to be in the least vain of 
himself : and he must acknowledge, that if, instead of a snow- 
ball, his fortune had been turned into real solid gold, (which 
would equally have melted with a strong fire,) he should have 
chosen to bestow it rather on honest soldiers, to fight for the 
liberty of their country, than to sit drinking wine to the 
healths of rich Armenian merchants, who would have been glad 
to hear of his profession, especially since their own purses are 
made inaccessible through good and salutary laws. 

After Easter holidays were over, he set out with three 
servants on horseback; and the general, to his mortification, by 
an order from above, sent 120 cossacks to accompany him to a 
village belonging to the Circassians, at the foot of Mount Cau- 
casus. After five days travelling from Kizlar, he and his ser- 
vants were obliged to halt a fortnight on account of the snow 
in the passes, and to settle with the mountaineers about the 
payment for allowing them to go over. This commonly amounts 
to twelve pieces of coarse linen, each to make a shirt worth two 
English shillings : every man pays besides for his bedding ; and 
the packs of the horses are carried on the backs of those 
Herculean fellows, for no more than four such pieces of linen 
for a horse-load, all the way, or two days journey. It is 
incredible how they climb up those high mountains, whose 
summits reach above the clouds. At length, with infinite 
fatigue, they passed over them, descended, and pitched tents at 
the foot of them, near a village called Stepan Sminda (or St. 
Stephen). The master of the place had orders beforehand, from 


prince Heraclius, to accommodate him with quarters, provision, 
and so forth. According to custom, the man begged Emin to 
give notice in writing to the prince of his arrival, which he did 
very readily, and sent it by one of the villagers. The answer of 
his highness was received in six days from Kakhet. After some 
cool compliments, it signified to him, that he was to march to 
Ananor, one" day's journey from that place, to be entertained 
there till futher orders. They stayed there four days more, and 
received fresh orders to march down to Tefniz. 

His thirty men, who had been sent away by him a year be- 
fore, came every one in good health, and met him in the way as 
he was slowly advancing. On drawing near a village about twelve 
miles from the town, on both sides of the road, as close as 
could be, were standing, ladies of the city, with white veils, and 
about 4000 ' horsemen, Georgians or Armenians, who met him 
just half way, in the avenue made by those lovely spectators, 
Armenian ladies of all ranks, praying for the success of Emin as 
he passed along, loud enough to be heard by him. He seemed 
to be pleased, seeing handsome forms, and hearing agreeable 
voices; but his heart all the time whispered to him, "No. 
— Heraclius is not a man to be depended on." Since he was sent 
thither by his friends the Russians, he could not help otherwise 
putting on the best countenance. 

In that grand manner he made his entry : his men increased 
to 800 ; but he dismissed all except eighty of them. He was 
conducted to an Armenian merchant's house, and his servants 
to different places; his horses, with the grooms, to an inn. He 
was very well supplied with wine, and all sorts of provisions. 
He ordered guards of his own men to stand at the door, and 
not to admit any Armenian or Georgian merchants, with an in- 
tention to avoid giving umbrage to the prince, who came six 
days after from Telav, the capital of Kakhet Georgia, and the 
next day sent for Emin, who took along with him a brace of 
pistols, with a couple of spying-glasses, and the letter of count 

206 hsracuus and emin. 

Worronzoff. On presenting them, he told his Highness they were 
not worthy the acceptance of a prince like him; but he could 
assure him, that he was come to present his heart and service to 
be wholly devoted to him, and was ready, on word of command, 
to shed his blood for him at any time. The prince appeared to 
be vastly pleased, and was not wanting in words. After return- 
ing the compliments, he thanked him, making some apologies for 
not answering his letters, and saying, he was very glad of Emin' s 
resolution; — that it was God who sent him thither. Then he 
made Emin sit by him. Emin thought it prudent to beg his 
Highness to let the audience be private, which was granted im- 
mediately, and the people ordered to go from the levee. He 
then said, "Your Highness judges of my coming to the dust of 
your feet, agreeably to my heart's wish. Nothing in this world 
can be done without God; nor a single hair fall from our heads 
without his decrees. I have left a country which is no less than 
a paradise upon earth, and preferred Georgia or Armenia, which, 
without you, (whom God preserve,) would be no more than a 
chaos. The people, as far as appears, are disorderly and igno- 
rant; no good can be expected from them, but only confusion 
and mischief, whose ears are deaf to good words, and open to 
bad ; and who are ready to magnify a fly to the size of an ele- 
phant: therefore, I humbly implore that your Highness forbid 
their coming to me, or visiting me upon any account; for the 
healer of my wounds, and the physician of my maladies, is your 
Highness alone." 

Heraclius, on this representation, opened his sympathising 
heart, and said, "God has made our minds alike, and under the 
same planet : you are in the right ; they shall not come to fill 
your ears with nonsense, for they are not worthy to be in com- 
pany with a person whose mind is as pure as unmixed gold." 
He then began to complain of his wicked nobles, and their un- 
ruly disposition; and added, "With all my care and pains, I 
cannot make anything of them, nor find a single soul who has 


sense enough to incline his mind or bend his thoughts towards 
meaning well; but, on the other hand, they are wicked to the 
soul, false to the very bone : in a word, they were born twenty- 
four hours before the devil. As for fighting, they do not want 
courage: but what of that? the wild beasts in the field have as 
much ; beware, and take no notice of them : but what shall we 
do, my Emin Aga, to make men of them?" Emin said, " Break 
them into small pieces like glass, to be cast afresh." The prince 
laughed at the expression, desired him to come near, to sit close 
to him, knee to knee, and then asked how that was to be done ? 
Emin said, " It is impossible for any man, who has been brought 
up in a wild way, without education or experience of the world, 
to give just hopes of any thing good. The only method will be, 
to set up two or three common schools, and make their children 
go to learn the principles of religion, from seven to sixteen, that 
their faith may be well grounded : when that is done, frame 
them into companies, to be taught the use of arms, like .the 
Europeans, from sixteen years of age to twenty. L,et that be the 
work of the morning, and about three in the afternoon let 
heroic lectures be read to them, about three quarters of an 
hour ; short and sweet : then let them go to play." 

Here the prince interrupted Emin, saying, "What shall we 
do for money to pay the school- masters ? " He said, "It may 
very easily be managed: let every man give a penny every 
morning to his child, when he goes to school, to put into the 
master's hands; six pence a- week, makes two shillings a-month. 
Fifty boys will bring a hundred shillings; and five pounds in so 
cheap a country, are sufficient to maintain a family, where a 
bottle of wine is sold for a penny, an English shilling loaf for 
three-half-pence ; a sheep, one year old, for five or six shillings 
(in that place called Abasys). When at the age of twenty-one 
they shall be disciplined in useful learning, they will be exactly 
like birds of prey. A general like your Highness at the head of 
them, or one of your sons may easily then find game for them 


in the neighbouring country of the Turks and Persians, whose 
rich army is no better than a mob. The difficulty is in the 
beginning, when once the lost end of the yarn is found, the coil of 
it may easily be opened as the wheel goes round; and then it 
may be wound into clues. In the meantime, the wisdom that 
has deserted this fine country will come back of itself, and make 
it flourishing, thus enlightened, as it has all the kingdoms of 
Europe." He added, ff Though I am poor, and my advice blunt, 
yet if your Highness will listen to it, you will surely never re- 
pent." The prince was all attention to his simple way of giving 
counsel, and said, almost at every word, "Good, true, very right." 
Yet he could not check his avaricious Asiatic disposition, insist- 
ing, that they must have money to commence so great a work. 
This made Bmin recollect the old Armenian proverb, Gaili gekhin 
avitararan cardatzin asatz vochkhary hotten antzav;) that is, 
when they were preaching the gospel over the head of a wolf,* 
he said, A flock of sheep is passing: which is as much as to 
say, a man cannot change his nature. 

From that single meeting, Emm soon found of what metal 
the mighty prince was made, and remembered his late father's 
prophetical hint, when he wrote from Bengal to England, That 
Heraclius was not a soul to be much depended on. And added, 
"My dear son, do you judge him to be like the princes of 
blessed Europe ? Can you compare a tiger to an angel ? Go to 
him, and remember me, when I have departed from this vain 
world ; he will meditate all the mischief he can against you. 
But never fear, God is with you, for your good heart : go to 
him; he will never be able to injure your person." When Emin 
hinted his being poor, or a soldier of fortune, he perceived that 
the prince's countenance changed to a yellow colour: his com- 

* Gaili kftlkhin avietharan karthatsin assats woch khari hoth'n antsav. More forcibly, 
cj-,«yj^ if.^ fii^'u uiulruiujpufb l/njpn.u.jfiTi ,„•,,„, t — .»i « w/k+ "/< "£ /" ■"/•A 4°«»k uiIj-ul. ; While they 
were reading the Gospel over the head of the wolf (in order to convert him from hia evil 
ways), he said, " Hurry up, there's a flock of sheep gone past ! " 

kherim' s iniquitous demand. 209 

mon complexion was black, mixed with green; his stature was 
short, half an inch taller than Emin's; but he was well made, 
and strong in bones and nerves. Heraclius had been one of the 
greatest men living, if his mind could have been turned into the 
path of truth. In regard to the character of the people Emin 
agreed with him, he was in every respect the first man among 
them, which enabled him to have the command over all. 

The first conference being ended, Emin took leave and went 
to his lodgings. A few days after, Revaz Eshigu Agasy Bashy 
(or the first aid-du-camp) was sent with compliments to Emin, 
with orders to enlist as many Armenians, from twenty to 
twenty-five years of age, as would enter into the service; news 
being received that Carim Khan had overcome all his com- 
petitors in the kingdom of Persia,* and, at twelve days distance, 
was preparing to march with a hundred thousand men to Tiffliz, 
if prince Heraclius would not consent to the condition brought 
by Carim' s messengers to him; namely, to send his daughter- 
in-law, the wife of Wakhtan Mirza, his late eldest son by the 
first wife, and his brother Gorgin Mirza, the hereditary prince of 
Georgia, or second son to prince Heraclius, together with his 
son-in-law prince David, and twelve other noblemen's sons, with 
twelve beautiful Georgian virgins not older than twelve years. 

Though sorry for the demand, Emin was glad with all 
his heart of the opportunity, and enlisted 800 stout Armenians 
in six days time. When he acquainted the prince, he told him, 
with no less jealousy than surprize, to stop, asking his advice 
in regard to Carim' s demand? Emin said to him, "Why do not 
you consult your nobles?" The prince answered, "I have con- 
sulted them; they are willing to submit, and have made me 

* Subsequent to the period of rebellion in Persia following on the assassination of 
Nadir Shah in 1747, one Kherim Khan, after subduing all other aspirants to the throne, 
eventually became the ruler of the country. He resided in Shiraz where he constructed many 
fine buildings and bazars, one of which, the Vakil bazar, is still known by his name, as at 
first he called himself Vakil, not king. He appointed his brother Zaki-khan governor of 
Shiraz. Kherim died in 1778, twenty-one years after restoring peace to Persia, 

210 emin's protest to heracuus. 

almost listen to their advice; alleging, that the consequences of 
falling out with the king of Persia may bring on the total des- 
truction of Georgia; for my nobles tell me, it will be a difficult 
undertaking to stand against a powerful nation, without money, 
artillery, or ammunition." Emin said, "May it please your 
Highness, the character I have heard of you in England, differs 
greatly from what you now confess, which is downright pusil- 
lanimity: your agreeing to it will be an action of a coromsak, 
or pimp, not of a prince, to take with your own hands of your 
son and daughters, and those of your subjects' innocent children, 
and deliver them to the lusts of dogs to be denied ! — Brute 
beasts would not be guilty of such an action ! — Let them come 
— let us die first — let us not see that horrid day with an open 
eye. You conquered with a handful of men Azad Khan;* the 
Afghans sold him for 300 tumans not long ago to Carim, who 
was twice as powerful. — Never fear, God will fight for us. — It 
stands against reason that Carim should get the better of you; 
his inclination is to debauch your family, while you pray for the 
peace of your country." 

Seeing Emin thus exasperated, the prince told Ter Philippus 
(an Armenian secular priest, the prince's grammar master in 
the Georgian language), to say, "The prince thanks you for 
your heroic advice." Indeed, if Emin had not been present, the 
prince's heart would have fallen like a tower whose foundation 
is undermined and perhaps he would have consented to Carim' s 
unnatural villanous demand. Within twenty-four hours, Hera- 
clius wrote a short sarcastical letter to Carim, and despatched 
the messengers. Not many days after, news arrived that Zakiz 
Khan, Carim' s brother, had revolted in Ispahan, and carried all 
the inhabitants of that great city to the mountains of Loristan; 
which had obliged Carim to march with his whole army in 
precipitation, making two stages in one, to put a stop to his 

* Azad Khan of Khorassan, at one time a successful opponent of Kherim. 


rebellious brother's proceedings; which saved Heraclius from be- 
coming, like his predecessor's father-in-law, tributary to the king 
of Persia. 

This lucky event made Georgia enjoy peace to this juncture. 
Had the prince complied with that diabolical condition proposed 
by Carim (and he had very great merit in not complying, for 
Emin's advice was but wind in his ears), that country, as well 
as the Emerate Georgians, who were chiefly made free from the 
subjection of the Osmanlus through the prince's wise politics, 
might have fallen into everlasting slavery to those two Maho- 
metan nations, as they had before fallen for a period of about 
130 years ; nor would they have been so happy as to become 
provinces to the empire of the mighty Russians, when the 
glorious empress Catherina compassionately accepted those two 
small principalities under her august and most auspicious protec- 
tion, which, very fortunately both for Heraclius and Solomon, 
took place in her imperial majesty's reign; for their ancestors 
many years before, namely, the princes Archil, Vaktang, and 
Bakar, had been supplicating that court, even in Peter the 
Great's time, but could not effect their purpose of becoming 
subjects to Russia, and were obliged to live and die there in 
grievous anxiety; whereas her benevolent majesty received the 
proposals of Heraclius and Solomon with pleasure and cheerful- 


ness. Who knows, but in time to come the Armenians may 
join the Georgians, and bring a formidable army into the field, 
for the downfal of the Mahomedan kings. But to speak the 
truth, Emin was not at all pleased with Carim' s marching back 
from Romia* to Ispahan; had that prince come to Georgia, he 
might have acquired the glory of dying honourably, or have 
performed service sufficient to win the prince's heart, and thus 
have succeeded in his main design, delivering the Armenians, and 
forming a respectable alliance with Georgia, and then becoming 
tributary to a Christian power. 

* Urmi. 

2 1 2 Emin's proposal to heracuus. 

When the just-mentioned news was authenticated, the prince 
sent Emin orders to dismiss all the new-raised men but forty of 
them. He obeyed, and proposed to the prince to let him have 
the command of about iooo Georgian horse, to fall on the rear 
of Carim's army, before he could leave Azarbaijan, as it was re- 
ported that he was on a hasty march, with heavy baggage, 
and could not possibly reach Arakistan in forty days, whereas 
Emm might in five days reach it with light troops; besides, 
the Armenians in the way had sent a promise to join him, and 
he was sure of dispersing that rabble of an army, which, with 
Carim at the head of them, were almost defeated, not a year 
before, by a body of 300 Armenian mountaineers ; and they 
would have gained a complete victory, if Fataly Khan Avshar 
their general had stayed, but he ran away with 15,000 Kezel- 
bashes: which Carim hearing, rallied his mob, and in two days, 
with the loss of 1500 men, overcame them at last, and put them 
all to the sword. The Persian stragglers often told Emin, some 
days after he came to Tifniz, that if those 300 Armenians had 
only water and ammunition, Carim could never have taken them ; 
and that on the capitulation, he took his oath upon the Koran 
not to kill them who surrendered. Emin with great sincerity 
was proceeding with his proposals to serve Heraclius, not minding 
the jealousy of his heart, and imagining, that as he was a Chris- 
tian, he might overcome it; but the serpent grew bigger and 
bigger every day. The prince told him, there was no necessity 
for so dangerous an undertaking; and said to the secular priest 
Philippus, that Emin's heart was made of steel ; this was only 
to puff him up, and conceal himself from Emin, supposing him 
weak enough to mistake flattery for applause. 

' That summer, Heraclius took Emin and his forty men with 
him to the fine fields of Georgia, where . they passed the time 
partly in bush-fighting against the plundering Lazguis, and partly 
in taking pleasure. The prince kept him always in his company, 
either on horseback or in the tent, with an intention to pump out 


of him the secret of making money, and to know if he had any, or 
was realty poor. He complained most bitterly of those hardy in- 
roaders the Lazguis, and said, they were the ruin of Georgia. Emin 
said, " If you will give me leave, I will tell you, that those very 
Lazguis are your best troops, since their incursions impoverish the 
country of your nobles, and oblige them to be subservient to your 
will. You may very easily prevent their entering the country } 
if you please; you suffer their coming, and take no notice of it 
till they have ruined a village or two, and made the inhabitants 
captives ; then you set out with your household troops, and a 
pretended zeal, to destroy the poor creatures, and that with no 
loss of your own men; and of course you acquire the fame of a 
conqueror; the nobles grow poor and exhausted, and are obliged 
in spite of fate to submit to you; while you think yourself in 
the right to keep them under, by paying them in their own coin. 
It is very well known to all, that when Shah Abbas took the 
country of the Cartuel Georgians, which you are now in posses- 
sion of, and marched to Kakhet Georgia, which is your High- 
ness' s own hereditary country, the poor people of it fled to Car- 
tuel for shelter; but the nobles, instead of protecting them as 
their fellow Christians, took and sold them by thousands to the 
Turks, till they almost depopulated Kakhet; and, on the other 
hand, both countries were enslaved by the Persians. Shah Sultan 
Hussein, the last king of the Sophy family, being killed, and the 
Turks and Afghans having gotten possession of the kingdom of 
Persia, prince Buker of Cartuel, your uncle by the mother's side, 
inviting the Pasha of Osmanlus to Tiffliz, was forced to fly to 
Russia, and the Lazguis over-ran Kakhet. Then Nadir Shah 
comes out of Khorasan, delivers the whole kingdom, drives the 
Turks away, sends for your father king Tahmuras, who died in 
Moscow, and by whose will I came hither. He fearing to go to 
Nadir Shah, the deliverer of Persia, your Highness' s mother 
Tamer undertook the journey, went herself to Nadir, and ob- 
tained the rank of Vali, or feudatory, for her husband your father. 


After the destruction of Nadir, when no hereditary prince was to 
be found in Cartuel, you being then the heir, became master of 
the country, and recollecting the past conduct of its nobles, and 
their former unnatural barbarity, you approved that method to 
revenge yourself; though you do not sell their subjects to the 
Mahomedans, as they do yours, you let the L,azguis do the busi- 
ness for you; and leave the world to say, that Heraclius is 
the defender of the Christian faith, and the protector of those 
who profess it! You have only this to answer before God, and 
the world will vouch for you, that you have sold no Christian 
as slaves to the Mahomedans like the nobles of Cartuel ; but you 
have suffered them by thousands and thousands to be made cap- 
tives by the Lazguis." 

A few weeks after this conversation, Chouchol Mussa, a man 
seventy-eight years of age, a captain of banditti of the same 
mountains, at the head of 200 hundred of them, was taken alive, 
mounted on a mule like Mahomed ; and when he was brought be- 
fore his Christian Highness, he was in hopes of escaping the sword 
on account of an intimacy with him and his father. As soon as 
he found that he must lose his head, he spit at the prince's face, 
and said to him, "You, that pretend to defend Christians, can 
you deny before the Supreme Being a box full of letters, which 
is now in my house, both from you and from your father, point- 
ing out the way to Cartuel Georgia, and inciting us to kill and 
enslave its inhabitants ? Do not you remember how many 
hundred measures of wine we and our party drank in your 
house, and how many hundred monds (a Georgian measure of 
bread) they have eaten in it ? " He added, That besides 20,000 
slaves sold to the Turks, that he had for his part at different 
times debauched 416 beautiful Georgian virgins, and that he had 
nothing more left in his heart to wish for. Then stretching out 
his neck, he began saying, "Iyaila ilalah" and so forth. His 
head was struck off with a single blow of a sword. All the 
while Heraclius was grinning at the nobles, when the man boasted 


of the destruction of Christians; and he might not have been 
executed, if he had not spit in the face of the prince. Thus 
had prince Heraclius maintained to himself, and kept possession 
of both the Georgian provinces, Cartuel and Khaket, for thirty- 
nine or forty years ; and at last gave them up, with a pretended 
good-will, to the management of the Russians, fearing, very 
justly, that after his death, it would not be well governed by 
any one of his numerous children, who were all growing up to 
manhood, but none so enterprizing nor so active as himself. 

He one day proposed to Emin, if he had such a man as could 
be trusted with a secret of great consequence, so as to form some 
enterprize, and try if possible to take by surprize the fortified 
town of Iravan — "If that be done, it will be the only place for 
you to settle in; the Armenians will come to you in crowds 
from all parts, hearing that Heraclius is the author of the plan, 
and is a friend to Emin; there is no doubt of our becoming 
invincible ; as for those Khans of Persia, they are but school- 
boys ; we can play with them as with dolls. " Then he repeated 
the same question to him. Emin answered, "Yes." The prince 
said, "Who is he?" Emin said, "I am the very man, your 
Highness' s humble servant." Heraclius asking in what manner, 
he said, "In a very easy manner; please to send a file of twelve 
men to stand as a sham guard upon me ; order a cryer to 
proclaim in the city, that the Armenian Joseph Emin, having, 
in Russia, forged false letters in the names of the nobles, minis- 
ters, and generals, in recommendation of himself ; and we having 
discovered the spuriousness of them, have commanded the prince 
Heraclius of Georgia, on the receipt of this, to secure the said 
Emin the Armenian, and send him with proper guards, over the 
same mountains of Cowedous, to conduct him to Moscow; then 
order five hundred men of your best troops to come from 
Kakhet, your own country; deliver him to their charge, and 
command them to take him to Russia. Having given me a 
letter signed and sealed by your own hand, to shew to the com- 


mander of the five hundred men, let him set out in the after- 
noon ; this will prevent the people from suspecting any thing ; 
and when about midnight I shall shew it to the officer, he will 
learn the contents, that the commander with his troops shall be 
entirely under my command, and that the report was a fiction; 
that he is to follow me wherever I please to lead him, and obey 
me to the last drop of his blood; then depend on it, Ira van 
will be no longer in possession of the cowardly Husin Aly Khan, 
who has but seven hundred men in the fort/' 

Upon this, the suspicious prince was struck with amazement, 
hung down his head, putting his elbow on his knee, and his 
hand upon his forehead, but did not speak a word for half an 
hour ? He then asked, How he would proceed afterwards : Emin 
said, "Sir, there is no occasion to trouble yourself farther; your 
business is to command so far, and mine is to obey. I will take 
the oath of fidelity to your Highness, if you mistrust me." 
Then, to take away the unnecessary suspicion which appeared in 
his face, he said, "There are four capital religions in the world, 
from its creation to the present time; the first is, that of the 
heathens, who swore by fire and water; the second are wor- 
shippers of God, but Jews, who take oaths on the Old Testa- 
ment; the third swear by the Holy Gospel, the foundation of 
Christianity; and the fourth by the Koran of Mahomet. No 
man can be out of these four faiths, upon which I will take an 
oath, and proceed on the expedition; if not, the empty project 
will be like building castles in the air." The prince said, "He 
firmly believed that he was a zealous good Christian ; but that 
to venture on a design so dangerous, might be attended with 
bad consequences." Emin could not help laughing, to see the 
prince departing from his proposals, and contradicting himself 
without sense of shame or honour ; and he thought of his father 
Hovsep, who knew the man without having seen him. 

Then the prince desired Emin to send his head-man Simon, 
with his forty servants, to Iravan, to inlist in Husin Aly Khan's 


service and continue in it long enough to become well acquainted 
with the Khan's Armenian troops in the fort, whom 03- some 
means he might entice away. Emin would by no means under- 
take so base a business, or teach his countrymen treachery; 
neither he nor they were Mahomedans, to proceed in that 
wicked way, to eat a man's bread and salt, and instead of 
serving him to cut his throat. "Why will you not send," said 
he to the prince, "some of your own men, whose very nature is 
made up of treachery and cunning?" The prince said, "Husin 
Aly will suspect them ; as for your servants, who are Armenians, 
they may say their master is poor, and has no money to 
support them and that necessity brought them to serve Husin 
Aly Khan." Emin then found that it was Heraclius's design 
they should be dispersed; he could not help saying, "Yes; do 
as you think proper." The little money he had he divided 
among them, and gave them permission to go which way they 
pleased towards Armenia, not losing the opportunity of writing 
a long letter, which he gave to his servant Simon, to carry to 
the archbishop Honan or Jonas, of the monastery of St. John 
the Baptist, the only friend of Emm's among so many thousand 
ecclesiastics, in the province of Moosh, N.W. who answered him 
very kindly, assuring him, if he would come away from Tiffliz, 
with about fifty Georgians, and that by the consent of Heraclius, 
in order that the Turks might know he was Emin's friend, four 
thousand men would be ready to put themselves under his com- 
mand; but without Heraclius's name or assistance, it could not 
be done. This letter he carried and shewed Heraclius, as he did 
every letter from the chiefs of Carabagh; and reported every 
small negociation or correspondence with them, to be before 
hand with informers; and this alone secured him from falling a 
victim to the prince's incurable jealousy. No sooner had his 
wicked followers gone to give him intelligence of Emin's receiv- 
ing letters from his poor countrymen, than the prince told them, 
he had broken the seals at Emin's own desire, and read the 


contents himself first; and he many times declared to his people, 
that Bmin was an honest Armenian ; and, if he had not been 
a dangerous man, by writing only, and without money, he would 
have gained the minds of all the Armenians, in every part of the 

Emin in his second letter acquainted him, that he was as 
poor as Job ; and the bishop, in his fatherly answer, told him, 
that these brave Christians had sworn, and would again swear, 
to serve under him for ten years, without expectation of pay ; 
and that if they took a rich town, the booty of it should not be 
touched by them ; but that every part of it should be given to 
him, provided that he would come to them with the good-will 
of Heraclius. To all these proposals, the prince grew deafer 
and deafer every day, and was very watchful to find some pre- 
tence to lay hold of Bmin. Simon Catholicus,* the successor 
of Jacob, at first was inclined to concur with Bmin ; but when 

* Simon of Erivan. Elected Catholicos 1763, died 1780, aged 70. He established a paper 
mill and printing press at Etchmiatsin, instituted or arranged the archives of the patri- 
archate, revised and arranged and lettered the calendar of the Church. He also wrote a 
key to the calendar. The calendar of the Church is a very important volume, showing all 
the hymns appointed for every day in the year. (The daily services consist mostly of sing- 
ing and contain very many hymns.) He fixed the observance of national feasts on Satur- 
days (the feast of Varthan, the national hero, is apparently an exception, as it always falls 
on the Thursday before the 1st Sunday in Lent). The observance of certain feasts, which 
up to his time the people were at liberty to observe or not, was ordained by him to be in- 
dispensable. He fixed the days of commemoration of the Apostles Thaddeus and Bartholo- ( 
mew on Saturdays, and the commemoration of the Angels and of All-Saints, also the 
observance of Transfiguration Day on a Sunday, and sanctified certain other feasts to be 
observed as "Lord's Days." He inserted the penitential litany of the "Lord, have mercy," 
in the liturgy, and wrote the versicle "Hasten Thou, O God of our fathers," also the 
lengthy Introit for the festival of St. Gregory the Illuminator. Maghakia Ormanian, in 
his book on the Church of Armenia, translated into English by G. Marcar Gregory, says 
that Simon I. may be looked upon as " the most noble personality of the age." His actions 
with regard to Emin, however, scarcely show him to have been possessed of nobility of 

Lynch, in his "Travels in Armenia," says that the fortifications of Etchmiatsiu were 
restored by Simon during his patriarchate, according to Dubois de Montpereux's " Voyage 
autour du Caucase," Paris, 1839, vol. iii. , p. 360. 

Formerly there were four Catholici of the Armenian Church. Their seats were at Etch- 
miatsin, Kilikia (Cilicia), Akhthamar, and Gandtsasar (Karabagh). There are now only two, 
the Catholicos of Kilikia, and the Catholicos and Supreme Patriarch of all Armenians at 

cathoucos simon's letter angers heraclius. 219 

he found that the prince's heart was not the same with his out- 
ward behaviour to him, whom he wanted only to make a tool 
of ; he sent a letter to Heraclius, to signify to him that he was 
the king of Armenia and Georgia, and that he would do best to 
send the imprudent prince to the place whence he came ; think- 
ing to be in favour with Heraclius by this flattery, not looking 
deep enougn into the meaning of his expression ; which made 
Heraclius so angry, that he said in his council to Philipus the 
grammarian, and to all the nobles, " Pray, Sirs, how can I be 
the king of Armenia, when the Catholicus of Etzmiatzin advise 
me to send their imprudent prince away ? How can Emin, the 
son of Joseph, born in Ivah in the city of Hamadan, be called 
by Simon Patriarch our prince, which is as much as to say, 
hereditary prince of Armenia ? What do you think of this, 
Sirs?" Their answer was, "May it please your Highness, 
Simon Catholicus is one of the most learned men of the age, and 
has seen a great deal of the world ; ten to one he must know 
Emin's family better than any one, else he would not have en- 
titled him our prince. Emin must have been a sorcerer, if 
without money, beauty, or other qualification, he could possess 
the hearts of all his nation. As your Highness declares, you 
have perused every one of their letters, the very direction of 
them are surprizing — To God's Protected, his Majesty Emin, King 
of all Armenia. May it please your Highness, necessity has 
no law, this man must be demolished, or put out of the way; 
otherwise Georgia will be trampled under the feet of the Ar- 
menians who out-number us ten to one." 

Secander Aga, a Persian Turk, chief of the clan of the 
Cossacks of 15,000 men, came forwards, making his speech, and 
giving his Mahomedan opinion in the case, and afterwards offer- 
ing the prince 500 tumans, (equal to 10,000 rupees,) the price of 
Emin's blood, to kill the Armenian Gaur ; who, if he should 
succeed in the smallest degree, would be another Nadir in Asia. 
"Have not you all seen, when the prince pitched his pavilion 


with a body of four thousand troops by the village of Mardhop, 
and went in every evening with the people for fear of a surprize 
from the Lazguis, how Emin, with forty Armenians never stirred 
for a fortnight from his station ? Was not he attacked several 
times by the enemy four times stronger than himself in number, 
and had he not always the better of them ? My own clan, your 
Highness' subjects, are become so fond of him, that I am afraid 
it will not be long before they will all go over to him ; in short, 
may it please the Valy of Gurjistan, (or feudatory prince of 
Georgia,) to take care of that great Caffer." 

Turkhan, an Armenian merchant, the son of Agamal, who 
is, to his great shame, an old acquaintance of Emin's father, did 
not fail to give his envious sentiments ; saying, that he knew 
Emin in Calcutta, where, with all the strictness of his father 
and four uncles, they could not manage him ; that at last he 
ran away from that place, and went into an English ship, work- 
ing his passage to England ; the people of which country, 
famous for being warlike, seeing him spirited, took notice of him. 
The prince said, " I know all that by his own writing : all you 
have said is more to his honour than his detriment or discredit : 
nor am I displeased with his being alert. But my question is, 
How comes he to be styled prince?" Turkhan, and the other 
Armenians, said, their Catholicus, according to the rites of the 
Armenian church, could do more than naming a person prince* 
— he could make a king of him, or of any man he pleased, pro- 
vided the party concerned had sufficient talents to deserve it. 
All they wished, was to send him away from the person of his 
Highness, for fear of any accident, since he had not a field large 
enough to act in, ambitious as he was. Should he take into 
his head (which God avert) some violent method, it might draw 
the two Christian nations into miserable calamity. Thus far 
they petitioned his Highness; and said, "He is more able in 
wisdom to judge for -the rest, and for the welfare of the Chris- 
tians." The poor prince did not know what to say ; and, after a 


long pause, told them, they were Haramzadas, (or base-born,) and 
the patriarch just as bad ; who some time recommended Emin 
as a faithfnl servant of Christ, adding, that for all the world he 
would not wrong his trust, or disgrace his credentials from the 
Christian nobles of Frankistan; and another time, would be glad 
to turn him out of my house. "It is my opinion," added he, 
"that when "he first spoke favourably of him, he was in expecta- 
tion of some great present from him, like you foolish Armenians, 
looking upon him, as a god who would give you lapfuls of gold ; 
but when he found Emin was a soldier only, and as poor as 
Heraclius, he then thought proper to write entirely the reverse. 
It is my firm belief that God has sent Emin to me, who is sit- 
ting innocently in his house, while you are digging a pit for him ; 
and I am in great fear, that you, the Armenian priests, and the 
Georgians, will teaze me so much, as to make me part with my 
Emin Aga, whose heart is as clear as a mirror. As for you, 
Turkhan, merchant of Ispahan, what service have you rendered 
to me in these seven years past ? I have made you a present 
of a house and garden : I honoured you with a servant and 
horse ; yet you never, in all that time, went with me thirty yards 
from the gates of this city of Tiffliz; nor are you carrying on 
a trade by which the people are benefited (the custom-house) : 
my poor Emin Aga has been here but four or five months, yet 
'is every day on horseback with me, and has fought against the 
enemy before me more than a dozen times ; and at my word 
of command, he is ready to run through sword and fire." Then 
he began a severe lecture to the chief of the Turkish clan, say- 
ing, "You, Secander Aga ! are you so rich as to pay 500 tumans 
to shed a Christian's innocent blood ? What has he done to 
you ? is he guilty, because he is brave, which your envious 
malignant hearts cannot bear to see ? We are Christians ; not 
like Mahometans, who kill their fathers, and murder their 
brothers. Get out of my sight all of you ! Father Philipus, go 
tell my Emin Aga all that has happened here ; and let him 


know I shall be very glad to see him to-morrow morning, and 
every day, without ceremony." Hmin hearing all this from 
father Philip, said, "It is true, the prince is a Christian : but 
it is a pity he is alone : those wicked men will effect their design 
at last." 


June, 1763. 

[Emin with Heraclius' permission goes to fight the Lezguis with 24 Armenians — 
Encounter with 52 of the enemy — The Lezguis cannot overcome them and 
finally march away — Heraclius failing to send supplies, Emin has to return to 
Tiflis — Heraclius now becomes excessively kind on account of Emin having 
held up the Lezguis — " No one can be cheerful in Tiflis for half an hour " — 
Emin goes with Heraclius to Kakhet, where he is well treated — Mischief- 
making priest Phillipos upsets everything.] 

A BOUT the month of June, Emin petitioned the prince, that 
if he would be pleased to grant him a firman, or patent, 
with 100 horse-load of flour, he would go with his twenty-four 
men just taken into service to the bishopric of Haghpat, two 
days journey to the south-west of Tifnis, the inhabitants of 
which district had been partly carried away by the inroaders, 
and had partly emigrated to Kakhet, the prince's hereditary 
country, to live in the monastery. In this deserted and moun- 
tainous country, the Lazguis generally hold their rendezvous. 
The prince made no objection to the proposal ; but favoured 
him with due authority by the following commission : " This 
is to give notice and certify, that I, by the grace of God, and 
Christ my Saviour, Heraclius, king of Cartuel and Kakhet, have, 
by my pleasure and authority, authorised my most beloved faith- 
ful servant Joseph Emin, with commission to go with his men 
to the inhabited bishopric of Haghpat, to take possession of, 
and to live in it; and also to annoy, kill, and destroy, without 
giving quarters, those I^azguis who are enemies to the faith and 


the country of Christians. We have been also pleased to com- 
mand, that if any Armenian or Armenians should go to him 
from any part of the country, he shall receive and protect them 
as he shall think proper : and no person or persons shall stand 
in the way to prevent him, nor take them by force from him. 
We shall hear no complaint if any man's subject should choose 
to go and put himself under Emin's command : and such com- 
plaint shall expect no kind of redress from us. Given under 
my hand and seal, &c. Dated at Tiffliz, in the month of June." 
In regard to the hundred horse-load of flour he told Emin 
to go to Beydar, about sixteen miles or more from Tiffliz ; and 
that in a few days he would send an order for it to be given by 
the Musulman Cossack clans, in his way, about five miles from 
the place above-mentioned. The prince went to Kakhet, and 
the next day Emin, with his 24 men, marched out ; but were 
not gone six miles from Tiffliz, when they discovered, at a great 
distance, a body of horse : who should they be, but fifty-two 
stout Lazguis. He and two more of the men were on horse- 
back ; the rest were on foot. The rogues drew nearer and 
nearer, while he took no notice, going on in the road till they 
came within 500 yards of him, making sure of Emin's party, 
who were so few, and their charging and his dismounting hap- 
pened at one time. He facing his men to the left, checked their 
coming to close quarter, who, firing their pieces all in a volley, 
dismounted directly, and led their horses to a ditch on the left 
side of the road, deep enough to cover them, leaving the horses 
behind it, and making the bridge of the ditch a breast-work, 
within fifteen yards of Emin, who stood in the road exposed 
with his men to the rogues' fire, from eight in the morning till 
six in the afternoon. The loss on his side were only three 
wounded, one of his horses killed, and another one, the only 
Georgian among them not belonging to Etnin, mounted in the 
heat of action, and rode away to save himself ; but two of the 
Iyazguis horse overtook him, and made him a slave. The enemy 


had none killed on the spot, only thirteen of them wounded, 
as Bmin's people were told. Three weeks after, they went home 
and all died. 

The Iyazguis rinding it very difficult to overcome the few 
Armenian boys, when both parties were tired of fighting, and in 
the heat of the sun, without a drop of water, they spoke to one 
another and asked if they were Russians who stood the brush 
so many hours? Emin's little followers answered, "You, Maho- 
metans, why do you stand asking questions ? this is neither a 
hummum to wash, nor mejid to pray in ; fight away till you 
bleed." At that very time a big headed Lazguis called Emin bad 
names, besides Caffer, as is common with that nation, and at the 
same time aimed his piece at him; he missed three times; and 
at the same instant the fellow was answered by an English 
piece, the gift of the duke of Richmond, the ball of it took him 
just in the mouth, carried away the upper teeth and the jaw 
with half of the face. When this man was out of the way, they 
retreated, and carried their wounded about half a mile from the 
place of action. Emin perceiving by their motions, that they 
would not go away, easily formed his men all in one rank, 
charging them strictly not to fire at random, as they had done 
before ; then having marched a great distance from the place, 
when the enemy took advantage of the ditch, they stood in an t 
open field to receive them, who forming their body into a deep 
column, cried out, "Glory to Mahomet, and destruction to the 
Christians," charged, and halted within a hundred yards. Being 
taken no notice of, they dispersed to the right and left about; 
and in about five minutes more, gathered again together to com- 
plete the third onset ; coming a little nearer than they did the 
second time, but found it impossible to provoke Emin's party to 
fire at that distance, as it was their wish they should, in hopes 
to frighten them into disorder, then to fall on them sword in 
hand. Emin's men called to them to come nearer, and not be 
afraid, since they had neither powder nor ball left ; and there were 


with them half a dozen pretty Georgian boys, who would sell for 
two hundred tumans each. "O ye Caflers ! " said the Lazguis, 
" you want in that way to kill us all at once. We know you re- 
serve your fire ; but not because you have no powder ; you are 
neither Georgians nor Armenians ; you must be from the Caflers' 
country, where the seven carolls and the rest of them reside : 
but we must' tell you, that all our comrades will not survive, as 
their wounds are mortal; once more, farewel ! " Then each 
party marched away, after a ten hours skirmish ; since, when 
Emin's men were in order, the enemy thought it advisable not 
to have any thing to say to them. 

About nine o'clock they reached the place mentioned before, 
the Armenian village Baydar, and took quarters there ; but, in- 
stead of forty-five days, the time limited by the prince, Emin 
waited five months for an order from him to get the promised 
flour, and was then obliged to dismiss the men, keeping only 
four to take care of two horses, and wait upon him. At the 
latter end of November 1763, the prince sent him an order in 
writing to receive one month's provision only, to maintain 
twenty-four men and himself, with forage for four horses, of 
which two were destroyed ; one ran away with the Georgian, 
and the other was killed in that little fight. Emin answered 
and thanked the prince for his liberality, and said, " Great Sir, 
'this one month's provision will be just enough to maintain 
four men for forty months to come; as the rest are gone away, 
there will be no more need of it till then ; but, in a country 
like this, every eatable is so cheap, it surprizes me to find your 
Highness so niggardly as to disgrace the very name of economy ; 
which puts me in mind of a merchant in Ispahan, who almost 
starved his own children to save his money; but as he was 
travelling in a caravan, a highway-man, with fifty companions, 
robbed him of all his riches, and left him on the road starv- 
ing. He was sorry," he added, "that he did not hearken 
to count Worronzoff's friendly hint, when he said, that prince 


Heraclius was not the man to satisfy him: sure his prophecy 
was nearly coming to pass, and he was not far from being 
starved." The prince, in his answer, comforted him, and desired 
him not to take it to heart, adding, " Every thing in good time, 
patience will conquer all ; come to me, my dear Emin Aga ! I 
will do all in my power to make you happy. Pater Philipus, 
your only friend and. mine, translated every letter you sent into 
the Georgian language ; when I read them, I swear by the grave 
of my father, it would be infinite pleasure to make Emin happy." 
So it might; and he was able, at that time, to make all the 
Armenians both free and happy, if the dark angels had not 
stepped in the way with their black hearts, which made him at 
last lose his poor Emin for ever. 

In obedience of the prince's order, Emin immediately marched, 
with his four servants, from the Cossack clans, two days journey 
back to Tifniz. In his way he convoyed a caravan to Telave, 
the capital of Kakhet Georgia, a pitiful town, containing twelve 
hundred mud houses. When he waited upon the prince, he was 
received with extraordinary kindness, more like that of an 
affectionate father than a prince. Heraclius thanked him for 
his behaviour against the Lazguis, expressing great surprize how, 
with a handful of boys, he could stand so many hours under so 
hot a sun, against fifty- two veteran mountaineers ; and he added, 
" after your engagement, the same men robbed a caravan of five 
hundred men, well armed going from Tifniz to Baydar, on the 
very same ground, killed several and carried away above a hun- 
dred of them." Emin said, "If your Highness would have 
ordered the promised hundred horse-load of flour they would not 
have enslaved away an hundred good subjects, besides taking 
their arms, horses, and baggage, while their miserable families 
are groaning. May God in heaven direct your Highness' s heart 
to the right way of protecting them!" The prince said, "I, in 
firm belief, agree with you, that nothing can be done without 
Him: they deserve it very justly: if you knew them as well as 


I do, you would not be so great an advocate for them, or feel 
so much for their misery. I do all I can to defend and keep 
them happy ; but go yourself, enter into them, and read their 
hearts, what is there written will soon bring you back to my way 
of thinking; and take this from me, it will not be long before 
they will do their utmost to divide my heart from you, and will 
glory in their wicked minds, as if they had effected a great 
thing : come, sit nearer to me, let us enjoy one another's com- 
pany, while we are in Kakhet, for Tiffliz is not a place in which 
we can remain cheerful for half an hour." It had in fact be- 
come a common remark in every body's mouth, that the Valy 
changed his temper as soon as he went out of town ; and espe- 
cially when he was in Kakhet, turned entirely to an angel, with 
good-nature, politeness, and pleasure. Emin enjoyed the prince's 
company for several days, which was really very improving, as if 
it had been the conversation of a learned English nobleman, with- 
out the least pride, stiffness, or domineering deportment, which 
are so common to Asiatic princes ; and with such a quickness of 
apprehension, that at the opening of any subject, he understood 
the whole extent of it. His voice, in pronouncing words, convers- 
ing or treating any topic, was so melodiously sweet, that the 
hearer, without seeing his greenish brown complexion mentioned 

before, w r ould have thought an angel was haranguing. Of pride 


he had not the least particle; he never perhaps boasted in his 
life, though he overthrew in many battles almost every competi- 
tor since Nadir Shah; and it would have been all the same to 
him, if he had been in possession of all the kingdoms in the 

One evening about nine o'clock, he sent for Emm and Pater 
Philipus ; when they came, they found him sitting alone ; he 
said, " Come, my dear Emin Aga, we are not in Tifniz now, to 
be interrupted by any one of those great fellows ; we can talk 
at our own pleasure." He seemed to be very cheerful, and his 
fine eyes sparkled. The conversation turned on various subjects, 


till it rested upon religious matters. He said very wisely, that 
ever since the two brothers, meaning the Armenian and Georgian 
nations, differed on points of faith, they had become for that 
sole reason divided from each other; the consequence of which 
discord was so apparently effective, as to make them both fall 
headlong under the dominion of infidels; that unless they would 
join in one opinion, and unite in one body, like two hands (open- 
ing his ringers, and clasping them close into one another), they 
would never be able to form any noble design. These sentiments 
made Emin rise, lay hold of both his hands, which he kissed 
seven times. Heraclius returned the compliment, kissing his 
forehead, and both shed tears of sympathy; which Philipus 
seeing, he was no less affected with sensibility: and the sympa- 
thizing prince added, "I do not mean that your countrymen 
should entirely change their way of thinking, which is morally 
impossible; it will be only necessary to cut off some super- 
fluous and useless ceremony on our side, and some on yours; 
that alone can make the two nations one : what do you say to 
that, my Emin Aga ? " He answered, "I have already approved 
it by kissing your hands; and it is my humble opinion, that 
none but your Highness can effect that great design, being by 
God established both in fame and power; provided you will not 
hear the tales of those who will be ready to sacrifice your good 
mind, and make your sublime councils fall victims to the' 
hostile ambition of men, who are entirely strangers to unity or 
peace between the two churches : the best way will be, to 
take no notice to them of so grand an enterprize." The prince 
asked Emin, if he could give advice how to go about it ? He 
said, "This moment give orders to 6000 horse and 10,000 foot, 
which will be ready in five days time; put yourself at the head 
of them ; march directly, to Bujazid, the country of the Curds, 
without seeing Tiffliz; it is but a march of six days; invade 
that country first, where, see by this very letter, 4000 Armenians 
are ready to join you: pass thence to Arzerum, in three days: 

emin's advice. 229 

the next countries are Bassan, Susan, and Betlis; there you 
will have 12,000 foot, before the Turks will rise from their ever- 
lasting drowsiness. The Armenians of Mush, with 10,000 horse, 
will join you; the whole making 40,000. Then issue a pro- 
clamation, that you are come to claim Armenia by hereditary 
right, as lawful heir to that kingdom; and that your ancestors 
in former days reigned 300 years over it. Do this, you will 
succeed; but your Highness will do nothing. This letter of 
bishop Jonas of the monastery of St. John the Baptist, will 
tell you, that the Armenian nation do acknowledge, and have 
acknowledged for these twenty years last past, that you are 
their sovereign; it was through necessity that they invited your 
Highness' s humble slave to enter into those parts ; for by 
writing only he had awaked them to a noble zeal, and that not 
without your consent and permission ; and that it is not possible 
for a layman like him to be their king. When you were angry 
last year at their calling him prince, who is the son of Hovsep 
the Armenian now in Calcutta; can he pretend to the sove- 
reignty of Armenia, whose real sovereign (whom God preserve) 
is living, with seven princely sons, and rive angelic daughters ? " 
By these words of Emin the prince was so roused, that his 
inward emotions made him, from sitting cross-legged like a taylor, 
change his position, and sit upon his knees. He began to twist 
'his whiskers, resembling a fierce lion, and said to Philipus, 
"Christis madlema zalisuy utkhar;" that is, " By Christ, he 
speaks very strongly." The priest said, "May it please your 
Highness, if he had not been extraordinary in every respect, how 
could the princes in Frankestan have esteemed him worthy to be 
recommended to your Highness' s favour : by what I can judge, 
without being partial to the Armenian nation, your Highness 
will never find another like him, even among your own people. 
I am told by Armenian merchants, that his father is in a good 
way, and himself might have lived very happy with great credit 
in England, but he must be inspired with love for your name 


and glorious actions; otherwise how could it have been possible 
for him, without seeing your person, to have so great an attach- 
ment for your Highness, whose life may the great God prolong, 
for the happiness of your subjects!" Then the prince said 
again, "My Emin Aga, every word you have spoken is a gun in 
my ears, and I hope we shall act with great satisfaction and 
success, provided God himself will be our conductor. I only 
wish my eldest son had been alive, whom the small-pox snatched 
away from my arms two or three years ago, and that at the age 
of twenty (saying this, he burst into tears) ; he would have 
joined you with hand and heart, and with all his might, to ease 
me of my troubles, which have almost worn me out for the last 
twenty years; I should then have lived at my ease. Can you 
recollect a letter, when you were last at Travan, sent by the 
archbishop Zachariah of Tiffliz, and the advice of your wise 
father, in regard to matrimony?" He was just going to com- 
plete the sentence, and to say that Emin had demanded his 
daughter, when Philipus, thinking to do Emin service or honour, 
and well understanding the prince's meaning, interrupted him, say- 
ing, " He has made an engagement already at Astrakan, to marry 
Avankhan's rich grand- daughter, named princess Marian." At 
this rapid, violent, and most imprudent speech of Philipus, the 
prince stopped, and never said a single syllable of what he with 
cheerfulness had begun, which brought on a profound silence of 
all three, like persons thunder-struck, looking down without 
speaking a word almost half an hour. This forwardness of a 
priest knocked on the head all his project of friendship and 
union; after he had taken so much pains, and gone through so 
many hardships, he was reduced at last to nothing by this over- 
hasty interruption of a man for being honoured with being 
admitted interpreter between prince Heraclius and the rough 
soldier Emin. The rejoicing prince was most bitterly dejected, 
and lifting up his head from deep thoughts, asked what hour it 
was ? Then looking at his watch, he saw it was past three in 


the morning; and said to Emm, "I wish the old priest had not 
been here this night, he spoiled our council; I am very sleepy, 
are not you so, Emin Aga?" This was exactly twenty-four 
years ago, and no soul knew this secret, except Heraclius, Emin, 
and the priest. Emin cannot help thinking, that many who are 
not well acquainted with him, nor have seen him in that 
country, will suspect what passed between him and the prince to 
be fabulous ; such a suspicion may be excusable in those who 
consider his present situation in life, which, though honourable, 
is not equal to the dignity he aspired to ; or in those who are 
not well versed in the disposition of the Georgian nation, whose 
nobles sell their own children to the Turks; so that it would 
have been no great wonder if prince Heraclius had given his 
daughter in marriage to an Armenian Christian soldier, to fight 
and bleed for him. He remembers one day in Petersburgh, at the 
prince's father's house, the late king Tahmuras asked Emin, if 
he was married? He answered, "No." The king said, he would 
take care to marry him to a handsome daughter of one of his 
Armenian merchants in Tiffliz. Emin said, his choice was to 
have a Georgian tavat's (or noble's) 'daughter, who would be 
handsomer. One of the tavats standing by, said in a tone of 
anger, "Do not you know that you are an Armenian; that our 
law abominates the very name of those who are as bad as 
heathens?" He said, "Yes, Sir, you would rather give away 
your daughters to circumcised Persian dogs, who are worse than 
heathens. For my part, if I were a king, and had an only 
daughter, and if the sultan of the Turks and a Christian young 
Georgian were rivals in her love, the Christian should have her 
sooner than that powerful Mahometan." This shews the differ- 
ence between Armenian Christians and those of the Greek 
church, who are full of malice. The good king, not under- 
standing their conversation, as they spoke in Turkish, when it 
was explained to him, put his hand on his breast, and swore by 
Jesus Christ that Emin was in the right He then added, 


" Never mind what he says, you shall have my daughter ; " and 
if he had lived he would have been as good as his word, for he 
was the most pious king Georgia produced; but hard-hearted 
fortune was too cruel to let him succeed in either of his views. 
The late duke, his patron, hearing all this from his letters, com- 
forted him in his answers, saying, "My dear Emin, fortune 
sports with you j go on, never mind her crossness, ' for one day 
or other she will favour you fully to your heart's satisfaction." 

1 763 (continued). 

[Return with Heraclius to Tiflis, "the city of discontent" — Their conversation 
about the Catholicos Simon — Emin's plain-speaking — "Saul loved David" — 
Letter from Archbishop Jonas — 40,000 ready to fight for him — Intrigues of 
Zaza Beg — Brave Purseck, whom forty Georgians cannot overthrow — Emin 
in confinement — Supposed to be a magician — Taken out of Tiflis to a camp — 
Emin's servant and his adventure in search of him — Another trick on the 
part of Heraclius.] 

TTE had been in Kakhet three weeks, when the prince was 
called upon some business, and sent Emin word to get 
ready, and go in company with him to Timiz, the city of dis- 
content, out of which, from its first building to the time when 
he was there, no man ever came without being disrespected, dis- 
tressed, or insulted. After some days past, the prince sent word 
he wished to speak with him, and desired to see the letter from 
the patriarch. Emin obeyed with pleasure, and said to the 
prince, " I can very easily perceive, that your Highness' s heart 
is changed, having intelligence of Simon's plot, who has desired 
of you to take the letter from me, lest I should shew it in 
Russia as a certificate that I have been complimented with the 
title of Prince of Armenia, as the three churches of Etzmiatzin 
are in some measure under your protection; and then to invent 

emin's plain speaking. 233 

some calumny to lay hold of me as your Highness shall think 
proper. It is to be hoped," added he, "that your Highness will 
take into consideration, that both Ivan and Turan* will be angry 
with you; that the Grand Signior will put all the Armenians 
to the sword in Constantinople; and who knows the consequence 
of encouraging Emin the Armenian, who has neither money nor 
troops!" The prince had very justly observed before in Tiffliz, 
that if Emin had made the patriarch a present of a great sum, 
his Holiness would not be so rigidly inveterate against him, 
who made God Mammon and himself the God of the innocent 
Armenians; and said, that his Highness is not better than the 
patriarch, if he hears him ; that is to say, the prince was as 
fond of money as the patriarch. On this speech, the prince 
said to Emin, "Are not you afraid to speak so boldly before 
my face?" He said, "he should be, if he had been treacher- 
ous and false like his neighbours." "If you kill me," he added, 
" the world will say Heraclius was afraid of a single Armenian, 
who fell a sacrifice to the good cause of his country; and that 
each drop of his innocent blood, by the invisible hand of God, 
will become fire and sword to those who have been the instru- 
ments of his death. As for me, who am a soldier, it is the 
same to me whether I die to-day or to-morrow; but woe to 
those cowardly wretches, intoxicated with black ambition, who 
never even dream of dying!" 

This expression seemed to move Heraclius a little; and he 
said, "Emin Aga, what can I do ? Your own patriarch, with all 
the bishops and monks are against you; the best part of my 
subjects are Armenians, who look on them as prophets and 
apostles; if I proceed with you, without minding what they 
say, they will think me no more a Christian than the Grand 
Signior. Do you remember, that at our first meeting I told 
you a little money would be of great use ; with money we 

* Ivan and Turan. Ivan is probably a misprint for Iran. Iran and Turan would mean 
that Persia on the one hand, and Turkey on the other, would both be offended, 


could make them as dumb as if they had no tongues in their 
mouths." Emin said, he was very glad he had none of it, for 
he was sure the prince would be the first man to take it away 
by force; his English friends better knew the character of the 
Georgians, else they would have supplied him sufficiently; but 
hearing prince Heraclius's name and truly Christian conduct, 
they relied upon him, and suffered Emin to come to him. 
"Now, Great Sir," added he, "all this you hear, and seem as 
if you were affected by it ; but, take my word for it, that your 
Asiatic nature will not let you rest, till I become your prisoner." 
The prince said, " I do love you, Emin, I assure you." He an- 
swered, "Saul loved David." Then gave him the patriarch's 
letter, made a bow, and went away 

When he came home, he found that thirteen Curd Arme- 
nians had brought a letter from archbishop Jonas, of St. John 
the Baptist, mentioned before, to this effect: "The bearer 
Melih Stepan of this place, of the province of Curdistan in Ar- 
menia, will bring you this letter; you will receive from him 600 
Zarmabab zekins, to defray your little journey expences, and 
make your coming to us as expeditious as possible. Desire the 
prince, with God's blessing and my prayers, to give you twenty 
Georgian horse, for the satisfaction of the people here, and for 
their assurance that he is your friend. Should he be prevented^ 
by the enemies of union, from complying with your request, 
never mind it; God will do you justice; but be not backward 
in receiving the sum abovementioned ; take it, and spend it at 
your pleasure: when you find the prince will not favour you 
with his assistance, make yourself easy, think nothing of it. I 
received your letters mentioning the malicious proceeding of 
those wolves who pretend outwardly to be the disciples of our 
Saviour, but who have always been instrumental in the down- 
fal of our harmless nation, and who are no better than tools in 
the hands of infidels. I have been working for eleven months 
past by writing, and have very easily brought over to your 


interest and heroic way of thinking, all the great Armenians 
in Turkey, Constantinople, Smyrna, Caisary, Tokhat, Arzerum, 
Diarbeker, (in which last place he was born), Vuer, &c, &c. — 
they are citizens. As for fighting men, you shall have 40,000 
to meet you at the end of six days journey; the Assyrians 
and Yezdy Curds are likewise ready to join us. Do not say to 
the Georgian' prince, that they must have money ; for to make 
you more composed in mind, they all have taken their oaths 
on the holy scripture, and by the bloody cross of our blessed 
Saviour, that they will fight for it under your command ten 
years, without any expectation of money ; as for provisions and 
ammunition, they likewise have their own well provided. The 
Turks are not the same as they were an hundred years ago ; 
without fighting, they will give up all; and as their towns are 
not fortified, you may suppose the taking of them will be 
very easy. A superstitious prophecy has taken root in their 
minds, that their sovereignty is near its end, and that their 
fighting against' Christians will be of no signification. They have 
also heard of your coming from the Russian empire, strongly 
recommended by its blessed Empress to the prince of Georgia, 
and the Turks will never dare to shed a Christian's blood; that 
since your coming from England by the way of the Mediter- 
ranean, three years have elapsed, and that, when you exhorted 
the people of the villages you passed through, every Armenian 
betook himself to arms ; that even the women were ready to 
fight, provided Heraclius would engage to stand by you. Let 
this suffice in writing. If you should not succeed with Heraclius, 
my fatherly advice is, that you never despair; but go on with 
all your might, fear no manner of danger, put your trust in 
God ; whether you succeed or not, you will have fame : but I am 
in hopes you will be the means of freeing your poor distressed 
countrymen, from the chain of subjection, and from affliction. 
I pray God to protect and preserve you, to the honour of 
Armenia, and remain, &c. &c. Jonas the Monk, the servant of 


Christ. Dated 1763, in the sacred house of the son of the Carrin 
woman, Saint John the Baptist." (Carrin woman signifies 
. Elizabeth, Saint John's mother, to whom the Armenians generally 
give that appellation.) * 

The Armenian Malich Stephen, who brought the money, hap- 
pened to fall into company with the Georgian Zaza Beg, as officer 
,or servant of Heraclius, from Ira van to Tiffliz, bringing the letter 
from Simon the patriarch, who, with hopeful flattering words, 
pumped every syllable out of Stephen, by telling him, that the 
prince was making proper preparations to send Hmin away, with 
some thousand horses to Mush, Saint John the Baptist's monas- 
tery. They arrived in town at the same time, when the poor 
man told Emin with joy, what the officer said, and that he 
thought it no harm to tell the Georgian of the six hundred 
pieces of gold. Emin laughed at him, told him to go away from 
him, and keep the money himself, lest the prince should snatch 
it away from him ; nor would he be so mean as to accept of it, 
and act the play of an impostor by robbing Honan of his 
money. "The prince, he added, will probably be apprized of it 
by that fellow Zaza, who is his spy, and very cunning; to- 
morrow or next day, you will hear of it?" Stephen said, "Zaza 
told him on travelling, that besides what he told before in 
the letter from his holiness to the prince in your favour, he is 
to give you forces to take first Iravan, and then proceed to 
Mush?" Emin said, "You will see in time, the consequence of 
it to prove the contrary." The villanous Zaza, instead of 600 
zekins, named 6000 ; setting the poor prince's heart in agitation, 
to study how to get the cash; seizing the letter of the holy 
Simon Catholicus, for a pretence to seize upon Emin. 

Two days after, one of his Marin servants, a native of 
Astrakhan, who had been discharged before, mounted on horse- 
back, armed with bow and arrow, being sent on purpose to breed 

* This term is unknown at the present day. 


a quarrel with his other servant s, by the wicked contrivance of 
Zakaria Varapet, the archbishop of Tiffliz — (many suspected the 
prince had a hand in that low business, but Emin cannot credit 
it) — As the fellow was passing by the door, he began to use bad 
words, and one of the Curd Armenians lately come, named 
Purseck; of the first family of Mush, being a person of great 
courage, returned the language, which immediately brought on a 
real battle; the distance between them was ten yards. The 
ungrateful man, Marcus, took out his bow and arrow, and aimed 
twice at him, but missed, as Emin was standing on a terrace 
looking over, to whom the fellow let fly two more arrows, which 
missed again, struck against a stone wall, and broke to pieces. 
The brave Purseck standing below, asked Emin for leave to re- 
turn the assault; and he had no sooner opened his lips to say, 
Drive the ungrateful fellow away, than Purseck drew his scymi- 
tar and ran at him. Marcus seeing him like a loose lion, turned 
his horse's head to run away. Purseck despairing to come up 
with him, at the distance of ten yards let fly his sword after him 
like lightning, and the end of it took the poor beast behind, cut- 
ting him from the top up and down twenty-four inches, and al- 
most, ten inches deep. Marcus, extremely terrified, galloped precipi- 
tately to Zakaria, who was waiting, ready to stir the fire of 
mischief, and cried out for joy, "The business is done, Emin is 
caught in the trap ! " He then took the fellow and the beast to 
the prince, who sent for Emin and Purseck. When they were 
asked the reason of the fray, Emin answered, "The reason, Sir, 
you know best, I told you two days ago, when you asked for 
Simon Catholicus's letter, and declared that you loved Emin — 
who now is in the way of reaping the benefit of your love — Oh ! 
my good prince ! I pity you with all my heart ; do your worst, 
that you may not disoblige the holy Simon. The horse which 
is maimed, had been my own property, and was given away by 
me to the ungrateful man, who not long ago was in my service. 
If you think this a breach of peace, I am ready, according to 


the Mosaic law, to give tooth for tooth, but not a man for a 
beast, especially one who, not long ago, was sitting knee to knee 
by you. I am sorry to say, I cannot save your good ears from 
the calumnies of the unworthy, false, treacherous inventors." 

All this passed in the Turkish language, when Carim and 
other khans, messengers, or officers of note, who had been in the 
late Nadir's service, were present. One of them, pretty much 
advanced in age, said, "He speaks vastly like Nadir, when in 
Melich Mahomed Khan's service at Mashad, a city of Khorasan, 
which provoked Melich to order him to be bastinadoed." The 
prince, at that time, was sitting high up stairs, laying his right 
elbow on the wooden rails; while the author, with the Curd 
Purseck, were standing below in the open court under the sun, 
like malefactors to receive sentence. The prince ordered his exe- 
cutioners to take Emin's sword from him; but Purseck stand- 
ing close to his left hand, with sword and shield kept the fellows 
off, who were about forty in number ; and told Emin, that they 
should not come near, if he would but give the word which be- 
haviour frightened the fellows, and the prince rose in a hurry 
from his place, and cried out, " Pull down the man ! " but they 
dared not; and were just going to gather a mob. Emin quieted 
Purseck, alleging, that they were not among Mahomedans to be- 
have in that manner; "please the prince's fancy, and let us 
suffer ourselves to be taken." The prince hearing that, said to 
the Georgians, "Be gentle with Emin." He therefore, giving his 
sword up to them, said, "Sir, you did not give me this sword, 
which has been in your service these fourteen months without 
reward; and the giver of it can give thousands instead of it." 
Then the bravos fell on Purseck, began to strip him, and tried 
to pull him down. When almost naked, after a struggle of three 
quarters of an hour, he stood like a tree immoveable. The 
prince, from the varanda, called out to them to let him alone; 
rebuking his people, and saying, " It is a shame, that forty of 
you are not strong enough to bring down a single Armenian." 


They, in the agitation of their blood, said, " Please to come 
down yourself and try, for he is made of iron, not of flesh." 
When the hurly-burly and jostling was over, Heraclius asked 
the Armenian lion " Why he cut the horse in that manner ? " He 
answered, "My master ordered me to defend myself . " The prince 
said, "How far would you go to obey him ? " Purseck said, "To 
the last drop of my blood." Then the prince said, " Barakalah, 
yegeed!" as much as to say, Well done, brave boy! Then the 
prince was going to make it up, but was interrupted by the 
malignant angels Zakaria the bishop and others, alleging, that 
he would disoblige the holy patriarch if he did not confine 
Purseck, to which he agreed with reluctance. 

Emm was ordered to his quarters, with a single officer for a 
guard, and Purseck to another place; but he was released the 
next day; and, by order of the prince, his arms were restored 
to him, and all his things. Two days after, the prince sent two 
Georgians with compliments, and demanding his two small boxes, 
with the keys. They contained his books, clothes, and papers. 
In two days more he sent back the boxes, but kept the letters 
from different parts of Armenia, and detained the books to 
examine them; for poor Heraclius had been weak enough to 
have been persuaded that Emm was a conjurer, whose secrets 
.were in those books; by which, and without money, he charmed 
the prince, and made all the Armenians acknowledge him as their 
sovereign. They being at a loss for a person who understood 
English, sent for two Roman Catholic priests, one of them a 
German, and the other an Italian, who, by the title-pages, could 
just tell that they were books on the art of war. Emin laughed 
at their ignorance and barbarity in thinking that Europeans 
could be so stupid as to publish books of conjuration, when they 
scorn the very believers of such nonsense; but he did not then 
know the wise prince's intention, which had a double object, first, 
to satisfy his people, and then himself by finding out, if he could, 
the six hundred pieces of gold sent from bishop Hovnan for 


Emin. After the examination, the books likewise were sent back ; 
but his gun and bayonet, which were the gift of the duke of 
Richmond, were kept. 

Heraclius rinding it impossible to appease the false accusers, 
thought proper to let Emin continue in confinement in his own 
quarters, with intention to set him free. The officer, or guard, 
who only slept in the house at night, told him, that the prince 
never passed a day without mentioning him with expressions of 
sorrow for what he had done. In that manner twenty-four days 
passed, when two Armenian ladies, born in Georgia, hearing from 
the people what was passing in the court, and how those unjust 
enemies were working to injure him more and more in hopes of 
provoking the prince to make an end of him at once, advised 
Emin to draw a petition to his Highness, in order that they 
might dress it up in their own style, which must be very sub- 
missively smooth, so as to convince the prince that he had not 
spoken a single word to, nor even seen, from the time of his 
arrival in Tifniz, those wicked wretches who had accused him of 
saying, That himself only was the king, not Heraclius; that he 
had never used any such expression; and that the people of that 
pitiful unhappy place would never afford half an hour's peace to 
his Highness' s humane mind, whose great benevolence was his 
only protector ; which he hoped would defend and keep him froin 
their malice, who think themselves immortal, not apprehending 
the tremendous judgment of God. 

A letter was accordingly written, something in that style. 
They then sent for a clerk to copy it fair ; and kept it so secret, 
that it has never been known to this day. The amiable ladies 
tore the original with their own hands, and gave the writer two 
rupees for his pains; begging Emin to send their well-com- 
posed petition immediately to the prince, who happened to re- 
ceive it at a very critical time, when he had just seen the form 
of a petition to put an end to Emin's paltry life; which writ- 
ing, the prince tore to pieces on seeing Emin's humble address, 


and immediately ordered the petitioners to be driven away with 
sticks, like so many Jews. On the next morning, a message 
came to Emin from the prince that he should be set free very 
soon. The conspirators suspecting what was going on, went with 
some presents, Zakariah the bishop being at their head, begging 
that Emin might be sent back to Russia, whence he came, to 
please at least the patriarch Simon Catholicus, the god of the 

Here he is entirely at a loss to know, whether the sense of 
that pathetic letter composed by those female angels, affected 
the prince so deeply, or whether it was through the respect due 
to the Russians, that Emin narrowly escaped falling a victim 
to the fury of those who made themselves the instruments of 
ruin to Georgia and Armenia : for Heraclius, from that time to 
this very day, if he is existing, has been able to shake off the 
yoke of subjection from the necks of the Armenians : none of 
the two Mahomedan powers could hinder him ; that is to say, 
neither Othmans nor Persians. For, since the fall of Nadir Shah, 
all the Georgians, and the five Armenian chiefs of Carabagh, 
have been engaged in war almost every day of their lives against 
several competitors, (if any one were to write an account of 
their actions, it would fill volumes) ; and these being inured to 
that noble practice, in a period of almost forty years, were con- 
tinually giving battle to different nations ; the I^azguis in par- 
ticular, who were at last obliged to give their sons as hostages for 
their engagement never to make incursions. This stopped their 
horrid depredations, so that they were not able even to kidnap 
a child ; but, on the contrary, were ready to put themselves 
by thousands under the command of the prince, who in reality 
defended both the kingdom of Turkey on the west of Georgia, 
and Persia on the south, and has been a complete bulwark all 
this while : otherwise the savage Lazguis, for the sake of booty, 
would have obliged the former to run headlong into the Black 
Sea, and the latter (if they escaped starving on the barren 



mountains of Farsistan) into the Gulph of Persia. Therefore it 
is to be lamented, that the prince lost Emin through ignorance 
of his faithful heart, which is the characteristic of a true Ar- 
menian. And it is still more to be regretted, that another prince 
cannot be found, who merits, like Heraclius, the sovereignty of 
the Armenians and Georgians. But the poor prince's heart was 
composed of two different metals, Persian and Greek, which de- 
prived both him and Emin of the happiness and glory of seeing 
their country freed from slavery. 

Six da}^s after the petition, his confinement having lasted 
exactly thirty days, the prince sent him word to get ready and 
march with him to the north of Timiz, to a place called Hav- 
chaula about eight miles distant. On setting out, about four 
in the afternoon, one of Emin's servants was missing, who had 
400 rupees of his, and stayed behind on purpose to serve his 
own ends, and enjoy himself in that wicked town of Timiz. This 
was the only money he had in the world to depend upon, being 
the remainder of 600 rupees sent by Hovnan, the bishop's first 
draft of 100 zekins ; the second, mentioned before, brought by 
Malich Stephen, for 600 zekins, he did not think it honest to 
accept, since he was prevented from going to Mush. He, was 
greatly distressed by the accident ; since the next morning ne 
was to march to another stage, in company with the army, and 
then part from the prince to proceed three days more to the 
foot of Mount Caucasus, where he should not have had money 
to buy linen, or to give the mountainers for allowing him to go 
over those high passes. The villanous servant well knew that 
he would go on farther and farther every day; and that the 
money would remain safe in his possession. Emin therefore 
thought it necessary to speak to prince David, Heraclius' s son- 
in-law, to interpose for permission to go back after the servant 
who had his rupees; and he said, go, lest the prince should be 
tempted to rob him of it (for Heraclius was fonder of money 
than of his eyes). 


Prince David, with great good-nature, seeing him almost in 
despair, went into the tent to speak to his father-in-law, who 
being in one of his bad humours, grunted like a provoked bear, 
without speaking or answering him, which was a signal of his 
wrath, and made David remain stock still. Emin, standing be- 
hind the tent in hopes of redress, waited almost half an hour 
without a word coming out of the dark pavilion, where there was 
not even a single candle lighted. He therefore withdrew from 
the place gently, calling God to his assistance, mounted his Ara- 
bian bay horse, and told the Armenian Anania, (whose two horses 
he hired, one for packing, the other saddled for Gregor, the very- 
man who wanted to make away the money by staying behind 
in Tiffliz,) to accompany him. Honest Anania consented ; and 
they then set out in the night along the river Cur. When they 
reached the city gates, Anania dismounted, and began to knock 
as hard as he could; but there was neither centry nor watch- 
man to hear. At last a porter came out of his bed, and stood 
within the gate, asking, who it was? Anania said, "Open the 
door.'' The fellow said, " I can not : it is Heraclius's strict 
order not to open the gates till sun-rise." Anania said, " Foolish 
man ! • I have a letter from prince David, the king's son-in-law, 
to 'his father Rewaz, the great Sardar, who is next in rank to 
Heraclius, — and I will give you an abasy, which will buy you a 
Tabriz maun of wine." No sooner was the name of that 
generous liquor mentioned, than the gates were opened before 
them, the door-keeper being so sleepy as to forget the money ; 
but Emin told Anania to give the poor devil the abasy. Anania 
said, "I hate him as a Georgian, and his king too, for bringing 
you to this condition. Did you not understand what the troops 
were saying to me as they were passing by us on the road?" 
Emin answered, "You know I do not understand Georgian." 
Anania replied, "They were saying, that you were not yet dis- 
charged from your confinement and that if you should run away, 
I must surfer for it ; that the king would cut my head off, and 


sell my children to the I^azguis. Now I will open my heart to 
you : I am ready to lose my life, if those thirteen Curd Ar- 
menians will have the courage to go with you to Mush, though 
sent for that purpose from the bishop of St. John the Baptist. 
I will guide them out of the great roads over the mountains ; 
for Heraclius's oppression is insupportable; it is worse than that 
of Heathens; let him destroy my family." 

This speech of the brave Anania ended just as they reached 
the door where Emiti's quarter was. On their inquiring after 
Gregor, the woman of the house directed them four doors higher, 
where they found Purseck, but not Gregor who had the money. 
There came out a woman, who was a widow, and had an only 
son, a weaver, named Vardan; (both mother and son knew 
where Gregor' s house was;) and Vardan' s wife said, "They will 
hardly be lucky enough to find him at home." Kmin asked, 
why ? The good woman said, " O, Sir ! he has a great many 
loves— ten to one if we find him in his own house." They went 
winding about several narrow lanes, before they could come to 
the place ; and the woman begged him to say nothing all the 
while, lest the man, hearing his voice, should hide himself or go 
from his house to another. Emin said, "Very well, ^ good 
woman; do as you think proper." Then the woman began 'to 
knock gently at the door, behind which were sleeping six persons ; 
and with a very faint voice, she called out, Tamar ! Tamar ! On* 
the third call, Tamar, who was the wife of Gregor, awaked, and 
said, "Who is at the door ? " The good woman in the street said, 
"I am Vardan Nana;" which signifies, I am the mother of Var- 
dan. Then Tamar said, " What do you want ? " The woman said, 
(with a tone of voice as if she was crying or bewailing some 
dear friend,) "Is your husband Gregor at home?" Tamar said, 
"Yes; what will you have with him?" The woman said, 
groaning and sighing, "The Curd Armenians, who were sent 
from the bishop of St. John the Baptist, to carry Emin to 
Mush, have brought some wine and meat, and can neither eat 


nor drink without your husband's company, wishing particularly 
to hear him tell the story of Emin's fighting against the 
Lazguis." Xo sooner was the name of wine pronounced, than 
the door was opened, and Gregor awaked, sitting up in his bed. 
Then the wise woman said to Emin, "Now, Sir, it is your 
time ! " He therefore flew like lightning, seized Gregor by the 
collar, put his hand into his waistcoat pocket, and took out the 
purse with 200 rupees in gold, while the other four persons never 
dared to stir out of ' their beds ; for Emin threatened, in a fury, 
that if they did, he would strike off their heads. Then, with his 
sword drawn he brought out the ungrateful wretch; made him 
kneel down, pretending that he would cut off his head at one 
stroke. The nightwatches, with a lantern, were passing by, but 
durst not say a word. Terrified to see him in that desperate 
attitude, Gregor was almost out of his senses, having just breath 
enough to beg for mercy; when Purseck laid hold of his wrist, 
and intreated for his pardon, which Emin was very glad to grant, 
as he would not have shed his poor countryman's blood for all the 
money in Asia. Anania, admiring his merciful behaviour, cried 
bitterly, saying, <( O, my God ! why will you not stand by this 
man, to make him prosperous for his compassionate heart ? 
For so much money as this, the unmerciful Georgians would have 
destroyed half a dozen Armenians, and ruined their families for 
' ever ! O Heraclius, and Simon the Patriarch ! I wish you may 
never draw a comfortable breath in your lives; may you die 
groaning in anxiety ; since, without the least fault, you have 
forced this man away from my country ! " 

Emin then gave notice to the thirteen Curd Armenians, and 
said to them, " Now, gentlemen, you see I am free, will you 
agree to go with me to Mush?" They answered, "We would go 
with all our hearts but you will be kind enough to consider, 
that it is not our orders, nor can we venture to do it without 
Heraclius' s good-will." Then they offered to return the 600 
zekins, which he again refused, though they expostulated, but he 


could not be persuaded, nor did he take them at last. He only- 
told them to carry word to the bishop Hovnan, and see how far 
Hmin ran a risque of his life in going to Mush ; but his men 
had not sufficient resolution to follow him, since they had not 
received orders from him. He then took his leave, and left 
them in tears. Anania said, "You have done all you can; it is 
necessary to go out of town before it is light, for Heraclius is in 
search of some pretence ; should he make an inquiry in the 
camp, and miss you, he would send a file of horse; and if we 
are caught here, he will play the devil with us." They then 
took some corn, just enough for the horses, and went to the 
sleepy porter, who opened the gates. 

No sooner had they come out, than Anania said, " Let us 
feed the horses here under the wall close to the gates, for the 
poor beasts are tired; they have been sixteen miles backwards 
and forwards, eight miles more which we have to march to the 
camp will make twenty-four." Hmin consented; and having 
drank some water, rested a little." In a few minutes, who should 
come but two Cossack troopers, with an order from Heraclius 
to take him up. Emin asked them, in broken Turkish, as if he 
was a Georgian, What was their business in the town? They 
said, " The Armenian gentleman is run away from the camp ; the 
Vali is very angry, and has commanded us to apprehend him." 
They knew Emin all the time, for he had been on parties with 
those troopers many times against the Lazguis. Emin said 
again to them, " Do you know the man, if you see him ? " They 
said, "Yes, very well;" knocking at the gate as hard as they 
could, seeming to be in fear ; for Emin was resolved to make an 
end of the story, and die like a soldier, if they should lay hold 
of him. But the poor Cossacks were happy when the gate was 
opened, after half an hour's waiting; and then bidding Emin 
good morning, they entered the gate. Anania (who had been 
frightened almost to death) said, "Sir, it is now high time for 
us to set out for the camp ; the danger is over ; let us hasten 


before the sun rise." They reached the place exactly half an 
hour before day-light; when Heraclius's servant called out for 
Emin, who was lying on his bed with great composure. The 
servant seeing him, went and acquainted Heraclius, that the 
report of his being out of the camp was not true. 


1763— '64-65. 

[Night camps amongst the Georgians — Heraclius' treachery — Orders Emin to 
leave the camp immediately and go to the Caucasus — A trick to separate him 
from his escort — But Emin passes through without any mishap — Stays at 
the house of a Circassian — Falls ill — Contrives to reach Boragan, where Ar- 
menians shelter him — Writes to the grandmother of the young lady at Astra- 
khan — But now that he is penniless and in trouble, they will have no more of 
him — Atchakhan, a mountaineer from Muchkiz — A lump of sugar an un- 
known rarity — Mountaineer offers him a troop of forty of his relatives with- 
out pay — The difference of faith — ' ; A soldier's religion is his sword " — They 
offer him their allegiance with old-world warlike ceremony — A Circassian 
lady's friendly kindness — Eight thousand mounted troops at his command — 
A mischief-making Armenian informs the successor of Stupition and receives 
1500 strokes for his pains— Emin's servant Turkhan arrives from Petersburgh 
with the third and last draft from Eord Northumberland — His interview with 
the young lady at Astrakhan.] 

TN Asiatic camps, pitched in the night-time in their irregular 
way, a person when wanted is not easily found, especially 
the Georgians, among whom no sort of regularity or order is 
kept ; but from eight till twelve at night, there is as much hal- 
looing and noise as if they were already beaten by the enemy ; 
servants hunting for masters, and masters for servants, till they 
find one another, exactly like cows and calves in a dispersed 
herd : then they directly spread the table-cloths, set down the 
skin-full of wine, eat and drink till they are full, and then sleep 
as sound as a rock, without watch or sentry ; so that if the 
beasts of the field were to come and prey on their bodies, they 


would hardly be sensible of pain till sun-rise. The only watch- 
ful man Emin ever saw among them was the prince himself, who 
sat up sometimes till one, sometimes till two in the morning, 
with his household servants, whom one might see often half a- 
sleep, standing upon their legs before the prince, till they dropped 
down upon the ground, and afforded him great amusement : 
therefore it is very easy for an European general, at the head 
of 20,000 men, to be master of all that part without any diffi- 

Prince David told Emin on the march that morning, that 
his father-in-law, though he was a little out of humour the pre- 
ceding night, yet about ten o'clock, after supper, expressed great 
sorrow for having used him so ill, without any sort of crime; 
and said, he was in hopes of keeping him by good treatment : 
"For," he added, "he is a useful man; nor will I give ear any 
more to those fellows who were the very cause of my displea- 

When they came to the second stage called Sagarejo, about 
twelve o'clock, they halted there for that day, where the road 
divides from north to east. The thirty Circassian horsemen, 
with whom the prince's order was that Emin should go /when 
in Tiffliz, he sent his order by a messenger), did not halt, but 
kept going on; he, encouraged by what David had told him in 
the morning, stayed behind to know the prince's pleasure ; and 
about three in the afternoon, Revaz Eshikagasy Bashy, or the 
prince's first aid-du-camp, brought word, that it was his royal 
master's strict command, that Emin should not tarry a minute 
longer in his camp, but set out immediately for Caucasus, and 
over that mountain to Russia, where his friends were. He could 
not do otherwise than obey. The brave Georgian troops, in a 
manner his comrades, were extremely sorry for this ; they loved 
Emin as their brother, having been skirmishing with him against 
the enemy several times, and cursed their master for his con- 


Here Erain began to suspect a little, that Heraclius's con- 
versation of the preceding night with his son-in-law prince 
David, was with a bad design, that Emm might be flattered by 
it, and stay behind at a distance from the Circassians, the road 
being very dangerous for a few travellers, so that the invading 
Lazguis might lay hold of him, and carry him into captivity; 
by which stratagem he might be put out of his way, without 
his having the character of being the murderer of an innocent 
man ; and by that politic device, he might also stop the mur- 
murs of the world against him, and hide his Georgian envy in 
the profound darkness of his miserable heart ; for Emin was 
heartily sorry to find so able a man possessed with so unmanly 
a vice, destitute of conscience, and weak enough to think him 
helpless, without believing that God would guard him to the 
destined place. Here a single servant, and five other Armenians, 
set out in the name of God, the only Father of the fatherless, 
and arrived in four days, without meeting any party of robbers 
all the way, at Stephen Sminda, where he found two of the Cir- 
cassians, and rested there two days, till the guides of the moun- 
taineers came, who took their customary fare of Emin, and 
carried him, with the other Armenians, ascending and descend- 
ing for four days, to the other side of Caucasus; whence, in two 
days more, he arrived at the house of one of the Circassians in 

Here Emin and his servant stayed ; the other five Ar- 
menians went to Kizlar, intending thence to proceed for Astra- 
khan. This was in the month of June. That country had not 
much to boast of its climate or its waters, which are muddy all 
the year round. Vexation of mind, and eating mutton every 
day without bread (instead of which a sort of hotch-potch is 
made of cunery-seed, boiled like rice to a thick paste), threw 
Emin and his servant into such an ague, fever, and continual 
head-ach, as in forty days made him almost despair of re- 
covery ; and seeing there was no sort of remedy, he begged his 



landlord to get some guide to conduct him to Boragan, twelve 
miles from Kizlar, where he had heard some Armenian families 
inhabited, who might help to take some care of him. The 
master of the house complied, and procured on the spot two 
horses to carry him and his servant, with two good Circassians 
on horseback to be his guides and attend him, for twenty-four 
rupees, to be paid at that village, his Arab horse being left be- 
hind lame. 

He arrived, after travelling almost four days and four nights 
with immense fatigue, and in exquisite torture from head to 
foot, and alighted at an honest Armenian's house, who rejoiced 
at rinding him alive, though he was almost broken-hearted at his 
ill success, and prince Heraclius's cruel behaviour. He was how- 
ever comforted with some refreshment, and paid the two guides, 
adding some small presents; his servant went to his family at 
Astrakhan, and he stayed there near ten months. The inter- 
mitting fever did not leave him till November, but he was not 
so ill as in Circassia, because the Armenians did not let him 
want any thing all the time. On his good days, twenty of the 
young and old Armenians took him on horseback to the hot 
waters, about three miles from the place, where they pitched 
tents and bathed themselves. Among them were two brothers, 
who always washed his linen; they all dined and slept there in 
the day-time, and an hour before sun-set came back again to their 
houses in Boragan, which village contained 800 Circassians mixed 
with a few Tartars. It is a sort of republic, under the protec- 
tion of the Russians, with six Armenian families, and about 
thirty unmarried shopkeepers, who lived very comfortably among 
them without paying any sort of tax to the chiefs or begs. It 
would have been a pleasant retreat for Kmin, if he had been in 
perfect health, since every thing was in abundance, and his few 
countrymen willing to make his time pass very happily. 

Recovering a little from his illness, he thought it necessary 
to fulfil the obligation of his engagement to the Armenian 


princess, the grand-daughter of Avankhan in Astrakhan, men- 
tioned before; and he wrote a letter to her grandmother, in the 
following terms : 

"The Gohvar Klianum of Armenia. 

"I answered your Highness's letter, and thanked you for 
your kind correspondence, and for that of my friend the lovely 
princess Marian, who never missed any opportunity of writing to 
me. Your Highness will know b}^ my letters all that passed 
between the prince and me, whose unmanly treatment of me put 
me in mind of your Highness' s idea, in regard of his character 
and his people ; every part of your sentiment proved exactly 
just. It is some time since I came to this place : my not 
writing immediately was owing to a very dangerous illness, which 
disabled me from holding a pen. Now (thank God ! ) I am re- 
covering every day; but since the weather and the climate of 
Astrakhan will not be healthy yet for these three or four 
months, I deem it more proper to make this easy proposition to 
you; by acquainting you, that it will be quite agreeable to both 
parties, if you will please to come with the princess hither, where 
the climate is more favourable at this season, so as to make her 
and your humble servant happy, in being united by the sacred 
law of the holy church. Thus I shall fulfil the obligation of my 
promise, of which I was doubtful when you proposed that 
happiness to me before at Astrakhan; having acquainted you, 
that I had done a foolish mad act two years before, in sending 
a letter to the prince from Bajazed, little expecting to go round 
to him from Russia, when he was just going to give me his 
daughter in marriage, but was prevented by the over-hastiness 
of the priest Philipus, an Armenian, the prince's grammarian. 
That alliance therefore is at an end. Now let me know your 
pleasure; if you agree to come, to bring my friend with you, or 
chuse that I should come to you myself. Two lines will be 


sufficient; let them but contain one of these two words, nega- 
tive or affirmative, which will be equally satisfactory to me. I 
have this more to say; that when the marriage shall be over 
here, or at Astrakhan, I will again return to Armenia, to try my 
fortune. If I succeed in my design, which has been your chief 
wish, the sending for you both will be very easy; but should I 
fail (which is in the hand of God), then I can come with honour, 
having done all in my power ; and then can enter into the im- 
perial service of Russia, where I have, as your Highness knows, 
many great friends, who, I am sure, having known my character 
before, and seeing my future conduct, will promote me accord- 
ingly. I wish you health and happiness. Give my love to 
princess Marian, and believe me to be for ever yours." 

This letter was sent, and Emin waited in expectation of an 
answer, but instead of writing, they returned only a verbal mes- 
sage they had nothing to say to it. The dowager-mother would 
not know a man who had no money; a second and third 
message came one after another, with the same meaning. Emin, 
on this abrupt disdainful return, maintained himself with the 
satisfaction that, when he had the young lady wholly devoted to 
him, his conscience stood by and made her innocent person 
inaccessible ; whereas, many in his situation would have been 
glad of the opportunity, and the princess Marian herself has ac- 
knowledged to many persons, that she was gratefully obliged to 
him for his honour and fortitude. Emin would not have written 
these few lines so frankly if he had been a merchant, or had 
they sent a civil refusal; but as a soldier, feeling to the quick, 
could not refrain himself, declaring truly, he made himself easy 
with that crossness of fortune. 

Not knowing which way to make his way through to 
Georgia, Emin could not return to Astrakhan, where he was 
sure of having a mortifying reception in return for his honesty ; 
his 200 rupees were near expended ; the noble English were too 
far to receive him again with open arms; and the misery of 


adverse fortune increased his indisposition so severely, that he 
eat very little, only once in two days, and so on for a long 
time ; till one afternoon, as he was sitting at his chamber-door, 
there came into the court-yard a Aluchkiz moimtaineer, armed 
with a gun and a short spear; he stood a great way off, touch- 
ing his sheep-skin cap, making a very low bow, and expressing 
himself in these very words : " Oh, Agha ! I wish the apples of 
my eyes had dropped out of their sockets under your feet, 
before I had seen you in this condition ! Are not you the man 
who came to Kizlar from the Russian empress, who made the 
general Stupition tremble, and run into the fort for fear of you; 
who in eight days after marched away back to Moscow, and 
brought a firman again in thirteen months ; then went to 
Georgia to that cowardly prince Heraclius, who, I am informed, 
has turned you away from his country in reward of your 
zealous services in beating so often our Lazgui Chapauljees, and 
killing many of us ? Why did not you accept at Kizlar, the offer 
of thousands of us, who were very willing to serve under your 
command, and with a glad heart would have acknowledged you 
to be their leader ? " Emin called him nearer, took him into his 
room- presented him a glass of arrack with his own hand, and 
when he had drank that, gave him another with a lump of 
.white sugar. He said, "The dram is very pleasant; but what 
is this piece of salt?" Emin answered, "Put it in your mouth." 
He replied, "Salt is eaten with bread?" Emin said, "First 
touch it with your tongue." When he did so, finding it sweet, 
he cried out, "I am very glad to have this, it is a remedy 
for sore eyes; I will carry it to my wife as a great rarity. I 
tell you, Sir, though I look so mean in dress, I am a miller 
by trade, and a soldier by inclination; I have forty relations, 
all young and hardy, some of them have fought against you 
in Gurgestan, and every one will come to salute the dust of 
your feet; you are to bless them, and take them into your ser- 
vice, with their arms and horses." Emin begged to be excused, 

254 atchakan's forty relatives. 

as having no money. He said, " What do you say ? Do you 
imagine we are to love a prince for his treasure, like infidels? 
No, Sir, we are, thank God, Musulmans; we only want your 
sense and management to rule over us, and give a disposition 
in battle like the Russians ; by which we shall have all the 
money in the world." Emin made another objection, saying, 
" Our religions are not cordial." Atchakhan (for that was his 
name) said, "That does not signify a straw," pointing with his 
finger to the ground; "a soldier's religion is his sword, once 
eating bread and salt, makes them all brothers to eternity, as 
if they had been born of one father and one mother. Let the 
Mulas and priests differ on that head, our business is fidelity 
and friendship ; so God preserve you ! No more of that ; I am 
going like lightning to set all the mountains on fire for love 
of you; be in the way, for those brave boys will in two or 
three days come and lay their heads under your feet; bless and 
receive them all alike in your open arms ! ' ' 

Atchakhan the Muchkiz mountaineer, having ended his dis- 
course, went away ; any man would have imagined him born 
with Emin of one mother, and with the same romantic disposi- 
tion, and style of speaking, compounded of sense and wildness. 
But two days after, he brought a small bag full of walnuts, with 
his wife's compliments; he then set out in a hurry, and did not 
stay long enough to take another dram. On the fourth day, he 
came with his forty relations armed and well mounted, himself 
at their head, dressed in armour, on a fine horse ; he entered the 
yard where Emin's room was, and which could hold but six 
men sitting cross-legged. They all dismounted and came two 
and two, laying their heads down upon the ground, to receive 
his blessing. He was going to forbid them; but the miller 
Atchakhan said, he would break their heads, if he hindered them. 
Emin thought himself very vain, growing as big as a bishop; 
in which character he assumed a power to bless them all. 
When they got up they drew their sabres, laid them before 


him, to pray that they might be successful, free from rust, and 
continue wet with the blood of his enemies. He could not refuse 
all those warlike ceremonies, and therefore took leave, but said 
nothing, finding he was not strong enough to make an harangue 
to them. Their coming to him, he cannot but say, was some 
comfort to him. 

On the eighth day, as he was walking slowly out of the 
village with three or four Armenians, he saw all of a sudden 
six hundred men mounted on horse-back, in armour, with sabres 
and guns, at the distance of fifty yards ; they dismounted im- 
mediately, forming themselves into a large semi- circle, that every 
one might see him in full view. The master of the cere- 
monies, Atchakhan, came up, and said to him, "These men, all 
of one clan, are come to present themselves, and to offer their 
service to you ; treat them as you did my relations yesterday ; 
to-morrow, about this time, there will be another set of them 
here, who are 1200 in number, and so on every day to the 
amount of eight or nine thousand. If that force be not enough 
to go on with, let me know, that I may bring more ; they have 
ammunition for three months, and provision for two months in 
their ^ portmanteaus ; they can shave one another's heads, and 
have each a pair of spare horse-shoes, besides what are on the 
horses hoofs; they will not want any thing of you, but to be 
commanded; they stand ready at the word of command out of 
your mouth; to put this very village to the sword, if the in- 
habitants have not behaved to you properly." Then he turned 
his face towards six. hundred of them, saying, " Did you hear, 
brothers, what I have said to your chief ? " They answered, 
"Yes; and we are very ready to obey him." The miller then 
asked Emin, if he was satisfied ? and all the while, the three 
poor Armenians stood trembling, and praying for God's mercy. 
He said, "very much so," and desired the miller to tell them 
to come near, two and two ; and not to fall prostrate any more, 
but only, to sink down on their knees, with drawn sabres in their 


right hand, and the reins of their horses in their left, to receive 
his blessing; and he told them, that as soon as he should 
be recovered from his sickness, Atchakhan should be sent to give 
them notice. They then marched to their huts, some one, some 
two, and some three days journey distant. 

Emin's weakness of body, during the few minutes of his 
standing there to gain the hearts of those brave fellows, made 
him return home as much fatigued as if he had marched an 
hundred miles. Presently after, the lady of the village, or wife 
of the chief, who happened to be absent, sent her compliments 
to Emin, desiring to speak a word with him. He excused him- 
self, deferring the interview to the next day, when he waited on 
her. After the usual compliments were passed, she very kindly 
asked how he did, and hoped that his Armenian subjects took 
great care of him? Emin said they were not his subjects; they 
were his countrymen. She said, "How can that be, when all the 
Dagistanis call you Armarily Pateshahy, and will stand by you 
with their conquering arms, to make even that Yaver Heretius 
Gurjee acknowledge you such; nor is it in the power of any prince 
to stop the mouth of the world ? Do not you know the proverb, 
which says, Ell Agzy Faldar ; or, The mouth of the people is 
omen ? The inhabitants of our village are thrown into great ap- 
prehensions, on seeing the Muchkiz nation coming to you, and, 
acknowledging you their sirdar, or leader. I am in hopes my 
people have not displeased you?" Emin said, " By no means, 
madam; in the first place I am but a guest, and the village is 
under the protection of the Russian patishah, whom God pre- 
serve! and who is also the protector of the Armenian nation. 
How is it possible I should be so imprudent as to take it amiss ? 
Even if your ladyship should chuse to turn me out of Boragan 
your village, with a glad heart I should obey your command 
that very instant." At this expression the lady could not 
contain herself for joy; she then, with uncommon cheerful- 
ness, honoured Emin, saying, "O, brother! I am happy to see 


the reality of the report I have heard; you truly deserve to 
be the sovereign of all Armenia, Dagishtan, and Georgia." Emm 
said, his opinion of her wisdom stood on the same ground, hav- 
ing often heard the praises of Circassian ladies, and now see- 
ing the truth of them in her most charming sensible behaviour. 
Finding, therefore, the lady to resemble in beauty, politeness, and 
good-nature, the noble English ladies, he cheered up his spirits 
and opened the book of his heart before her, displaying his 
rhetoric in the Turkish language, which made the amiable Cir- 
cassian love him as her brother; and while he remained there, 
she called him so with great affection ; and he esteemed the 
liberty of intitling her as his dear sister equally valuable. After 
this peaceful meeting was over, he eat bread and salt, which is 
the sacred tie of friendship, and then went to his lodging, 
almost recovered; giving a demonstrative proof of the power of 
the fair sex, that a single conversation only could cure his ill- 
ness: and he is happy to declare, that it had been always his 
lot, when in great distress of mind, to be relieved by them, and 
induced not to despair. 

Every two or three days the troops came, and were received 
as usual. When the list was completed to eight thousand, in 
a month's time, its report reached Georgia to the south, and 
Astrakhan to the north ; for a Kizlar was but twelve miles 
from Boragan, they could have intelligence from it in four-and- 
twenty hours, the sentry being just over the river Turky, where 
two thousand Russian Cossack families inhabited. Emin was 
informed that a Nukhchuan Armenian had told all that passed 
to the new general of Kizlar, successor to the late Stupition, 
and how Emin had brought over to him those eight thousand 
men, and inlisted them; for which information the fellow re- 
ceived a reward of 1500 strokes with a stick on his naked back, 
by the general's order ; who declared to the rest of the Ar- 
menians standing by, that Emin was a free man, not a subject 
to the Russians, and a Christian, as well as a man of honour, 



that he would do the Russians no wrong, nor meddle with their 
frontiers. "Let him do as he pleases," added he; " our great 
ministers have several times examined him, and know his prin- 
ciples better than you do ; otherwise he would never have been 
suffered to pass our frontiers. The envious Heraclius has not 
let him remain in his country, though he would have been of 
infinite service to him ; and the very man to prevent the Laz- 
guis from enslaving every year multitudes of the Georgians, and 
selling them like asses to the Turks. Emm is much beloved by 
two great nations ; first by the English, secondly by us Rus- 
sians. How can it be possible that he should act with hostility 
against Christians ; for his very aim and zeal is to die for Chris- 
tians ? He flatters the Dagistanians only to frighten Heraclius. 
I tell you, thati hence-forward, if ever you bring such trea- 
cherous false reports to me, you shall be tied up and flogged 
like brats, which will be worse than the chastisement yonder 
fellow has received." This news made Emin very happy, es- 
pecially as it came from an unknown gentleman, whom he never 
before had the honour of seeing. 

At the beginning of November one of his servants arrived 
from Petersburgh, who had been sent from Tiffliz eight or nine 
months before, for the third and last draft of one hundred 
pounds from the late duke of Northumberland, with three pieces, 
of English cloth and a watch worth ten pounds, presents from 
his old Armenian friend Joanes I,azar, in Russian — Ivan Lazar- 
witz, before-mentioned. This man, whose name was Tarkhan, 
told Emin, that when he was at Astrakhan, in his way, the prin- 
cess Marian seemed to be in great concern at his having been 
used so unpolitely, without even a civil letter. She pleaded, 
that her mother was at that time in great agitation ; for the 
tyrannical new governor had stopped the allowance made by 
the late empress Elizabeth, pressing hard, and trying all possible 
means in his power to make her his wife ; which trouble of 
mind prevented her writing to his master. Tarkhan, under- 


standing something of the affair, or, perhaps, having been ac- 
quainted with it at Moscow, said to her, "No, Madam, your 
Highness had heard that Emin was poor, and you did not care 
to answer his letter : now you hear he has the command of all 
Dagistan, you speak thus mildly, so as to move his affection : 
but he is a man of spirit, and will abide by your treatment of 
him. For your sake alone he displeased Heraclius, while you 
or your mother had not sense enough to gain the heart of a 
man who would have raised you in honour and respect. Whom 
do you now think of marrying, but some Armenian merchant, 
who, in Russia, is no more than a Jew ?" 


May, 1765. 

[Emin, having 12,000 men under him pretends to have formed a plan of attacking 
Georgians — Letter written by the faithless Marian and his reply — Sukias the 
monk again appears at Boragan with a fresh letter from Bishop Hovnan — 
Sets out with his thirty " wolf-like commanders" — Chachan, where he receives 
great kindness — Numbers of armed men come to Emin expecting to be led 
against Georgians, whilst he is privately meditating how to make fools of 
them — Slave market at Andia — Lezguis taking a child of six to be sold — 

. Their only support the sale of slaves — Argues with his followers with no 
effect, finally dismisses them — Journeys on to Khunzakh — Mahomed Khan the 
nutzal and his wife — Her humanity contrasted with behaviour of a Roman 
Catholic priest on the death of a young JEkiglishman — Nutzal gives Emin 
escort and passport — Sets out for Catukh — Ridiculous affair at the house of a 
Lezgui — Hajy Mustapha's kindness to him.] 

Tj^MIN, at the latter end of May, made the list of his. moun- 
taineers, who were full twelve thousand men ; and after 
holding an assembly at the place of rendezvous near the hot 
waters, three miles from Boragan, he thought proper to tell 
thirty-five of their chiefs only to keep in readiness, while the 
troops remained in their respective places for further orders ; 
that when he, with those thirty-five commanders, should reach 


Avar, after five days march, and proceed from thence in fonr 
days to Georgia, very near half way between the two countries, 
to consult with Mahomed Khan the nutzal, (which, in the Avar 
language, means a king,) he might then send back those chiefs 
to conduct the troops thither, and then fall at once upon the 
Georgians, while they were drinking wine with their mistresses. 
"This surprize," he added, "will make the conquest easier, and 
will be the means of saving of you ; whereas, in a pitched battle, 
for the first time, the fall of many brave fellows cannot be 

They had before sworn solemnly on the Alcoran, first, to 
acknowledge his superiority ; secondly, never to contradict his 
order. When he ended, they all agreed, pulled off their caps, 
and marched away ; being assured in their own minds that he 
was provoked, and would not be reconciled to Heraclius, though, 
in truth, he would not have changed one Georgian Christian for 
all the Mahometans in Asia, but continued a true Armenian. 

Emin left them satisfied with their own opinion, and kept 
himself in readiness, when he received the last letter from the 
faithless Marian, sent by an Armenian gentleman, an ensign in 
the Russian service, a near relation of hers, on purpose £0 be 
delivered by his own hand. The purport of it was as follows : — 
"My dear Sir, and justly- displeased friend, 

"We have acted wrong in every respect, disdainfully, un- 
generously, and imprudently, in not answering your kind inter- 
esting letter. To think of assigning reasons for our conduct, 
would be unnatural. We acknowledge our misbehaviour against 
you ; but are in great hopes your humane heart will condescend 
to forgive us. Be persuaded and assured, that poor Marian is 
your own, and is perfectly convinced, she never can be happy 
without you ; nor you, she is sure, without her. O, cruel Fate ! 
what affliction hast thou brought on me ! My poor grandmother 
sends her prayers and blessings to you, — she is as much afflicted 
as your poor Marian is unhappy. Should you not relent and 

TOO LATE ! 26l 

come to her, be pleased to write a single line, that she may- 
have the satisfaction at least of taking it to the grave with her. 
Adieu ! I remain to lament my distracted situation till death. 
And am," &c. 

The Answer. 
" My dear Marian, 

" I received your letter, acknowledging most honestly your 
fault, which I have passed over with all my soul: but am sorry 
to say, the balsam you now send, is come too late to cure the 
wounds of a heart that preferred you to all the world. For the 
future, I shall esteem you as my dear sister. Think that you 
have a brother going to die for his country's cause. Make your- 
self easy; marry whom you please, and be happy. When you 
cannot avoid remembering, that no one else would have the same 
fortitude, or act with so much honour, as Emin has done in 
regard to you; recollect what a man you may regret the loss 
of — a true lover : — but content your mind with having found a 
brother, who will continue so all the days of his life. Adieu!" 

Emin being clear of that engagement, the monk Suciaz, then 
collector for St. John the Baptist's monastery, whom he had 
seen ^before in Astrakhan, arrived at Boragan, and told him, that 
bishop Hovnan, the head of that monastery, had in writing, 
ordered him (the monk Suciaz) to give Emin all the money col- 


lected in Russia from the Armenians there, being the sum of 646 
tumans, equal to 12,900 rupees. He said, he had refused before 
600 zeckins at Tiffliz, brought by Melich Stephen, when he had 
but 200 rupees. Now he had an allowance of 100 pounds, sent by 
his patron the duke of Northumberland, which would be suffi- 
cient for the time : nor was he sure whether his chimerical plan 
would succeed or not. The sum of 646 tumans would have been 
in a manner an enemy in his bosom among those wild and 
almost savage Lazguis. He therefore bid the monk to keep the 
money to himself, or take it to the bishop ; for he was chased 
like a tyger from place to place, not having a hole of his own 


to creep in, where he might have a little time to fetch breath. 
The monk agreed that he was in the right; but begged to make 
so free, as- to lay before Emin his sentiments on the proposition 
he was going to make. He said, he would hear with pleasure, 
for the sake of his only friend bishop Hovnan. Then the monk 
began fawning and cringing, and said, "Sir, you have devoted 
yourself entirely to fall a sacrifice, with hearty zeal, for the 
cause of your countrymen, bidding farewel to the pleasures of the 
world; and having given many examples of purity, have over- 
come many temptations before, and now have refused a fair 
princess's offer, with a great estate, who might make any one 
else happy. On the receipt of an answer from you, I saw her 
shedding tears of blood, and lamenting her thoughtless behaviour 
which made her lose her dear lover. The Armenians at Astra- 
khan, on the other hand, learning the reason of this, pitied her 
deplorable case, but admired your heroic attachment to her, and 
more particular your love for your country. From what I have 
been told by some merchants, you could live among that 
glorious people, the English, with respect and comfort: and I 
was an eye-witness, at Moscow, that the Russians would be very 
glad to receive you in their Imperial service: but to that t you 
did not show the smallest inclination ; and rather chose to leave 
them all behind, than break your undaunted resolution : nor will 
you accept this small sum of 646 tumans by the desire of my 
lord bishop Hovnan. After all, my intreaty is, that 3^ou will not 
marry any Mahometan prince's daughter in the country of Dagis- 
tan, for fear of losing your Christian character. I know they 
will be pressing to fix you there. I know you will not renounce 
(God forbid ! ) your enlightened religion : — but what will be the 
consequence of such a marriage, when you have children, who, 
in course, must be brought up in the false Mahometan faith ? 
What will you answer then before our Blessed Saviour ? There- 
fore I beseech you to have compassion on your own con- 
science, — make me easy on that head, — and excuse me for making 


so bold with you." Emin said, " In what manner can I give 
you assurance?" The monk said, " Swear, by the grave of St. 
John the Baptist, and the second martyrdom of St. Stephen." 
Emin, with great willingness, immediately swore by both the 
holy saints : he only said to the monk, " Though you said so 
much before, in my favour, yet I am sorry to find you so weak, 
as not to know better the strength of my faith, or my real 
character, who was born and baptised a Christian, and will die 
such, if the whole world were turned Mahometans." He could 
not help adding, that he wished, with all his heart, that the 
monk, and all his sect, had been possessed of the tenth part of 
his faith in Jesus Christ. If the monk had foreseen the cutting 
answer Emin made, he would never have opened his lips. Thus 
ended the conversation between two Armenians, — one of them 
an ecclesiastic, the other a plain layman and a soldier. 

To be brief, he bought a Circassian horse ; the monk made 
him a present of another ; a third he procured for his baggage ; 
and having hired a Tartar servant, he set out with the thirty 
wolf-like commanders, and entered their country, Chachan, half 
a day's journey from Boragan, when the Armenians in that 
place* took for granted that he went, of his own accord, like a 
sheep to be slaughtered and devoured, not thinking that he was 
.one of them ; and that they behaved to him with a hundred 
times more tenderness and hospitality than the Georgians, or 
their princes: — nay, more than his own relations. He stayed a 
fortnight at that first stage, where Aly Sultan, the prince of 
Chachan, the head of all the twenty-nine, made his lady, with 
her two sisters, sit like taylors to make his cloaths, and fit 
them to his liking, with all the cheerfulness imaginable. Emin 
thought himself happy as if he had been in England, and began 
to forget all the uneasiness of his mind in Georgia. He marched 
back again with them to the hot waters of Boragan, for the 
purpose of bathing; and in the evening, lodged at Kachatur 
the Armenian's house, where he stayed two days. This made 


them satisfied. They were astonished to see those wolves of 
chiefs standing as tame as lambs before him, and not sitting 
without his order. 

After he had taken leave of his countrymen, he marched 
up to the mountains; it was a five days stage; but the chiefs 
begged him to make it fifteen days, by halting in every village 
three days; in which time they killed 1,500 sheep and thirty 
oxen, and boiled them in large coppers for distilling arrack. 
These were the booty taken from the Armenians, or Georgians, 
in the open fields. There was, to be sure, such a multitude of 
armed people, as would have surprized any spectator, as nu- 
merous as if Abubaker, Omar, and Osman, were making their 
entry. All came to see Emin, kiss his hand, and obtain his bless- 
ings : but he could not be in the least vain of all the pomp, he 
being a Christian, and they Mahometans, who, all the time, wished 
success to him, and downfall to the Gavers, which made him 
quite unhappy: but he was obliged to put on a good counten- 
ance, and say, Amen ! and make them believe, that they, having 
him at their head, could overset Georgia, not in the least sus- 
pecting that he was meditating how to make fools of them. 

The reader cannot imagine the probability of all this? and 
supposes it rather an Arabian tale, than an authentic narrative, 
well knowing he had no money, and was not a Mahometan, to, 
gain their affection : but he must consider the disposition of 
those terrible savages. The leaders of those excursions have 
been always Georgians, from the highest degree to the meanest 
of subjects; who, being oppressed by tyrannical princes or mas- 
ters, went over to them, and being chosen by them as their 
guides, marching at the head of thousands, carried fire and 
sword through the country; while the Georgians were sitting in 
banquet-houses, eating and drinking like beasts. Thus they 
destroyed their opposers without mercy; drove the defenceless 
into captivity, reserving the sturdy and the beautiful infants to 
themselves, whom they circumcised, and adopted as their own 


children; but sold the rest to the Turks and Persians. There- 
fore, there can be no great merit in Emin, in being respected or 
caressed so much by them, when the head men of them had 
seen him with their own eyes, in Russia, taken much notice of; 
and had been fighting against him in several skirmishes when in 

A day before his arrival at the capital of Avar called Khun- 
zakh, he came upon a high eminence to Andia, a large free 
town, where a market of slaves is held : generally the Crim 
Tartar merchants buy them. Here he, with his thirty devilish 
commanders, met five mountaineer Lazguis, who had a Georgian 
little girl, about six years of age, with a pair of brogues on her 
delicate feet, running before them, like a little lamb, to the 
market to be sold. Kmin seeing that object of pity, found his 
distracted heart splitting, to observe the condition of the 
innocent creature. He could no longer help shedding tears. The 
men began to handle her, and pull her about, to see how she 
was made, in such a barbarous manner as to put Emin almost 
out of patience. He told them, if they wanted to buy the child, 
they ought not to make a football of her ; that they were worse 
than the brute beasts to behave in that manner. They all turned 
round at once ; but Aly Sultan exclaimed, " O, Sir ! if you are 
possessed with a heart so merciful as to be affected for one 
slave girl, how can your eyes bear to see many thousands of 
them in that condition ? You have no treasure to pay your 
troops, — how are we to be paid ? — We must pay ourselves in 
that way, to obey your orders ; otherwise, you must not expect 
that we will fight for you for nothing ! Since you shew so much 
humanity toward a single subject of your enemy's, how much 
more must you have for your own countrymen, who make half 
of the subjects of that Caffer Heraclius ? Answer our just ques- 
tion; or give us permission to return to our place." 

Emin said, at the instant, " I have no occasion for you : — 
go your ways! if God will prosper me with success, and make 


me master of money, I shall be glad then to call you into 
my service, and treat you like men, not like tygers or wolves, 
to let you prey upon human bodies : — the former is the doc- 
trine of our Blessed Saviour Jesus Christ; the latter is that 
of your prophet Mahomed. Now, brave fellows ! which of the 
two is the best?" They said, "That of Christ: but our Molaks 
tell us, that the Georgians are Carters, whose persons and pro- 
perties are made lawful prey to Musulmen." Bmin said, "When 
the devil- tells mankind to run after wickedness, are they to 
follow that evil one's advice?" They answered, "No; but what 
shall we do to live?" He said; "Go, till your lands; live by 
the sweat of your brows : — God is the creator of all, not of 
the Musulmen only: the beginning of your own prayers tells 
you the same; but you are blinded by your own learned men, 
who are wolves in sheeps clothing. I ask you, if you should 
like to have your children torn away out of your arms, and 
your wives defiled before your eyes by the Russians ? Or, 
do you think that they can do it, or not?" They said, "Yes; 
very easily." He said, "On the contrary, they defended the 
people of Dagistan against Nadir Shah, by supplying them 
with ammunition, which saved them from becoming slaves to 
the Persians. You have forgot all that. Instead of being grate- 
ful, you go and take the Georgians and Armenians into slav- 
ery, who are their fellow Christians; (they still bore this with 
patience;) and you will not 'leave your wild ways, because 
the deceitful disciples of the impostor Mahomed forbid you!" 
In this manner he reasoned almost an hour and an half ; they 
hanging their heads down, and saying nothing ; but, according to 
their custom, kissed his hands, begging him to pray for them, 
and to remember that they were always under his command, 
whenever he should have occasion to send for them. They then 
went away with as much content, as if each of them had ob- 
tained a beautiful Georgian damsel. 

Ali Sultan, the prince of Chachaii, never opened his lips; 


he was a pensioner of the Russian government, but as great 
a rogue as ever trod on ground. This man hearing at Boragan 
that Emin had a little money, was all the way making free 
with pretended familiarity, handling sometimes his bosom- 
pocket, sometimes his side-pocket, as if he wanted some snuff 
that is usually carried in a leather bag. Emin, with seeming 
indifference, never took it amiss ; but knowing the intention of 
Ali Sultan, took care to remove his money from place to place 
about him, so as to make the sharper prince believe that he had 
none, and mortified him to the very soul by now and then tak- 
ing a zeckin out of his pocket, and giving it his servant to buy 
some clothes: he took for granted that Emin had the philo- 
sopher's stone, and needed only to rub his thumb against his 
finger, to produce gold whenever he wanted it. 

The next day they arrived at Khunzakh, where he was re- 
ceived with great politeness by Mahomed Khan, the nutzal, or 
king, to whom this Ali Sultan was a relation. After some days, 
he well learned the temper of the nutzal, and that he was not a 
great friend of Ali; for he said, that Ali was a very treacherous 
false man, although he was a relation of his ; that he often 
behaved not like a man of honour, and several times brought a 
party of Russian Cossacks, and drove away the flocks of his 
, own clan, for the sake of his paltry pension of twenty tumans a 
year, which is no more than 400 rupees; and in gratitude for 
Emin's goodness, who pacified his own people (meaning those 
12,000 men who were going to cut him in pieces, when at 
Boragan), from that place to this he had been studying to find out 
where his money was, forgetting that he had sworn fidelity to 
him upon the Alkoran. He added, "That man (meaning Ali 
Sultan) is neither a true Musulman nor a Christian; he is a 
kizelbah (or red-head) ; " meaning a Persian heretic. 

Ali Sultan finding Emin in a secure place, and having made 
no hand of him with all his cunning, came to take leave. Emin 
said, "as you are returning to your country Chachan, I well 

268 emin a Guest of the nutzai,. 

know you will go thence to Boragan, where you learned that I 
had a sum of money, and that you, a treacherous comrade, 
could not get it from me, after trying all your cunning and base 
arts! Understand me; you will see they were satisfied in their 
minds, that their countryman Emin is not the person they im- 
agined would have been deceived by AH Sultan, the prince of 
Chachan, whom he made no more than a tool of, all the way to 
Khunzakh, the capital of Avar." He added, "When you go to 
Kizlar, make my compliments to the general; thank him for his 
good opinion of my principles, without having seen me ! " This 
reprimanding speech he made in the natzal's presence, who ap- 
proved of it with expressions of great satisfaction ; and Ali went 
away dashed with chagrin. 

Kmin, with his servant, named Mortazaly, stayed as guests 
with Mahomed Khan the nutzal, where he passed four months as 
happy as if he had been in Europe with a fortune of 5000I. a- 
year. The behaviour of that prince had never the appearance of 
a Mahomedan, except when he sat down to prayers. The princess 
named Bakher, his first wife, was the daughter of Utzmy Sham- 
khall, another great prince of the N.E. of Dagestan. Though she 
out of modesty concealed herself, yet her politeness and hospi- 
tality cannot be expressed, she sent every day her lady of the 
chamber, the wife of the cazy , to ask how Emin did ; and besides , 
the three usual meals, she took care he should have three colla- 
tions of fruit, some growing there, and some sent to them from 
the distance of five or six days journey on that high mountain. 
In regard to her humanity, they had a Georgian dumb slave, 
who one day went to wash himself in a pond, and was unfor- 
tunately drowned : she lamented much, gave him a very decent 
burial, ordered six sheep to be killed, called poor people to dine, 
and pray for his soul, and was several days after in great con- 
cern for the accident. Emin sent into the haram, and begged 
of her to know if such liberality for a Christian was allowed by 
the Mahomedan laws ? She sent for answer, that humanity was 


the law of Nature, and greater than any law made by men in 
power. As a contrast to this, Emin remembers an Englishman 
named Gray, who died at a Roman Catholic priest's quarters, 
which was in the church. The black-hearted fellow, unknown to 
Emin, ordered two men to take the corpse of the unfortunate 
young fellow by the legs, and throw it like a dog into a hole. 
Gray paid him extraordinarily well for his board; yet the rigid 
monk did not so much as say, Dust thou wast, to dust thou shalt 
return ! 

Both the nutzal and his lady giving hints, that if Emin 
had an inclination to command, he should have in a few 
days as many thousand fighting men as he pleased ; he said, he 
was not a turn-coat Georgian, to be actuated by false ambition, 
and ruin his country for nothing; but that he should be very 
glad to have about twenty men to go with him as far as Catukh, 
a village four days journey off, from whence it was a journey 
of about three or four days to the mountains of Armenia, called 
Karabag : that was all he wished for : he rather chose to die, 
than see an Armenian walk lame. This very sentiment made 
them more fond of him than before; and they said, "A man 
who »is true to his own country, will be so to his friends ; but 
he that will fight against, betray, or hate it, is a caffer, having 
, neither honour nor principles, like the Georgians, who ruin their 
country with their own hands, by shewing us Lazguis the roads, 
passes, and every corner of it." 

Here Emin, if a digression may be excused, cannot help con- 
fessing, that he repented of having taken an oath to the Suciaz 
Armenian monk in Boragan, that he would not marry among 
the Lazguis, for both the prince and princess offered one of their 
three daughters to him in marriage; but when he confessed the 
truth, that he had made a vow by the grave of St. John, (whom 
they call Son of Zachariah Yahya Pegumber the prophet,) they 
still admired Emin's honesty, and caressed him more and more. 
Had they been Christians, he could have lived and died there 


very happily, finding among them so much politeness, hospitality, 
'simplicity, and true liberty, which might have saved him many 
cringing postures at great men's doors for a livelihood. The 
nutzal would have given him land enough, with men for agri- 
culture, oxen to till the ground, and flocks of sheep in abun- 
dance : the climate is wholesome, and, with a sober wife, he 
might have enjoyed it a hundred years, and with a good con- 
science have died contented, without being envied by the ambi- 
tious part of mankind, nor would his poor ears have been 
plagued by the appellation of Prince ; for let him move on ever 
so hardly, the world will cry out, Emin wanted to be king ; 
— and he might have been one, if he had sold his conscience, and 
abandoned humanity! — Let the world see his heart in this im- 
perfect book; his mind is as humble as dust, but his ambition 
has always been to see his countrymen free, which he hopes to 
be the wish of every honest man. 

When he had well established a friendship with the nutzal, 
he desired him to order some of the people to accompany him 
down as far as Charr, or to the Catukh village, four days journey 
to the lower woody part of Dagistan, originally belonging to 
the Georgians, a very plentiful place, producing all kinds of 
fruit. They favoured him, besides twenty-five men, with a letter 
to that republic, in this form : 

" The bearer, Emin, an Armenian Christian, having been 
taken proper notice of by the carols of Erankistan, the Russian 
pudeshah's vizier recommended him in a letter to prince Hera- 
clius. That caffer, instead of rewarding his services, has turned 
him out of the country. He is returning over the Oss (or Cauca- 
sian mountains), and going through Circassia to the village of 
Boragan. The Michkiz nation, iii the woody province of Cha- 
chan, coming to him for the sake of booty, several thousands 
of them offered their services to him, in order to march with 
him to the desolation of Georgia ; but he being an Armenian, 
and not in the least inclined to their enterprize, dismissed them, 


making Ali Sultan, my relation, his guide, as far as this place ; 
where we received him according to the law of hospitality or- 
dained by Abraham, the first of all prophets. The truth and 
honesty of his heart made us love, respect, and caress him, as 
much as if he had been born with us of one mother. We cannot 
doubt that the Jamahat of Charr, or Esembly, will receive him 
in as friendly a manner as we have done ; and that you must not 
expect him to go with you, inroading or making incursions into 
Georgia ; for he is an Armenian, true to his faith ; and not a 
Georgian, false and distrustful ! But if there should be any ex- 
pedition going on against the Refzys, he will have no objection. 
Given under my hand and seal unclosed, at the city of Khan- 
zakh, in the kingdom of Avar." 

This letter served him as a passport all the way, through 
different republics in the mountains, not subject to any prince 
but by their tenure, the nutzal can call upon them when their 
service is wanted against any power ; that is to say, Turks, 
Persians, Georgians, and so forth. 

After travelling two days, about two in the afternoon, as 
he was marching with his twenty-five men through a large mea- 
dow, and passing by a village on the left called Cutakh, a Laz- 
gui named Mohamed, observing that Emin's dress was not like 
the rest, and perceiving that he was an Armenian, came up, 
and gently laying hold of the reins of his horse, carried him to 
his own house, very happy that he had a rich booty ; securing 
also his led and pack horses. About 500 villagers, and as many 
women, making a great throng about him, sat down, according 
to custom, to divide the booty. The head man of the nutzal' s 
people told them very coolly, that he was certainly an Armenian, 
but not such as they thought. They said, that Dagistan was 
a sacred country; and that by. their law no Christian could go 
through it, unless he was chained as a slave for sale; so that 
all the gentleman's reasoning with them had no effect. He 
therefore left Emin among them, and went to the elders of other 


villages. He was gone about an hour ; during which time the 
women, old and young, sat round him, as if he was dead, with 
a musical voice lamenting his situation, and bewailing his father 
and mother, thinking how unhappy they would be to hear their 
son was made a slave ; tears running down their cheeks, as if 
they had lost a son or a brother ; little imagining the charge of 
burial, and the funeral dinner, would cost Mahomed his whole 
winter's provision ; for he, discerning Emin's friend, at the head 
of 600 armed men, coming down from the brow of an adjoining 
hill, directly drove away both men and women, and, with his 
gigantic mother, fell down upon their knees, and begged Hmin, 
the dead man, to save their house, by saying, that he was 
brought in as a guest, not as a slave. Emin consented to say 
so ; and when they came and asked him, how he was used by 
that fellow, Mahomed ? he said, " As a guest." They said, 
"That word saved his house from being pulled down." The 
nutzal's letter was read again to them ; they all shook hands 
with Emin ; and it was very fortunate the landlord returned 
his things before they came there, otherwise the house would not 
have escaped their fury, for his transgression against the law of 
hospitality, in Dagistan particularly, as he made bold to treat in 
that rough manner the most beloved friend of the nutzal. He 
ordered the fellow to bring victuals, and they, like so many 
wolves, devoured every morsel of dried beef and mutton, and 
obliged him to give Emin's people seven large sheep, which 
served them three days on the way. 

When they came to Catukh, it was Wednesday, and the 
nutzal's general letter was read by Molah Musa, in the assembly 
at the Mesgid, on Friday after prayers. All of them made Emin 
welcome, and were very glad he had escaped from the hands of 
that caffer Heraclius. Hajy Mustapha, at whose house he 
alighted, told him, that as it was his wish, according to the 
purport of the letter from the nutzal, to go to Armenia, he 
would conduct him to Talla, an hour's journey from that place, 

how emin's countrymen received him. 273 

where there were many Armenian merchants tying in a caravan- 
serai, some of whom, for their own affairs, would soon depart^ 
when Emin might join them in time to be in the same caravan 
with them. Emin, very glad of that intelligence, set out with 
Hajy Mustapha, and his servant Mortazaly Ali, and arrived at 
the place called Talla, where the hajy, according to the custom 
of the Lazguis, took and introduced him as a guest to another 
in the village of Talla. Just as he entered the court-yard of the 
house, there came out two Turkish women, wives to the land- 
lord, like mad dogs, scolding Mustapha furiously for bringing his 
guests always to their house. Hajy Mustapha ran away ; and 
the master of the house begged Emin to alight for half an hour, 
till his son returned. Just at that time the son came, and took 
Emin and his servant to the before-mentioned caravanserai, 
about 800 yards from the house. Emin was nattered with the 
hopes of going among his fellow Christians, not knowing that 
their poisonous words would shoot through his heart. When he 
reached the gates of the hellish mansion, every one of them 
came and stood at the entry, looking as pale as death ; and, 
instead of speaking to him, told the young Lazgui, they had no 
room, to spare. "Take him," said they, "to your house again, 
he shall by no means enter here ; he is your king ; we have 
.nothing to say to him." 

The poor young man, surprized at their behaviour, and 
afflicted at Emin's situation, said, with a very meek voice, 
"Never mind, Sir, God is great; let us go to our house again." 
No sooner had they turned their horses heads, than the Jews 
began to murmur like cowardly dogs standing upon the terrace 
of a house to bark at passengers. Emin was very nearly pro- 
voked to turn and fire at them; for if he had killed ever so 
many, nobody would have restrained him; the young man his 
companion would very willingly have joined him; and the Laz- 
guis would have been very glad of it, since among them, to kill 
an Armenian is no more regarded, than to cut a cucumber with 


a knife. Yet he bore with great patience all their satirical in- 
solent expressions. Had not his English education helped to pre- 
vent him, he might have behaved according to their deserts : he 
only comforted himself with thinking, that they were all Geor- 
gians, not genuine Armenians. The luazgui boy, very much re- 
sembling an English gentleman, asked him on the way to the 
house, how he could be so fond of so worthless a people ? And 
added, " Is that all the reward of your pains, and dangerous 
travels through the world, particularly in Dagistan, where the 
birds cannot fly in the air without being sensible of terror; yet 
there the Lazguis with a good heart received you, elected you to 
rule over them as a sovereign, and are always ready to follow 
you. This exasperating affront is inexcusable ; pardon me, Sir ; 
you will do nothing at last with that conscience and humanity 
of yours : remember me, I am but nineteen years of age, but I 
predict, that one day you will find all your trouble to have been 
vain." On entering the courtyard, the exhortation of the young 
gentleman ended. 

Emin slept there that night, and the next morning went 
back to Catukh, to Hajy Mustapha's house, but found that he 
was absent. There were two Armenians of the same cast lodging 
in one of the rooms annexed to the house, under the hajy's 
protection, carrying on a sort of trade as shopkeepers, with a t 
capital of about two thousand rupees, but as insolent as the 
richest of them. These men set the landlady on to turn Emin 
out of the house : the messenger between the two parties was 
Emin's servant Mortazaly. At last the servant was told by the 
hajy's wife, that his own countrymen, the Armenians, were the 
reason of her pressing his master to go out of the house; that 
since those two shopkeepers were of some profit to the hajy, she 
was obliged through them to give Emin warning; and she con- 
cluded with saying, "Tell him to do as he pleases." No sooner 
had he heard that last message, than he placed his baggage 
under a large walnut-tree, to which was twisted a vine, with 


great bunches of grapes hanging down over his head by the side 
of a cool brook; and he let loose his horses to graze in the 
very court-yard, which was like a fine garden, threatening the 
paultry shopkeepers to punish them for ■,-. their * baseness. They, 
through fear, killed two large fowls, made a pilau, and invited 
him to supper. The next day the hajy came back ; and having 
learned what had passed the day before, was extremely angry. 
Had not Emin interfered, and with great difficulty quieted him, 
he was really going to cut off, first his termagant wife's head, 
and then those of the thoughtless Armenian shopkeepers. 

The hajy; took Emin- to his country-seat, three miles off, 
where his second wife was in the farm, with cattle and horses. 
He lodged him in a little tower, just big enough for five or six 
men, and put his horses in a stable, in the midst of the very 
people against whom he had fought near Tifflis, wounding thir- 
teen of them, every one of whom was dead. They all came to 
see him, and instead of revenging themselves, like other Maho- 
medans, they respected and loved him, expressing wonder how 
his few lads could stand so many hours against so many veter- 
ans. They, at Emin's expence, took great care to bake, boil, 
sew, j and wash for him, with as much cheerfulness as he could 
wish; nor had he the least apprehension in regard of what had 
passed before. The servant that came with him in hopes of 
procuring a slave, finding his inclination was not in the least 
bent to go marauding to Georgia, with several bands who offered 
at different times to put themselves under his command, asked 
leave to go away to his own country, which was granted . As 
there was no agreement for wages, Emin made him a present of 
his bay horse for three months service : he then went away with 
as much content as if he had procured a Georgian slave. Emin 
thought proper to stay under Hajy Mustapha's protection at 
Catukh, to hear some news from Armenia and Georgia ; and in 
the mean time to derive some advantage from gaining the affec- 
tion of the people of that place, which was ten hours journey 


to Kissikh, the frontier of Cakhet, and four days to Carabagh, 
the north of Armenia. 



[Plot against the lives of Heraclius and his family — Heraclius warned by David, 
an Armenian — Conspirators seized — Shaverdy Khan plots destruction of 
Armenian Chief, Yusup of Gulistan, and calls the Lezguis to his assistance — 
They invite Emin to accompany them on a raid against the Shamshadins, but 
the latter capitulate — Hmin provided with a troop of Turkmans, who under 
him encounter Kurds and punish them — Lezguis take hundreds of slaves and 
much booty — Hmin's object to play off Mahomedan against Mahomedan, and 
save his helpless countrymen — Commander of the L,ezguis sends Emin a 
present of two beautiful ladies, whom he twice returns — Turkmans show 
approval of his conduct — Emin contrives to save his countrymen from last- 
ing captivity — Fighting between Kurd, I^ezgui, and Turkman — Hatham and 
Yusup, and the corn of Shameor.] 

TTAVING been there about six months, he heard the dreadful 
news from Tifniz, that Pala, prince Heraclius' s uncle by his 
mother's side, had formed a conspiracy with twenty-four petty 
Georgian princes to put an end to his nephew's life, and destroy 
all his family ; but that the plot had been fortunately discovered 
by an Armenian, whom the conspirators had trusted with the , 
secret, offering to pay his debt of three hundred tumans ; and 
giving him a letter signed by every one of them, to carry to 
the Iyazguis, requesting them to bring their troops at the time 
appointed for putting their horrid design into execution. But 
God above, who has the heart of every man in his hands, see- 
ing their cruel intention, turned the heart of the Armenian 
David, who, instead of setting out on the expedition, which 
might have been the cause of shedding the blood of many thou- 
sands, and among them the innocent children of the prince; 
about two o'clock in the morning, went to Heraclius, knocked 
at his door, and was admitted immediately to the prince's own 


haram, where he delivered to him the fatal letter. The prince 
seeing all their seals and hand-writing, ordered the Armenian not 
to stir out of his haram, where he supplied him with plenty 
of wine and food, which is the darling object of that nation. 
The next day he called a great council, summoning every one of 
the conspirators ; and after making a long harangue, alleging 
his great fatigue and dangerous battles fought in person for the 
defence and welfare of their liberty and property, he asked them, 
one by one, what they thought such a prince of another country 
should, in consequence of such services, hope from his subjects ? 
They answered, " Respect and honour." He said, " If, on the 
contrary, they should be so treacherous as to form a conspiracy 
against him, what then?" They answered, "Such people would 
deserve no mercy." Then the prince produced the letter, and 
shewed it to every one. The conspirators could not deny the 
fact; they were instantly seized and punished, not one of them 
escaping. The prince asking Pala, his uncle, how his heart could 
suffer him to write to the enemy, that he would destroy, with 
his hand, both his nephew and his children ? he said, so he 
would have done; upon which he was immediately cut to pieces. 
Thus was the prince of Georgia saved, with his family, 
through an Armenian at last, who was created noble, and re- 
garded amply : but he and all his family died away in thirteen 
months, leaving not a soul behind. He shared, it seems, the 
same fate with them; for he was, by all accounts, of a very 
bad character : he had set fire to a barrel of gun-powder, and 
did not imagine he would be blown up likewise by the secret 
hand of the Almighty. He might have excused himself, with- 
out entering into their wicked design ; but how was it possible 
for him, who had neither honour nor religion to help him, to 
escape ruin ? The poor Armenians, good and bad, work and 
labour, to leave money for others to enjoy ; which can be im- 
puted to nothing but mere ignorance. These very unfortunate 
treacherous people would have persuaded Emin to join in the 

270 shaverdy khan and the begi.arian meijk. 

plot ; but he despised and laughed at them while in that country ; 
nor opened his lips on the subject to this very hour ; but now 
he thinks there can be no harm in mentioning it, as a caution 
to some against venturing to undertake a scheme of the same 
kind. Though a sense of humanity affected his mind for the 
families of those false ambitious men, yet the light of truth, 
entering with awful consolation, told him that it was well done, 
and that all was right. 

Shaverdy Khan of Ganja, at that time next in power to 
prince Heraclius, had enticed away two of the five chiefs of 
Carabagh, Hatam, and Ousup, to remove from their country, and 
settle at Shameor on the confines of the Shamshadin tribe, 
who were on the north, the Khan being on the south, and the 
Armenians in the middle. Thus he lay meditating their destruc- 
tion ; and by his Persian cunning, gained Hatam' s heart to his 
interest, intending to make away with Ousup, who being apprized 
of the stratagem, fled with his son Beglar to the Shamshadin 
clan for protection. They happened at that time to have re- 
volted from Shaverdy Khan, through some misunderstanding, or 
act of oppression, which saved the lives of Ousup and his sons. 
The Khan finding no other means to quell the rebels, sent,, over 
to the Jamaiat, or republic of the Charr I^azguis, (in one of 
whose villages Emin then lived,) to come to his assistance, and 
chastise the Shamshadin tribes. The Lazguis then told Emin, 
that as they were going to persecute Sheya, (or the sect of Ali,) 
it would be a proper time for him to join them. He con- 
sented, and set out with eighty elders of them, followed the main 
body of about four thousand horse, who were to march on the 
second notice of the Khan, in case the Shamshadins should not 
capitulate, which they did. 

Two days after their arrival at Ganja, with their families in 
bonds, only keeping the Armenian chief and his son, through 
regard to prince Heraclius, who had, by writing, acquainted them 
that they were under his Highness' s protection, the Charr elders 

emin's plan to save his countrymen. 279 

being satisfied with the Khan's presents, were just going to re- 
turn, when Emin received intelligence, that Husein the Zdahar 
mountaineer was coming at the head of two thousand horse to 
Ganja ; and that Shaverdy Khan had written for Husen to send 
him to Nakhchuan to enslave the Shaikhs and impoverish the 
Khan of that province, so as to reduce him to subjection. 
Emin knew great part of that country to be inhabited by 
helpless Armenians : he staid two or three days more at Ganja, 
till Husein arrived with his two thousand men. Shaverdy pro- 
vided him with two Persian guides; and they set out the next 
afternoon. In one day and a half they crossed the Shamshadin 
mountains; and about eleven o'clock reached the corner of a 
fresh-water lake, called Gegham. This precipitate marching was 
advised by Emin ; who, while in Ganja, had intelligence that the 
tribe of Colan Curds were on their way from Iravan, coming to 
the protection of Shaverdy; and that if he hastened, he might 
lay hold of them, and so satisfy the Lazguis, and save the Nakh- 
chuan Armenians from slavery. 

At sun-set they pitched on the bank of the lake, and two 
hours before sun-rise, they, according to custom, cast lots : it 
fell to Emin's party of forty Turkmans, or Turks, who were 
Hajy Mustapha's own subjects, (among whom Emin quartered,) 
,to march before as the van-guard; and an hour after sun-rise, 
they discovered, at a great distance, thirteen horse-men coming 
along the lake. Emin perceived with joy that they were the 
clan of Colan Curds belonging to Carabagh, who, since Nadir 
Shah's death, had been removed to Iravan and were then march- 
ing to the protection of Ganja, and thought they should fall 
victims instead of the Nakhchuan Armenians. Emin ordered his 
men to let the horses go on full gallop. The Curds had not in 
the least expected to meet a single Lazgui; and on seeing 
Emin's party near them, began to speak to one another in Ar- 
menian. Emin thinking them to be Christians told them, to run 
away if they could. No sooner had they turned the heads of 


their horses, than they began to speak Curdish ; and Emin, re- 
covering from his mistake, took all the thirteen alive ; when, be- 
hind a small rising ground, about a quarter of a mile off, were 
moving, richly dressed, the whole of their tribe : but before all 
the two thousand I^azguis could come up, Bmin's forty Turkmans 
fell on with sword in hand, killed many, and took prisoners the 
defenceless women, children, sheep, and cattle; the fighting-men 
retreated, and began to fire briskly: but when the two thousand 
main body came up, they rushed on like ravenous wolves, killed 
two hundred and fifty, and took the rest alive ; amounting in all 
to eight hundred and fourteen slaves, men, women, and children; 
with eight thousand sheep, two thousand black cattle, and six 
hundred mares, each, in that country, worth one hundred 

Shaverdy Khan's two Persian guides were terrified ; they 
had made flattering promises all the way to the Lazguis, on 
purpose to vex Bmin, saying, that every one of them should 
have an Armenian boy and girl for his share; not imagining 
that their eighteen female relations in the clan, besides kinsmen 
and other males of the same religion, would fall into the hands 
of those monsters. Their expectation of seeing the poor Christians 
in misery, turned to mourning and lamentation for them. Then 
they considered that Emin's intention in exhorting the men to 
march with that celerity, was to make Mahomedans a prey to 
Mahomedans, and to save some thousands of helpless Christians. 
Let this suffice to show the reader, how far Emin singly has run 
into danger to serve his poor countrymen against those bar- 
barous nations ; but he is sure that the richest of them, if they 
should chance to understand, will be the first to deny it : Such 
is the effect of money acquired by base-minded people, resemb- 
ling half-starved cows, driven into a meadow of fine grass, where 
after filling their bellies with it, they prance and kick, thinking 
they can gallop like Arabian horses. 

The magnitude of the booty gratified them exceedingly; the 


ready cash in gold and silver, amounting to twelve thousand 
tumans; and on an equal division among them, each man's 
share came to six tumans. A horse's rich harness, and other 
silver furniture, was made a prize by Husein the Lazgui chief, 
to the value of sixty tumans. Emin's share was almost as 
much, which he distributed among his own men. All that he 
took was but half a pound of butter for his breakfast. 

In that destructive affair, a Curd, on a sorrel horse, after 
fighting sword-in-hand for ten minutes, finding he should be 
overpowered, caught hold of his wife's hand like lightning, and 
lifted her behind him; when some of the men endeavouring to 
snatch her away from him, he returned his beast to the left- 
about, and rushed on them like a provoked lion, wounding 
several of the I^azguis : then he turned again, and rode off with- 
out being hurt. In that close quarter, or confused fight, a very 
stout man on foot clapped the muzzle of his piece to Hmin's 
breast, and snapped it, but it did not go off. His men, seeing 
that, cut the fellow to pieces. A woman, with her beautiful 
daughter, about fourteen years of age, with spears in their hands 
for about fifteen minutes fought like Amazons, killed two of the 
Iyazguis, and wounded some, preserving their honour like angels ; 
but fell at last, to the astonishment of all the savages. Their 
Mulah came with the Koran in his hands, craving mercy; which 
Emin seeing, he slackened the men a little from their fury, and 
said, "What are you about? — Do you not know how the Shari's 
learned men abused the second Khalif Omar?" They answered, 
" No." He added, "They have published a scandalous story; 
would not acknowledge the supremacy of AH, who has excom- 
municated him, and transformed him into a woman; in which 
condition, he was married to a miller ; and after having brought 
forth two boys and a girl, was changed again to a man." Emin 
could not finish the story, before the Mulah and his Koran were 
cut to pieces. Only six or seven of the Curds run into a cave 
on the rising ground ; and defending themselves with their guns, 



wounded one of Emin's men, and were saved from either being 
taken or killed. The loss on the I,azguis' side was but a few 
men, and on the side of the enemy, 250. The free-booters, not 
contented with the plunder, which consisted of money, large 
coppers, and kitchen-furniture, beds, and pieces of silk, stripped 
men, women, and children ; tied the men's hands behind them, 
and setting the women on horse-back, were returning home. 

Emin's band told him, there were some Armenians among 
the slaves and there happened to be a boy about ten years old, 
riding behind one of them : — they said, he was an Armenian. 
Emiii inquired of the boy, two or three times, who he was, and 
what was his name ? The poor creature, hearing the Armenian 
language, between affliction and joy, could not speak a word, 
but burst into tears, which, like small shot, darted on the back 
of the man; a scene of so moving a kind, he never beheld in 
his life : himself, likewise, began to weep as he went on, over- 
powered by sympathy and grief ; and neither of them could utter 
a syllable for some time. At last the poor boy told him, that 
his name was Beglar; and that there were many Armenians, but 
what number he could not exactly tell; their dress being the 
same with that of the Curds, it was not possible in such a crowd 
to distinguish them. Those terrible savages, observing Emin's 
compassion for his countryman, could not help sympathizing 
with him, and comforted him, by saying, it was the fortune of 
war : nor would it have been difficult to save them, had his own 
band of forty men been Armenians; so that by dividing the 
slaves, he could have taken them for his, and his men's shares, 
and then have set them at liberty. Thus has he been unsuc- 
cessful in all his undertakings, being alone, and labouring in vain. 
He did not despair from it; but trusted in God, setting his 
brains to work to find some means, not only to save his poor 
countryman, but the clan of the Curds too, though very wicked, 
and by profession, according to all accounts, murderers of merchants, 
and robbers of caravans; but they were not so excessively cruel 

hussein's present to emin. 283 

as the Lazguis, who, that very day, in the evening, reached the 
foot of the mountain, and the road at the corner of the lake, 
where they entered into a meadow adjacent to it, and there 
they halted to rest for the night. Here they began to torment 
the captives. 

Husein, the commander of the Lazguis, sent Emin a present 
of two beautiful ladies; one of them wife of the Chragh, or 
chief of the Curds; the other about sixteen years of age, lately 
married, and the chief's daughter-in-law; but he would by no 
means accept them, sending them back with the fellow who 
brought them. Husein sent the poor creatures back a second 
time, with only silk red shifts on, bare-footed, and without any 
covering 011 their heads, (their tears streaming from their black 
antilope eyes,) with a message, that they were the handsomest 
among all the slaves; and that if he did not like them, he 
might go and chuse any two he pleased. At this Emin could 
not help losing his patience. He sent back the victims a second 
time; and immediately after, sent his man to Husein with a 
reprimanding message, in these terms : "I am come, by the order 
of my master, to tell you, that you are very wrong, and even 
wicke,d, to offer those women to him. You, that command so 
many hundred men, should not so imprudently set the base ex- 
ample among your troops of defiling slaves, and becoming de- 
filed yourself : the consequence of which diabolical action, my 
master hopes, will be the vengeance of God upon your head ; so 
that neither you, or your men, may be able to carry a single 
child to Dagistan." The man came back, and said, that when 
he had delivered the message, Husein took the miserable ob- 
jects to himself, for fear of mutiny, hanging his head down, 
and saying not a word; but those who were present, cried out, 
"Allah! Allah!" commending Emin, and saying, he was God's 
own man. 

This making a great noise, 600, out of 2,000, who were 
Turkmans with their centurions, left Husein, — never approached 


the slaves, but preserved them from dishonour; and changing 
their stations, came and pitched their tents by Bmin. Through 
the whole night was heard the lamentable crying of females 
from grown women down to girls six years old, who did not es- 
cape brutal treatment. The hands and the arms of the men 
were tied behind them with raw thongs, which, for half an hour, 
are somewhat easy, while they are fresh; but when they become 
dry, begin to pinch the flesh, causing exquisite pain, which con- 
tinually increases. The shrieking noise of some, and the groans 
of others, shewed what torture they went through all night, till 
sun-rise. In that manner they were treated every night, till 
they were out of the reach of the country where hostility had 
been committed. And when the L,azguis were in their own 
mountains every man claimed his share of slaves, either to sell, 
or keep working in the house. 

Seventy years ago, these Lazguis, through the necessity of 
gaining a livelihood, and the baseness of Mahomet's religion, 
began to enslave the Georgians. Their abstinence in regard to 
slaves had been remarkable; and an order was always observed 
among them, with as much strictness as if it had been a law or- 
dained from above. It was death to any one who offered to 
meddle with a slave woman, unless he chose to marry her. But 
when, in course of time, the Georgian, the Turkish, or Persian, 
children, of six years old or less, preserved from being sold in 
Dagistan, were made free by adoption, and brought up to man- 
hood, their natural impure blood prompted them to that horrid 
custom of breaking through their ordinance, by making free with 
slave girls. The German noblemen, to this day, will not have 
any connection with their own female servants, however hand- 
some, thinking that their noble blood would be debased ; so the 
Arabs, Tartars, and Turks, who made such extraordinary con- 
quests at first, kept that rule sacred : but when, in time, they 
became more polished, they lost every thing that was rustic, 
plain, and honourable. The softness of noxious pleasure, made 


them no better than they are at present — distrustful, contemptible, 
and indigent. The next morning, the rosy-cheeked women looked 
as pale as ashes. 

On the march, Husein asked Emms opinion, if it would 
not be more convenient to take the slaves into an uninhabited 
fort, on the left of the road, which was almost inaccessible, and 
sell them to neighbouring mountaineers, or their relations, whose 
centries on the hills, at a great distance, were observing his mo- 
tions. Emin perceived he was apprehensive of danger, and said, 
"You need not be afraid, Shaverdy Khan is your friend; the 
Shamshadin tribe are the Khan's subjects; the enslaved Curds 
are the subjects of Ibrahim, Khan of the Carabagh Armenians, 
an enemy to Shaverdy, who, instead of being angry, will be 
much pleased, and reward you with great presents. Never 
mind ; go on till you are in a better place, where grass and 
water will be in plenty for the troops." Husein, the stupid 
Ivazgui, listened, and was highly pleased with Emin's counsel, not 
knowing that he would pay dear for it. Had Emin advised 
him to go to the fort, with 2,000 armed hardy Lazguis, they 
would have been very well accommodated with grass and water ; 
and having so many thousand heads of sheep and cattle, would 
have sold their old slaves, and carried away the young and 
handsome ones in the night on horse-back. 

When they came to an open place, surrounded with high 
mountains, exposed to the Shamshadinians, Emin told them to 
pitch there ; and after about an hour's rest, there came to him 
an Armenian secular priest, at the head of sixty Armenians, men, 
women, and children, all in the hands of the Lazguis. They 
began crying, and begging to be saved from their misery. Emin 
told them, he was but one man ; nor had it in his power to 
afford them the smallest assistance. "Go," said he, "pray to God, 
who alone has power to deliver you from your miseries!" He 
then spoke to the I^azguis to take them awa}>- from his sight. A 
little after, the Curds, who were stationed not quite forty yards 


off, came to see him : several of them understood Persian. 
Emin comforted them, saying, " The twelve Imams will help to 
deliver you." During all the three days in which the troops 
made a halt there, Emin ran a great risque every night, by 
loosing several of the Curds, and ordering them to go to the 
Shamshadins, advising them to come in a body, and surprize the 
Lazguis, about three o'clock in the morning while they were 
sleeping stark naked, like dead men; and promising them, by 
his faith, that he would not head the Iyazguis upon any account. 
He might then have let loose all the grown men among the 
Armenians, if he had pleased ; but he acted cautiously, fearing 
that the savages would suspect him as their fellow Christian. 
To make the troops rest satisfied, he told them, that though he 
could not help being sorry for their misery, yet he could not but 
say, the Armenians richly deserved to be made captives. Why 
did they not stay in Iravan ? or, what business was it of theirs 
to join the Colan Curds? They, touching their noses with their 
fore-fingers, said, " Alah — Alah ! — what a just man he is ! " To 
please him, they used the Armenians with some humanity; and 
bringing all their able-bodied men before him, he drew his sword, 
and laid it upon the scabbard, to form a cross, which he ordered 
them to kiss, and swear by it, that they would not run away. 
This he did, in order to save them from the torture of the 
night, in having their hands and arms lashed with straps. The 
honest Armenians stood to their oaths, did not violate the con- 
fidence of the Lazguis, and slept free from pain, no one of them 
running away, which afforded great joy to Emin, and gave him 
hopes that his countrymen would, one day or other, by God's 
providence, be fre,e in this world, and happy in the next. He 
was also very glad to find, that even the savages had learned 
the honesty of their hearts, and their firmness in the Christian 
faith ; conceiving, that if, after swearing on a sword and scab- 
bard, shaped into a cross upon the ground, they would stand 
so true to their words, they would more resolutely bleed under 


the cross, when displayed on military ensigns. O, ecclesiastics! 
if you but let them break the chain of superstition and igno- 
rance, you will see how bravely they will attack the enemies 
of Christ! 

Their halting three days in that defenceless open place, was 
owing to Emm's advice, which, though treacherous to his can- 
nibal Lazgui comrades, yet was just to the distressed; for had 
he not acted such a part in those circumstances, and, standing 
mute, had suffered those miserable, objects to be carried into 
everlasting captivity, he could never have been happy for the rest 
of his life. Whether right or wrong, he did it to satisfy his own 
conscience. What the public will think of it, he is not sure; 
but he is in hopes they will, on the whole, commend it. 

Husein, on his first arrival at that place, sent Chragh, the 
chief's wife, and a buffalo, with messengers, to Ganja, a journey 
of fifteen hours, as a present to Shaverdy Khan, whom he con- 
gratulated on the downfall of the Khan's enemies, — ignorant that 
they had come for his protection, though they formerly were 
Ibrahim Khan's subjects, belonging to Carabagh. All this time, 
Husein nattered himself, that Shaverdy would answer him with 
applause, and a khalat, or rope of honour ; but, suddenly in the 
morning, about two hours before sun-rise, the Shamshadin clan 
t and the Armenian mountaineers surprized the L,azguis' camp, 
firing vollies from three different sides which threw the wicked 
Lazguis into such confusion, that they had but just time to 
catch their horses (killed about 100) of which they took 250 ; 
but left the slaves with goods, sheep, and cattle, and decamped 
so quickly, that not a single child could be carried away. Emin's 
horse ran away; but he caught a fine colt belonging to one of 
the Curds. His men (missing him till sun-rise) helped him to 
another, stronger. The I^azguis, pushing on to an eminence, 
where, as they were not pursued, they halted, and began to look 
back, like wolves whose prey had escaped, towards the surprizers 
and the slaves with the rest of the booty. They could easily see 


from that high ground, that the number of the Shamshadin clan, 
with the Armenians, was but 600, who were preparing for a 
second attack; and the Lazguis, their panic not being yet over, 
turned their faces to run away. Emin and his men, with much 
ado, rallied them; telling them, that if they went in that dis- 
orderly manner, every one of them would be cut off. The Sham- 
shadin clan seeing them recovered and faced, desisted from their 
attack, only watching, like dogs, the Lazguis' motions. Emin 
advised them to charge, which they immediately did, killed six- 
teen of the Shamshadins, and were near making an end of them, 
and taking the booty back from them. He then made them 
retreat, and told them, that it was sufficient. "The enemy," said 
he, " knows what you are made of: — now we can march away 
at our pleasure." Emin stood behind the troops, and saw the 
Shamshadin clan moved almost out of their sight ; then he fol- 
lowed his comrades, overtook and passed them, riding on towards 
the river Cur, and thence to Dagistan. 

He advanced almost four miles before them, and reached 
the foot of a mountain, whence he discovered, on the right, at 
the distance of about four miles, a large body of men, before 
the opening of the Shamior Meadow. He did not then .know 
who they were; but was afterwards told it was Shaverdy 
Khan, with 18,000 Persians and Armenians standing in wait e 
for the lyazguis, but not courageous enough to move. Had he 
marched, he might have cut off every soul of them, having 
before sent his son Mahomed Husein Khan to the ford of the 
Cur, to prevent their passing. Had he pursued and attacked 
their rear, he would have made a complete business of it. 
About twelve horsemen just at that moment sprung forward, 
playing with Emin's party, firing and running back, to amuse 
and delay them : but Emin knew better, and went on till they 
came to a sort of broken ground; and then returning the fire, 
eleven of them ran away; but one followed them almost five 
miles, to the bank of the river Cur. As the ford was guarded 


by 500 Persians, commanded by Mahomed Husein Khan, son to 
Shaverdy Khan, Emin thought it necessary to change the course 
and marched with his men down to the water-side, where there 
was no fording-place. In swimming over, one of his men was 
drowned. His horse, turning back, fell into the hands of the 
man above, mentioned. About a quarter of a mile from the 
river, on a high ground, he halted, to observe the motion of the 
2,000 Lazguis, who, after two hours, came down, and fell upon 
the back of the 500 Persians, killed several, and forced their way. 
As he observed them passing the river, he ordered his men to 
march on, which they did, from eleven in the forenoon to ten 
at night, and halted by another river called Ghabry, not so deep 
as the Cur, where he rested the whole night. 

The next morning, as they were preparing to set out, he 
discovered a great body of troops coming out from behind a 
mountain on his left, and took it for granted they were Georgians. 
The men asked Emin, what was to be done ? He answered, 
"Fight them, and die like men! — you see they have the advan- 
tage of us in every respect, the mountain is on their back, and 
their number is great: — we have no shelter, but a very large 
open* plain before us: — should we fly from them, they will pick 
us up like wild game. Though our undertaking be desperate, 
yet we shall fall like brave soldiers, and leave no room for the 
world to reflect that Emin and his forty Turkmans behaved 
in a dastardly manner, and fell like women." They approved 
the proposal, and said, u Please to set the example." No sooner 
had he heard that word, than he drew his sabre, and charged; 
his men did the same, and followed the mistaken enemy. Who 
should they be but a party of Lazguis. Seeing a handful of 
men galloping furiously towards them, they suspected it to be 
prince Heraclius's advanced picket, and fell into such confusion, 
that, instead of running away, they began to whip their horses 
against the steep rocks, tumbling and rolling down like barrels 
of water, crying, "Aman allah ! Heraclius! Heraclius ! " Emin, 



finding them to be his comrades, could not keep himself from 
laughing; and was amazed to find, how much these barbarous 
savages dreaded the prince's name; like the children in France, 
who, when they cried in their cradles, were quieted by their 
mothers telling them that Marlborough was coming. I,et the 
candid reader therefore judge, and approve Bmin's .speaking the 
truth like an European gentleman, in recording the meritorious 
character of his enemy, prince Heraclius, who, with the late 
patriarch, Simon of Armenia, were the cause of all his adversities. 
The Lazguis then begged Kmin to keep them company, and 
not to advance so great a way before them. To this he con- 
sented : the road being then separated, his men went to the 
right and he, with the savages, proceeded to the left. When 
they came nearer to the confines of Kissekh, the first district 
to Kakhet Georgia, Husein, the captain of the Iyazguis, told 
Kmin to take care of himself, and keep near him, for the men 
had a bad design on his life; that they wanted to kill him, 
thinking that he had money, and was a Caffer. He smiled with 
great composure, and said, "What then will become of you, if 
Heraclius, at the head of 10,000 Georgians, should meet you in 
this open place, where no mountain or shelter is to be found ? 
Come, then ; — who are the men that dare attack me ? I know 
your Mahometans to be ungrateful, and a disgrace to the name, 
of Dagistan, by transgressing the hospitable law of that nation. 
Those men are not true L,azguis, but degenerated and corrupted 
by a mixture of Georgian blood. Thence it is, that they con- 
spire against him, who has made each of them master of six 
tumans, who never before saw a single rupee in his life." After 
this reprimanding speech, thirteen of the savages dismounted, lay- 
ing hold of his stirrups, begging his pardon, and intreating that 
he would think no more about it. Here Bmin very justly thought 
he could be even with them all, and bade them be more ex- 
peditious on the march, for fear of the prince's coming out. On 
hearing this fatal advice, they began to gallop, whip, and kick 


their horses, as if they really were pursued by a conquering 
army. The consequence of such a hurly-burly was, that three 
hundred of their horses were tired, and left behind upon the 
road. The Lazguis in general are not good horsemen, nor do 
they know the nature of them, otherwise they would not be so 
stupid as to ,lose many excellent horses by beating them. 

This happened within thirty miles of Belican, a village be- 
longing to the Gaugal Lazguis, where Emin found two Nakhiguan 
merchants ; having reached it after great fatigue for two days, 
without any rest, from the mountains of Shamshadin of Ganja, 
a march of almost one hundred and twenty miles, of which the 
caravan commonly makes a journey of six days. Emin staid in 
that place, with his Armenians, for a fortnight pretty comfort- 
ably ; when Hajy Mustapha his friend came down from the 
mountains with his family, and with his flocks and herds, took 
him to his village of Catickh, nine miles from Belican, where his 
relation Mussess, who had fallen sick and was left behind at 
Dalubar five miles from Ganja, came to him, and very prudently 
persuaded him not to remain any longer among the Lazguis, who 
being Mahometans, and thirsty for the blood of Christians, could 
not very well agree with Emin's disposition and principles, since 
he would always rather chuse to die than see a Christian en- 
, slaved. 

Here it is to be considered, that the excursion he made with 
those Lazguis, enslaving the Curd clan of Colan, was of happy con- 
sequence to the Armenians, and fatal to the khan of Ganja, 
whose army deserted and left him alone, exclaiming against him, 
and saying, that he was an enemy to the Shiah Musulmans, and 
had brought the Lazgui Sunies to enslave the Curds. This fac- 
tion afforded the two Armenian chiefs, Hatham and Yusup, an 
opportunity to move with their troops from Shameor to the 
frontiers of their native country Trashatzy* and Charrabert;f 

* Thalish. 

t Chrapiert'h. 


Melck Hatham halting at Trinabad, and Yusup at Gedashen. 
The reason of their stopping in those two villages, (though Ar- 
menians, under the government of Ganja,) was on account of 
the corn left behind at Shameor. They were in hopes of getting 
it, yet weak enough not to foresee that Shahverdy Khan would 
recover from his distress j therefore, without being diligent enough 
in three weeks time to carry off the corn, while he was in con- 
fusion, they set themselves down contented, feasting and drinking 
wine. Yusup was less to be blamed on that head; for Hatham 
amused him by fair words all the time ; since he, being devoted 
to the khan's interest, was kept on the khan's side by the force 
of bribes. These two chiefs exactly resembled two stiff-necked 
oxen, one of them pulling to the right and the other to the 



[ Emin at Catickh, where resides Yusup of the Beglarians, Melik of Gulistan — 
Danger from Shaverdy Khan — Yusup hawking and drinking, heeds nothing 
— His 500 fighting men go to their villages — Mahomedans attack — Yusup 
wants to run away — Emin persuades the few men left to stand firm and 
resist — Persians flee — 'Rallied by Ballah Mahomed — His provocation to Yusup 
— Aga Beg, in intervals of snuff-taking, shoots Ballah dead — His men fly 
— How the clever Armenian women concealed from Yusup all arms thrown 
away by the Persians, confiding in Emin alone — Disgust of Armenians with 
cowardly Yusup — Treacherous Aivaz — Hatham's attempt to make Yusup sub- 
mit to Shaverdy — Emin's imaginary wealth turns the scale ! — Yusup's son 
Apov as hostage to Shaverdy — Returns with message warning Yusup that his 
" English guest " alone has saved him this time — Yusup goes to his citadel of 
Gulistan — Ibrahim Khan, the governor of Karabagh, provides corn for nine 
months — Wonderful fertility of this land, where inhabitants have everything 
but prudent management. ] 

HPRINABAD, where Hatham resided, was nearer by six or seven 

miles to Ganja than Gedashen, where .Yusup was. Here 

Emin, in his way to Curdistan, arrived, from the woods of Dagis- 


tan, at the village of Catickh, after having made that inroad 
which saved many thousands of Armenians from lasting captivity. 
Yusup receiving him with open arms, persuaded him to stay 
with him; and he, finding the chief very earnest in his desire, 
consented, and thought himself very happy, advising the chief 
not to stay . longer at Gedashen, nor expect a single grain of 
wheat from Shameor, almost at the distance of twenty-five miles. 
"The city of Ganja," said he, "is between you and that place, 
and the Khan Shaverdy growing more and more powerful every 
day, and having already collected twelve thousand men, will not 
easily let you have your provision from Shameor." He said, 
"No, Sir; Hatham, a favourite of the khan's, has promised that 
we shall have it all." Emin then said, "Since you will not hear 
my advice, to set out directly from this town to the fortress of 
Gulistan, you must expect a visit from Shaverdy, with a for- 
midable body of fighting men." The chief smiled, saying, "Never 
mind; let us enjoy the wholesome wine of this place for some 
time, then we shall consider your advice." In short, he could 
not be dissuaded from his way of thinking, and from the good 
opinion he had of Hatham' s interest with the khan. He went 
on amusing himself, hawking every day, and drinking every 
night, till three in the morning, with his officers and the elders 
of the tribe. On the contrary, Emin passed his time in rising 
early in the morning before the sun, taking with him his break- 
fast, and walking up and down the high mountains, so as to 
come to his quarters just half an hour after sun-set. As it was 
the latter end of autumn and beginning of winter, he enjoyed 
his health by breathing a fine air in the highest perfection ; yet 
it made the people wonder what could be the reason of his 
going so many miles a-day, without any business or benefit. 

Thus, for forty days, he reconnoitered in his walks every 
part of those mountains, observing the strong or weak passes 
in them; but the village Gedashen, where he and Yusup had 
quarters, was much exposed by its situation on the brow of a 


hill. Just on the top of it there was a breast-work thrown up 
in former days by some Persian general, deep enough to cover 
men, and to direct their pieces down ; and behind that entrench- 
ment there was the Armenian burying-ground, with a field round 
it, large enough to hold an army of forty thousand men, sur- 
rounded with high mountains, having only a high pass to the 
north, almost inaccessible ; but as there were no men posted to 
guard it, and it was almost four miles distant from the village, it 
was of no use. Towards the south, over the river, there was a 
thick wood, which, in case of a surprize by an enemy, would 
have been an excellent retreat for the villagers; but the river 
being so rapid between it and the village, precluded all hope of 
passing over, though it was not so deep as six feet. Emin gave 
intelligence of all this, and described the bad situation of the 
place; but Yusup did not mind it, and said, "Iyet the enemy 
come, we will fight them at our own doors." The generous wine 
had made him quite easy ; till one Sunday, being the carnival of 
St. James's holiday for the following fast week, when intoxi- 
cated with wine, he stupidly granted permission to his five hun- 
dred fighting men to go to their respective villages and enjoy 
themselves in celebrating that saint's day, by eating and drinking. 
Emin was very much against it, and said to him, "That im- 
prudent proceeding of yours, depend upon it, will be productive 
of evil consequences. If the enemy should pay you a visit, 
and their distance is but a day and a half's journey, what will 
become of us then?" The answer the chief made to him was, 
again, " Never mind it;" and ordered his servants to prepare a 
drinking supper for that night. Emin hated the very name of 
it, went to his own quarters and slept after his supper. Un- 
known to him, about one in the morning, the chief fortu- 
nately happened to receive intelligence from an Armenian of Ganja, 
who was coming to Gedashen for some business of his own, with 
another Armenian; and falling unawares among the troops of 
Ganja, commanded by Mahommed Hassan Khan, his comrade 


was taken; but he being more active, made his escape, and 
brought the dreadful news to the chief, saying, " Yesterday there 
was report in the city of Ganja, that a body of Lazgui inroaders 
had crossed the river Cur, which is to the east of the town, 
about six miles distance. In the afternoon Mahommed Hassan 
Khan marched with his troops to meet them and give them 
battle. The people never suspected that his march out of the 
place was a kind of stratagem, in order to make us Christians easy 
in mind, and rest satisfied without giving information. Last 
night, about ten o'clock, I and another Armenian set out from 
Ganja, and having come half of the way, discovered to the east- 
ward a great body of horse. They seeing us, gallopped towards 
us, and took my companion, but I made my escape by flight. 
As it was very dark, they could neither see nor find me out, 
since the horse are obliged to keep with the foot. I ran all the 
way to let you know, before their coming up, that you may be 
able to put yourself upon your guard." 

The chief had no more than forty men, with Aga Beg, com- 
mander of his body guards; and being greatly distressed, with- 
out knowing how to act, was ashamed of himself for not hearing 
Emirf's advice; and out of politeness did not send any person 
to wake him. Having divided the men into four unequal parts, 
he posted five of them, with himself and his son Beglar, behind 
a large rock, in the middle of the brow of that hill under which 
stood Gedashen. The second division consisted of twelve men, 
and the third of thirteen; and he placed them severally in the 
mouth of two vallies to the right and left of the village, reaching 
like two arms down to the river, so as to form almost a semi- 
circle, in order to annoy the enemy who should come down 
that way. In this manner he made a disposition with his few 
men, and stood waiting to receive the enemy. Mohammed Hassan 
Khan, who, two hours before sun-rise, at the head of 2000 Kizel- 
bashes, 2000 Mahometan foot, and 500 Ganja Armenians, arrived 
and took possession of the breast-work on the top of the vil- 


lage, mentioned before; finding those two easy passages guarded, 
he ordered the men to fire by vollies down to the village, in 
hope of frightening the inhabitants into consternation, having in- 
telligence before of the foolish plan of Yusup, whose men were 
to go out holiday making; and not in the least doubting of suc- 
cess, took for granted that he should easily be in possession 
of the tribe, since the Armenians of Gedashen on the other hand, 
with its treacherous burghmaster Aratun, were his subjects, and 
would help within the place to promote his base designs. But 
Aratun, who, jealous of Yusup's power, had encouraged the khan 
to undertake that expedition, happened to be secured that very 
night. He knew not indeed the diabolical intention of his master, 
who came not only to enslave Yusup's clan, but to sell him 
also, and his twelve other villages, to the Tartars and I y azguis; 
so that the captives would amount to 18,000 souls. 

In that dreadful instant, the report of so many thousand 
fire-arms, the great noise of the Mahometans, crying " Allah ! 
Allah ! " the lamentable cries of the Christians, with their help- 
less families and innocent children, starting out of their beds, 
awakened Emin out of his sleep, not a little surprized at the 
disturbance. No sooner had he come out of the house, than he 
found the condition of those poor creatures, and saw the sad 
situation of the chief, who shrunk behind the rock with his son, 
and five men, preparing to run away. Emin cried out to him, 
saying, " Chief, I find you want to act rashly ; let your horse 
go, this is not a time to mount, for the place is too steep for 
galloping up, or rushing on the enemy sword in hand." He 
understood the meaning of Emin's words, let go the horse's 
reins, and asked him, in great confusion, what they should do ? 
Emin said, "Mind your business; persevere with patience; and 
when (by the help of God) you have finished the day's work, 
you shall drink wine again." In the mean time, he saw the 
twelve mountaineers marching down, and they honestly told him, 
that they were going to run away. They added, in anger, 


"We wish the devil had our chief, who did not follow your ad- 
vice, and has got himself into this scrape ! what can so few 
hands do against so many thousands, pouring like a deluge, ready 
to drown us all ? " He said, " It is a shame for you to fly. 
Can you bear the thought of having your wives defiled by the 
Mahomedans ? Can you live with a good conscience, after hear- 
ing that your harmless children have been made captives, and 
sold like cattle to the infidels ? I, who have neither of those 
heart-destroying objects in view, am ready to die with a good 
will, and to lose my life like a man, and a true Christian." 
They said, <( You must have been inspired by some miracle ; let 
us know it ; then we will stand by you." He had the presence 
of mind to say, "Yes; half an hour ago I invoked St. John 
the Baptist, who appeared to me in his glory, and said, Rise 
from thy bed; go, tell the Armenians, that victory is on their 
side, if two or three of them will but stand : I am St. John the 
Baptist, and will fight for them." 

No sooner had they heard this, than they turned their faces 
towards the enemy, who were all the while firing, and making a 
noise, saying, " Glory to Mahomed ! Sword and fire to the 
CafJers! " It was highly pleasing to observe the exertion of those 
brave fellows ; how they climbed up the hill ; rushed on, like 
angry lions, into the thickest of the enemy's fire, and put them 
almost in confusion; for about seven minutes they seemed as if 
they were lost among the multitude. From the left and right 
came those that were posted ; and the chief, with his son and 
five men, followed the example with equal courage. They opened 
the first Persian they had killed ; after cutting his head off, and 
taking out his heart, they dipt it in the river ; a superstition in 
great credit among them; for they believe that by so doing, 
they cause a panic throughout the enemy's forces. And so it 
happened ; for they began to take to their heels. In the heat 
of the action, the brave Armenians cut off three heads, and 
killed 100 horses. They brought the heads, and threw them 



down before Emin ; asking, if the English (whom he had been 
praising) could fight as well as they ? The Persians were really 
so much panic-struck, that the Armenians grew wildly cour- 
ageous ; and two of them, without making use either of fire- 
arms or swords, ran towards the enemy, caught by the neck two 
Persians, and brought them to the chief. 

When the enemy lost the ground where they were before 
posted, Ballah Mahomed, the second in command, mounted on a 
very fine horse, with sword in hand, rallied a great part of the 
broken army, seeing the small number of the Armenians; en- 
couraging some, and abusing others, in language becoming all 
Mahomedan nations. Then, having put himself at the head of 
them, he returned very slowly back, till within sixty yards of the 
Armenians ; when he began to insult Yusup the chief, and to 
threaten furiously, saying, that within half an hour he should be 
in possession of the clan ; that he would slay all the fighting 
men with the sword of Mortza Aly ; violate his women before 
his eyes, and sell the captives to the L,azguis. He added, that 
he dreamed the preceding night, that he was amusing himself 
with the Armenian young married women ; and that the virgins 
were sent, by Mahomed the great prophet, to his seraglio. , 

That speech was sufficient to provoke God and man ! It 
made the chief look round quite exasperated ; and, in a hurry, 
he ordered Aga Beg, his uspashy or centurion, to fire at him. 
The gallant Armenian, instead of pointing his gun, took a large 
leather bag of snuff out of his pocket, with a string about a yard 
and a half long, and, opening it with the utmost composure, 
presented it to his chief, saying, * Sir, do not be out of patience ; 
take a pinch; the abominable words of Ballah Mahomed will 
break his neck, and those of his cowardly Persians." Then offer- 
ing the snuff to Emin, he said, " I hope, Sir, you are not afraid, 
like my master, who will not take a pinch of snuff, though very 
fond of it." Emin took it, and said, "My brave countryman, 
my mother would not have given me milk when I was born, if 


she had thought I should ever be afraid." He replied, "Thou 
art the man whom we wanted;" and levelled his piece at the 
Persian. At the snapping of the lock, Ballah Mahomed turned 
his horse quickly, leaning his body over its left side; but the 
ball took him behind, and overthrew him headlong upon the 
ground. Trie valiant troops, seeing the fate of their commander, 
took to their heels, dropping their arms, and new like a broken 
herd ; when his own servants, with much difficulty, carried off 
the dead corpse of their master ; which completed the victory. 
On the enemy's side were forty heads cut off, fifty fine horses 
killed, 500 men wounded, of whom 300 died a few days after in 
their own houses. The loss on the Armenian side was but four 

After pursuing the enemy very close about two miles, Emin 
thought it proper to call the Armenians back ; and retreated to 
Gedashen, with an expectation, in their way, of picking up the 
enemy's arms, or part of their baggage. But there was not a 
single thing left ; for the Armenian women, availing themselves 
of the opportunity, had carried all away, and concealed them so 
as none could be discovered ; nor would they confess the truth 
to their covetous chief, who did his utmost to exact at least a 
few of them, but to no purpose. Emin was surprized to find them 
so firm and resolute, as not to be tempted by the flattering 
promises of the chief, who examined them one by one, and 
assured each, that he would not take away her own booty, pro- 
vided she would betray the others. The answer they made was 
no more than this : " Sir, we know nothing of it, nor do we 
betray any one." But when Emin sent for them to his quarters, 
they had so great confidence in him, that they confessed the 
truth, and gave a very good reason for their conduct ; saying, 
" When our children are grown up to manhood, the chief 
(who is no better than a heathen) will require arms, which they 
will be obliged to buy with their own money ; if they can afford 
it, very well ; if not, he will beat them almost to death : there- 


fore we are under a necessity to deny the truth, in order to save 
our young ones from the oppression and tyranny of the chief, 
whom we saw at the beginning of the battle almost terrified, and 
going to mount his horse to run away, and leave us a prey to 
the Mahomedans. God knows what would have become of us 
poor wretches, if you had not been here ! But Providence sent 
you to save us from that everlasting destruction, both of body 
and soul." Then they cried bitterly; saying, "May God in 
heaven prosper and protect you ! Take no notice of what we 
have said to you." Then they went away to their habitations. 
This circumstance Bmin never disclosed to any till this moment. 
When the battle was supposed to be decided, all the light- 
ing Armenians ran and kissed Emin's hand ; thanking him for 
his behaviour, and boldly using several sarcastical words, in re- 
gard to Yusup's pusillanimous conduct ; and this before his face. 
In the afternoon of that very day, the enemy, headed again by 
Mahomed Hussan Khan, with fresh troops, which were sent to 
join him by Shaverdy Khan his father, together with some field- 
pieces, battering cannons, and swivels on the backs of camels, 
marched in good order toward Gedashen ; and posted upon a 
hill, about a small gun-shot's distance to the eastward of the 
burying-ground ; where the 500 Armenians who had been absent, 
had the day before arrived from their villages, and had raised ( 
a breast-work of huge stones, so as to shelter them in case of 
a surprize by night. The enemy began a few random shots, and 
at the same time made a great noise, with an intention to 
frighten ; but to no effect. The brave Armenians, instead of re- 
turning the fire, laughed at them. The night coming on, about 
twelve o'clock Emin proposed to Yusup, the chief, a scheme to 
surprize the enemy's camp; and as the men were ready to 
undertake the expedition, it would have been very easy, if Yusup 
had consented. But he made some frivolous excuses ; thank- 
ing Emin for his readiness and resolution, and saying, " In case 
Melech Hatham, the chief of Charrabert, should happen to be 


with Mahomed Hussan Khan, ten to one he will meet with some 
accident from our men j so that the friendship which now sub- 
sists between us, will become an everlasting enmity ; nor will 
our enemies be sorry for it. Although Hatham is caressed and 
bribed by Shaverdy, father to Mahomed Hussan Khan, yet in 
his heart he, is our friend and . brother." Emin said, "Had he 
been with the khan, he would have come over to see you ; for 
the distance between you and the enemy is but very small," so 
that both armies could hear each other over the small valley, 
if they spoke loud. However, no -expostulation could persuade 
Yusup to acquiesce ; the little courage which, by the strength 
of good wine, he had in the morning, was then gone out of his 

The backwardness of his behaviour excited wonder and con- 
tempt in his men; who said, "Our chief was the bravest man 
in this country, having killed no fewer than 400 Mahomedans 
with his own hand in different actions; but he is totally 
changed; nor is he the same man whom we have before seen !" 
Emin comforted them, saying, "Never mind it, my brave 
countrymen, he will recover his spirit ; courage is like appetite ; 
sometimes it will be present, and at other times absent. I have 
seen in my travels several instances of the kind, even in Frankis- 
tan, among the officers and soldiers : at one time the men would 
face lions, when their courage was present ; at another time, they 
were frightened at a dog's barking. Persons of sense and ex- 
perience will not be so inconsiderate as wholly to condemn him, 
but will still retain their respect for him. I beg you will not be 
too hasty in your opinion of your noble chief, who has for 
twenty years protected your families, and defended the tribe." 
They answered, " God in heaven bless you ! your reasons are 
good ; but we cannot help blaming that courage, which at this 
critical time has abandoned our chief, who is not even willing 
to let you manage the business." 

During the whole night, Emin continued expostulating with, 


and comforting them. But one Eyvaz, a native of Iravan, in 
the chief's service, a very dastardly fellow, was within a hair's 
breadth of spoiling everything, and defeating the inexpressible 
pains which Bmin took to keep the men from deserting, through 
the unfortunate conduct of Yusup. This man fetched a very 
deep sigh, as if it had been from the bottom of his wicked heart, 
and groaning heavily, with a dismal voice, he said, " Great Sir, 
and my dear brethren ; thirteen long years have passed since 
we have carried arms, and never rested in quiet ■ always in war 
and troubles, without relief ! " His cowardly speech had such 
an effect on the minds of the men, that they began to whisper, 
and, in about five minutes, were going to march off. Emin, 
observing the condition they were in, made a terrible noise, in- 
sulted Eyvaz with fury, and reprimanded him, saying, V Nature 
never bestowed the two blessings at once on any man living, to 
enjoy the pleasures of voluptuousness, and to have his fame, 
celebrated. Thou art a dirty spot among these brave fellows 
Corogly, the Turk, used to say, in his heroic songs to his men 
before they engaged, I^aka ogurmasen meidana jundan basdan 
guichan gunyder ; "* that is, I,et no black spot (or coward) appear 
in this field of action, but him that has forgotten his life and 
head. This verse Emin repeated to them singing very loud; 
and they, instead of running away, began to twirl their whiskers, 
and, grumbling like tigers, were very near putting an end to 
poor Eyvaz' s life, had not Emin prevented them. They all said 
to him, "You are the man to save us." Yusup also compli- 
mented him, saying, "God has sent you to take care of us; 
what would have become of us, if you had not been here ! " 

In this manner they passed the whole night. Early in the 
morning, they saw Melech Hatham, with half-a-dozen horsemen, 
arrive at Mahomed Hussan Khan's camp, and dismount near his 
tent, and enter it. Presently after, he, with Johannes the Catho- 

* L,cke ogleurmassen meidana jundan bachdan kitchdau gunyder. 


licus of Ganja, accompanied by two of Hussan' s officers, came 
ever to Yusup's camp, with a proposal of treating for peace, 
on condition that he would return to Shameor, to the north-west 
of Ganja, and become subject, as before, to Shaver dy Khan, his 
father. Yusup laughed, and said, "Yesterday we were but forty 
in all, yet did not yield ; to-day we are 500 strong. Mahomed 
Hussan Khan is mistaken, nor will his threatening artillery have 
the smallest effect : on the contrary, by God's assistance, in two 
hours time it shall be our property. You, Hatham, through 
avarice, and the bribes of that false Mahomedan, are persuading 
me to go over to him, and submit to his diabolical government ; 
but his wicked design is to make an end of me first, and then 
to fall upon you like a wolf. The presents given by him are 
deposited in your coffers ; but, one day or other, you will be 
very glad to return them to him, and yourself will fall a victim 
to his treachery. As for your fidelity to him, it is mere in- 
fatuation, with good intentions in your own heart ! I wish we 
had known that you were not with him last night, we might 
have followed Emin's advice, which would have saved us from 
the trouble of hearing his haughty message. I beg therefore you 
will be kind enough to withdraw yourself from that fellow, that 
we may a second time hazard our fortune with him." Hatham 
said, "That cannot be done; I am not a Mahomedan; I have 
taken my oath on the Holy Scripture, either to make a good 
understanding between you and Mahomed Hussan, or to return 
to him upon amicable terms. As far as I can understand, 
Mahomed Hussan is already frightened out of his senses by yes- 
terday's affair, and had no rest all the night; sending me three 
troopers after one another, requesting me to go to him. [The 
distance between the khan and Hatham was twelve English 
miles; Hatham was at a place called Sernabad, an Armenian 
village, subject to Shaverdy Khan.] I delayed, pretending sick- 
ness, and hoping that our noble prince Emin would surprize the 
enemy's camp, and take the khan alive. As soon as I arrived, 


the commanders and the troops declared openly, that they were 
ready to march off, and leave the khan with his domestics in 
the lurch. But you have said, with your own lips, that you 
would not suffer Bmin to decide the business at once. Now you 
are talking big, and pleading excuses ! But I see you have lost 
your courage, and are not the same Yusup that we knew before. 
Grant that I had been with the khan, and had met the same 
fate with him ; yet my son is alive ; you would have had the 
glory; and he would have succeeded me." 

While Hatham and the Mahomedan officers were partly treat- 
ing, and partly threatening, that they might persuade Yusup to 
march back or submit to the khan, one of his men shot a large 
bird of prey flying over the dead bodies; and thinking it a good 
omen (for the enemy's side were firing up at the same time, but 
none of them could kill any), he brought it, and threw it down 
before Yusup. He was a Turk, the only one of the Mahomedan 
party, named Babba; and he thus expressed himself: " Dush- 
mannin bryla olsen buegem;" that is to say, My prince, may 
your enemy become like this. He hoped to be rewarded by 
Yusup, who ordered Mirza Voscan, his Armenian secretary, to 
give him three rupees only, with a few empty words; for the 
chief's avarice words cannot express! But poor Bmin, having at 
that time in his pocket a few Venetian half-zeckins, gave the man 
one of them. He tossed it up three times in the air, and caught 
it; and then made seven very low bows to him, saying, " Dovla- 
tan ziad olsen!" that is to say, May your prosperity increase! 
When this was seen by the Persians, and Hatham, who was sit- 
ting by Yusup, they were much surprized ; and Hatham whis- 
pering in Yusup' s ear, asked, if Bmin had any more of those 
gold pieces brought from Bngland ? He answered, yes ; and said, 
that when he first came thither, he made him a present of 500 
whole zeckins, his lady of 400, his eldest son 300, his youngest 
son 200, and his daughter 100 ; and that very morning had made 
an harangue to the fighting men, and promised, on their beha- 


ving gallantly, to give five to each of them, for every Maho- 
medan's head, or every prisoner, that they brought from the 
field of battle. Hatham, in great amazement, communicated the 
information to the Persians, who looked as pale as death; then 
casting his eyes towards a Khurchin double portmanteau, made 
of fine Persian carpet, within twenty yards distance from them, 
guarded by twelve stout armed mountaineers, he asked Yusup, 
what that was ? He (having had previous instructions from 
Emin) told him, that it was full of Venetian zeckins, which he 
had shewn the men, and ordered them to guard it; promising, 
that it should be opened as soon as the enemy's messengers 
were gone away. "I wish," added Yusup, "you would not 
stay five minutes with your beloved khan, after having returned 
his insolent message, and told him to prepare for battle; since 
we are resolved to fight, and rather to die than submit to 
his will; and (by God's assistance) we shall see his whole army 
lying dead among the stones of these mountains. Hatham, 
depart ! for ten to one the men will mutiny if you stay any 
longer." This haughty language made them believe, that the 
bag really contained money; they not knowing that Emin had to the brim with hard stones the night before, in the 
presence of Yusup and his men. 

When Hatham went away to the khan, ten minutes had not 
passed, before he came back again alone on horseback, with 
most humble compliments from the khan, and begged for peace. 
Yusup referred it to Emin, whose expectation being answered, 
he granted peace with seeming backwardness, and said, " Sir, it 
is for your sake that we consent; otherwise the khan, with his 
numerous army, would not have existed in this world to see the 
next day." Hatham also begged, as a favour, that Yusup' s 
youngest son Abar,* about seven years of age, might go with 
him to Ganja, for the safety of the khan and his army, lest 

* Apov, who succeeded his brother Beglar, and died in 1808, 



they should be annoyed by the mountaineers in the passes of 
Karajagdy, Emin having, the night before, sent forty men to 
secure it. (The word Karajagdy, in the Turkish language, signi- 
fies the first fall of snow.) It is very difficult for an army 
to pass those mountains. Abar was allowed to go with the 
enemy back to Ganja, and he returned in thirty-six hours with 
a khalat from Shaverdy Khan, who had charged him expressly 
to say to his father, in the khan's name, "That English guest 
of your's saved you and your people from destruction. Go, 
pray to God first ; then entertain him with due respect and 
honour : he alone deserves the praise of victory over my son :— 
neither you, nor your men, must pretend to have the least share 
in it. But I am assured, that you, giddy-headed and ungrateful 
Yusup ! will, through the envy and jealousy of your bad heart, 
soon send him away from your station, and then we shall again 
try how you will conduct yourself a second time. While he re- 
mains there, you may drink wine, and sleep in peace : but woe be 
to you when he shall depart!" Yusup, hearing all this from his 
son, was convinced, that Shaverdy Khan would not easily forgive 
him, nor spare a grain of corn in Shameor ; so that he stood a 
chance of losing his life by halting at Gedashen. Necessity there- 
fore obliged him to follow Emm's just counsel; and he tarried 
at Gedashen no longer than twenty-four hours after that men- 
acing or prophesying message from the khan : he then issued a 
proclamation, in the afternoon, for the tribe to move from that 
place; and in a day and a half they arrived safe over the snow, 
at their own habitation, called the country of Kreshetzy,* with a 
citadel named Gulstan, on a high mountain. They only lost a 
poor old woman by the severity of the cold. Ibrahim Khan, 
the sovereign of Carabagh, or head of the five Armenian chiefs, 
provided them with all sorts of provision for nine months, till 
the new crop of the tribe was ripe. They had been very dili- 

* Thalish. 


gent in the autumn, and came thirty leagues from Shameor to 
sow every inch of their land; and they calculated, that when 
the corn should be gathered in, it would suffice for five years 
without tilling the ground. No country in all Armenia, Georgia, 
or Persia, is so fertile as that of Carabagh, where one pound of 
seed produces no of grain. A stute load of wheat was sold for 
five abasis, or English shillings. It is the properest country to 
carry on war in, and to maintain liberty with ease. They have 
another valuable advantage over others, that the corn continues 
good for ten years, and remains as fresh as the new grain ; 
whereas others, particularly in Georgia, hardly continues sound 
for the space of eighteen months, growing both bitter and full 
of insects. As for all sorts of fruits, they are in abundance; 
and silk, cotton, and wool, in great plenty. In other places, the 
fuel is chiefly the dung of cows, sheep, or horses; but in Cara- 
bagh, it is wood, for there is no village without a forest near 
it. In other parts, ewes have lambs once in the year ; at Cara- 
bagh, twice — in the spring, and at the beginning of January. In 
short, they have all things in the world but one, which is the 
queen of all — prudent management; which seems to have bidden 
farewel to the inhabitants of Carabagh; and one may with good 
assurance say, to all Asia. 


The southwest portion of Karabagh is undulating and thickly wooded, 
full of gardens and vineyards. The eastern portion between the rivers 
Kur or Kura, and the Ierask or Araxes, is flat. This part was the old 
province of Uthi. The western portion, which is Karabagh proper, is 
half of the province of Artsakh, towards Uthi, and the other half Siunek, 
towards the province of Haik. Lynch, in his Travels through Armenia, 
says, " Karabagh may be regarded as a separate geographical unit, com- 
bining in miniature many of the characteristics of the Armenian highlands, 
an inner plateau flanked by peripheral ranges, The immemorial home 
of Armenian inhabitants, the seat of Tartar immigrants, and the happy 
hunting-ground of nomad Kurds, it constitutes a solid outer buttress to 


Armenia on the side of the Caspian. The true boundary must be taken 
southward from the Ginal Dagh, over ir,ooo ft. to the Kety Dagh, where 
it forms a loop towards the west, and after almost encircling an upland 
sheet of water called the Ala Gol, is protracted through the heights of Sir- 
er-sgrchaly 11,298 ft. and Salvarty 10,422 ft. to the valley of the Araxes 
at Migry, just east of Ordubad. The Karadagh Mountains on the 
southern bank of the river continue the ridges of Karabagh, and the 
natural frontier is pushed westwards up the course of the Araxes as far 

as the village of Julfa The plains through which the Arpa chai 

(grain river) eats its way to the Araxes constituted one of the granaries 
of Armenia in historical times. Extraordinary fertility is induced by the 
intermixture of the lavas with alluvial or lacustrine deposits. The black 
earth of the plain about Akhal kalaki is famous, and the soil in the 
neighbourhood of Alexandropol derives its richness from the incidence of 
a peculiar kind of lava side by side with the sediment of a former lake. 
The southerly extension of these vanished waters is marked by the belt of 
high ground extending from Alagoz across the plains to the Arpa chai. 
The river has forced its way through this elevation between Ani and 



[ Yusup's ingratitude to Emin for saving him and 18,000 Christians from destruc- 
tion or slavery — Emin sets out for Gantsasar the seat of the Catholicos 
Johannes — An Armenian speaking Kurd and his people — Their regard for Emin 
— Johannes gives Emin a letter to Ibrahim Khan — Emin goes to Shushi — 
In the house of Mirzakhan — His wife relates the history of Panah and Shah- 
nazar of Varranda — Emin goes to Ibrahim's durbar — The Khan's churlish 
behaviour — Emin's request of a horse — Ibrahim's behaviour next day — Horse 
returned to him by Emin with a rebuke — Ibrahim taken aback — Emin's bold 
speech endangering his own life, gains more credit for him in the eyes of the 
brave mountaineers than all his fighting in skirmishes — Ibrahim now more 
civil, but his present is refused — Return to Gantsasar monastery — Amaze- 
ment of Catholicos Johannes — Relates to Emin the doings of Catholicos Simon, 
were it not for whose jealousy the Meliks and the people of Armenia would 
have put themselves under him — Emin's life in danger from Ibrahim Khan ] 

TX^HILE Yusup was subsisting on Ibrahim Khan's provision, 
Emin was treated like his hereditary prince ; but no sooner 


had he brought his own grain home, than he was totally 
changed : and one day, at the end of ten months, he sent his 
cousin, Papa Beg, to say, that his fame was too great for his 
country ; that he was apprehensive of the Mahomedan princes 
in the environs; and that himself was a subject to Ibrahim 
Khan, who was a Persian. He therefore begged that Emin would 
consider his situation, and leave the place as soon as he could. 
This return of gratitude, Emin received from Yusup ; — this was 
his reward, for saving him and 18,000 Christians from destruc- 
tion or slavery, — and that only with a little European manage- 
ment, half a Venetian zeckin, and a bag full of stones. Here 
Emin was again left destitute, devoting his heart and mind to 
the will of God, who is our Father, and the best of all friends. 
He set out with a single servant towards Gantzasar, a day 
and a half's journey, where the Catholic us Johannes of Carabagh 
resides with half a dozen monks. Johannes received him with 
all the politeness imaginable; but was unhappy to hear the un- 
grateful usage of Yusup, lamenting the fatal situation of Emin, 
who, through mere necessity, had come to the country of his 
inveterate enemy, who was really thirsty for his blood, meaning 
Ibrahim Khan of Shosha, the king of the five Armenian chiefs, 
and advised him in a friendly manner, judging it most prudent 
,to go to the khan himself, before he could demand him as a 
prisoner; "for," he said, "the khan's spies are every where 
upon the mountains : — who knows but he may take a bad reso- 
lution into his Mahomedan head, and order his horsemen to 
kill you ; and, through you, to murder me also,* with my monks, 
and thus overturn the monastery." In that very juncture, came 
in one of the Curds of the Colany clan, who happened to be one 
of those whom Emin, at the head of 2000 I^azguis, enslaved the 
preceding year, by the side of the fresh lake of Gegham. The 
Curd understood the Armenian language, and laughed at Johannes 

* Ibrahim Khan killed the Catholicos Johannes in 1/3 3. This was because the Cathc- 
licos, with other Armenians, had been appealing to Russia for help to overcome Ibrahim, 


the Catholicus, saying, "Sir, you need not be in the least ap- 
prehensive for that noble stranger's life, although, in his expedi- 
tion, he carried our tribe into captivity : he could not do other- 
wise, having a number of barbarians under his guidance to pro- 
vide for : and again, through motives of humanity and compas- 
sion, he saved us all from slavery; nor, when it was in his 
power, could he be tempted to admit the most beautiful of our 
women into his company. We have given an account of his 
virtuous behaviour to Ibrahim Khan, our lord and master, who 
is not ignorant of his gallant conduct at the battle of Gedashen, 
against Shaverdy Khan's son, Mahomed Hussan, which delivered 
the ungrateful Yusup, and his people, and other Armenians, to 
the amount of 18,000. If Yusup had had sense, he would never 
have parted with Emin, nor have given you so much unnecessary 
reason to be frightened. It is my belief, that no one in the 
world, not even our khan, dare to molest him ; but if they 
should, God in heaven will destroy them, and root out their 
families from the face of the earth. To be short with you, 
Khalifa, (or great monk,) if you are really afraid to let him 
lodge or rest this night in your monastery, I will take him to my 
own tent; he shall stay there as long as he pleases, and may go 
with me to the khan when he chuses, without compulsion." He 
added, "You may very well suppose, Sir, he could escape death 
this very instant, since he came through the very midst of our 
clan, whose tents are pitched at the bottom of this hill, and 
extend a mile along it. Our men, women, girls, and boys, know 
him perfectly, and were not a little startled at the first sight of 
him for they imagined he was again leading on the L,azguis 
army. Upon my honour, and by my sword ! they were more 
glad to see him again, than you are afraid for him. As he 
came on without taking notice of us, he gave us time to invite 
him to our entertainments." Catholicus, hearing all the man 
said, thanked him, and suffered Emin to stay in the monastery 
and sleep there, where Johannes and his monks did as much to 


comfort and pray for him, as they cursed and abominated 
Yusup's unmanly cruel usage, saying, that he was the worst of 
'brutes, not to know the value of Emin, who had been his only 

The next day, very early in the morning, Johannes gave 
Emin a letter to Ibrahim Khan ; the purport of which was as 
follows : " May it please your Highness, the bearer of this my 
humble address is Emin, the son of Joseph, of the tribe of Emin, 
a native of Hamadau, in the kingdom of Erakistan, in Persia, 
whose character is well known to your Highness, since he had 
been often talked of, being chiefly educated in the wars of 
Frankistan. He, by the dint of his courage, has been honoured 
with the notice and protection of the greatest Christian princes 
of that famous quarter of the world, particularly by the cele- 
brated English nation, and through whom he was, by the mighty 
Russians, recommended strongly to Heraclius, the valli of Gurgis- 
tan, as his only English officer. After serving under him above 
a year, in lieu of reward for his meritorious conduct in several 
actions against the Dagistan Lazguis, he was driven out of 
Tifflis, and obliged again to cross over the mountains of Cauca- 
sus. ,One must suppose this to have happened through an un- 
reasonable jealousy, which is natural to that unthinking nation. 
Finding, therefore, no place to have recourse to, he betook him- 
self to Dagistan, and lived there above two years and a half. 
As your Highness well knows, he marched at the head of 2000 
Lazguis, up to Ganja, and confounded the plan of Shaverdy 
Khan the tyrant, your inveterate enemy, by enslaving the tribe 
of the Colan Curds. His most Christian behaviour towards the 
female captives, and his compassion to the men, during their 
captivity of six days, are remarkable ; and, at the same time, he 
became the only author of their delivery. They are now under 
your Highness' s protection, and will vouch for him without my 
giving unnecessary trouble. Afterwards, coming back last year 
to Gedashen, he defeated Mahomed Hussan Khan, the son of 


Shaverdy, having saved Melech Yusup and his family, with the 
whole clan, and other adjacent Christian villages. This was the 
means of their happy return back to their native mountains, 
under subjection to your Highness, on whom God bestow a long 
life of 120 years, with success and happiness to defend us Chris- 
tians. Lastly, he is coming into your presence of his own accord, 
without compulsion: — do as you think best with him: — but as far 
as I can find, he is not in the least afraid, nor in the want of 
friends, nor of being received by your Highness with kind atten- 
tion, as he has been by the princes of Frankistan, and even, 
most singularly, by the savage L,azguis of Dagistan, who are 
enemies to all the nations of the universe. So, may peace be 
unto you, and may humanity so possess your heart, that the 
law of hospitality, ordained by the patriarch Ibrahim, may guide 
your mind to receive your noble guest. I am your Johannes, 
the servant of Christ, and Catholicus of Gantzasar." 

Emin, with this short historical letter, set out, accompanied 
by his old servant Isaac, who just at that very instant had 
come thither to see him. Isaac's house was at Shoshu, where, 
when they arrived, they found that the khan was gone out for 
a few days, to settle some affairs by the side of the riverc Cur. 
The writing was delivered to Agasy Beg, the khan's vakeel (or 
agent), who immediately ordered Isaac to conduct Emin to ( 
Melik Mirzakhan's house, to be entertained there till the khan's 
return. As Mirzakhan was absent, his old lady, agreeably to 
orders, took very great care of Emin, and treated him very 
hospitably ; but she could not help expressing a great sorrow 
for his precarious situation; saying to him, "Sir, you have done 
very wrong in coming on your own feet to the place of execu- 
tion : you will hardly escape the fury of Ibrahim, of whom you 
are a rival : he has heard of you before, and would have been 
glad to have found a man, for any sum of money, to under- 
take assassinating you. How could you be so imprudent ? Why 
did not you go among the brave Lazguis again ? Curse on 

emin's hostess 313 

Melik Yusup, for not letting you stay with him, whom you 
delivered from destruction ! I am assured it is his wicked design 
to send you hither to fall a sacrifice, that he may shew his 
fidelity to Ibrahim. I wish God would take away our five 
chiefs, who by their own discord made us subject to those 
infidels. May it please you to hear ; I will give you an 
account of the whole history of them. When Nadir Shah was 
murdered by his rebellious nations, Panah the father of this 
Ibrahim, who was a Jarchee, and formerly our subject in the 
service of Nadir, came hither from the country of Khorasan, with 
no more than eighteen families. Our stupid unthinking chiefs 
entitled him Khan, and elected him sovereign of this inaccessible 
place, the circumference of which is seven long miles, fortified, 
as you see, with strong walls and towers, built with stone at 
their own expence.* The neighbouring defenceless Mahomedans. 
and other nations from Khorasan, hearing of this came daily, 
monthly, and yearly ; and within three years Panah was made 
so formidable, as to become one of the first pretenders for the 
empire of Persia, Armenia, and Georgia. While he was on good 
terms with the chiefs, he succeeded in every undertaking and 
expedition ; but when he grew intoxicated with pride, and gained 
continual advantage by the disunion of the chiefs, he presumed 
,to lay violent hands on them, and killed Alahvirdy Sultan, the 
first of the four chiefs; Melik Hatham, his nephew, narrowly 

* Shushi, now called Shusha, was indeed impregnable. In 1795 Aga Mahomed Shah, 
founder of the Kajar dynasty of Persia, after summoning Heraclius of Georgia to do him 
homage, advanced from Ardebil with an army of 60,000 men, marching in three divisions. 
The first moved by the plain of Moghan to levy arrears of tribute, the second marched 
on Eri van, which was garrisoned by 15,000 Georgians, and the third, under the Shah him- 
self, undertook the reduction of Shushi. He failed in his attack against this hill-fortress, 
left a force to carry on the siege, and joined the division before Erivan. This place also 
was too strongly fortified for him to take it, and he again left some of his troops to 
continue the siege and marched to Ganja, or Gandsak (Elisabetpol), joining the column 
which had passed through Moghan unopposed. Heraclius, strange to say, opposed the 
invaders although they outnumbered his forces in the proportion of four to one, the 
Georgians were overpowered and defeated, and Tiflis was taken without offering any resis- 
tance. Eri van surrendered after the fall of Tiflis, but Shushi continued to resist 


escaped. The mothers of the two chiefs, and their wives, were 
tortured to death with hot irons. Melik Tumuraz, Yusup's uncle, 
was in concert with Panah Khan, so were Melik Shoknagar and 
Melik Isay. My husband at that time was only burgomaster of 
Khutzorastan, which you saw in your way hither. Hatham, 
when he went to Charrabert, his country, was immediately ac- 
knowledged as hereditary chief ; and Melik Tumuraz of Threshetzy 
was sent to him by Panah Khan, to make use of his rhetoric 
to bring him, if possible, over to the khan ; but it was of no 
effect : the poor old man was strangled by Hatham' s people, and 
thrown into a ditch like a dog. It was suspected that Yusup, 
his nephew, had a hand in the murder, which gave a turn in 
favour of his interest. He also was elected chief of the tribe of 
Threshetzy. Melik Shoknagar, of the country of Varanda, the 
cause of all this mischief and discord, was a true friend of Panah, 
a learned man in the Persian language, and the establisher of 
the Mahomedans in our mountains : he was a son of Belzabub, 
nor worthy of the name of a Christian; and was husband to 
two wives, who are daughters of one father and mother, and 
have been kept here in this fort for security to this day ; and 
Melik Isay, of the country of Dizok, with his family, and my 
poor husband Melik Mirzakhan of Khatzen, were obliged for 
several years past to unite with Panah ;* who, with his whole , 
force, joined us against Melik Hatham and Melik Yusup our 
countrymen and fellow Christians, who were almost exhausted 
during the war. These two last chiefs, having four thousand 
families their subjects, neglected agriculture through continual 
war, being almost every day in action, some of them were 
killed in battle, and some fled to Shurvan for a livelihood ; but 
their reduction was greatly owing to the valli of Gurgistan . 
when they went to him, in hopes either to settle in his domi- 
nions, or obtain a reinforcement, he being too cunning to wish 

* Mirzakhau's wife tells the tale of her husband's defection from her own point of view. 
Ralli's version is very different See p. 343. 


that the Armenians should thrive, entertained them by false 
promises for five years ; but at their own expence. When 
Fataly Khan, the ovshar of Romia near Tabriz, the great pre- 
tender to the kindgdom of Persia, (who came at last, and was 
killed by Carim Khan the present king,) was marching at the 
head of forty thousand Persians ; then those two chiefs, Hatham 
of Charrabert, and Yusup of Threshetzy, came from Georgia, 
joined Fataly, and forced Panah Khan into his fortified town of 
Shoshu. After a siege of above a year, the place surrendered ; 
and Panah sent his son, the present Ibrahim Klian, as an hos- 
tage. Fataly was going to enter the place, but three days after, 
fortunately for the inhabitants, he marched to the relief of his 
native city, Romia, against Carim Khan; but he was totally 
defeated and driven into the town, in company with Ibrahim 
Carim. After a regular siege of eighteen months, almost starv- 
ing them, Fataly, nearly exhausted, being obliged to come out, 
with a scymitar flung over his neck, laid himself at the feet of 
Carim Khan ; whose brother Zaky having revolted in Ispahan, he, 
through necessity, went back with his whole army, which saved 
us the pain of seeing them; nay, even the valli of Gurgistan 
might have fallen a victim, like the competitors. Panah went 
over to Carim, immediately after hearing of his victory over 
Fataly, and of the long siege which his son Ibrahim stood in the 
town, whom he relieved ; and went himself with Carim to Shiraz ; 
where he made his last will, pretending that he was dying ; 
in which he begged of Carim Khan, that his supposed dead 
corpse might be carried in a coffin and buried in the mountains 
of Armanstan : but good Carim' s ministers were too cunning to 
let their master be imposed on by Panah; and petitioned his 
Highness that he might have the honour of a funeral procession, 
and be buried near Carim' s beloved brother Scander Khan at 
Cumisha, four or five days journey from Shiraz, towards Ispahan. 
While Panah was with Carim those two chiefs, Hatham and 
Yusup, for fear he should lead the king of Persia and his army 



to Carabagh, the consequence of which would have been the 
means of their total ruin, thought it necessary to return a 
second time to Tiffiiz to crave again the empty protection of 
Heraclius; but in their way, Shaverdy tempted them with fair 
words, and they settled at Shameor. In that very year you 
came to Tiffliz. The Nakhychuan Meleks in Shoshu imagining 
that Heraclius, by the interest and recommendation of the 
Russian empire, would assist you with his force, began to cor- 
respond with you by letters, and the whole contents of your 
answers were laid by that wicked Armenian secular priest 
Johannes before Ibrahim ; who, after having read them to the 
Meleks, swore by all the saints above, that he would keep the 
secret. What do you think of yourself now ? Will Ibrahim let 
you escape his vengeance ? I am assured that he will kill you 
when he sees you." Here she began to shed tears, with her 
daughter, a child about seven years old. Emin could not help 
being sensible of her just concern, but was not in the least 
solicitous for himself ; and did not open his lips all the time she 
was speaking, nor for half an hour after her finishing it. She 
then spoke again, asking, what would be his fate ? Emin said, 
" Madam, do you know that there is a greater prince, who is 
my protector, and who has a hundred thousand times more 
power than Ibrahim ? " She interrupted him, seemingly in an- 
ger, saying, " Yes, Sir ; I know that the king of England, and 
all the Christian princes in Frankistan are your friends; but 
they are too far off to deliver you from the hands of this wild 
beast." Emin said, "Madam, give me permission to explain the 
matter to you. I can assure you that my friend is nearer to 
me than Ibrahim the Mahomedan." A second time she inter- 
rupted him, saying, "Yes, to be sure, I am nearer still, and my 
motherly heart breaks for you. You are not much longer for 
this world. I wish I never had seen you." She then wept 
again bitterly. Emin said, a little louder, "My dear mother, 
lady Mirzakhan, God is my friend ; never fear." At that word, 


she all at once refrained from weeping ; her affliction was no 
more; and she said, "Since you have such faith, I am confident, 
no one in this world will be able to molest you." Her little 
daughter, seeing her mother so quickly grow cheerful, flew to the 
servants and ordered dinner ; her innocent heart was in as much 
concern as t)iat of her good mother ; who that very evening ad- 
vised him to see Melik Isay of Dizah, and learn what he could 
do for him in regard to Ibrahim. 

When Emin went to Isay's house, he was quite terrified, 
cursed Yusup as much as the lady, ordered a handsome supper, 
and told Emin that he could by no means venture to interpose 
in his behalf. When he returned to his quarters, he said nothing 
to the good lady, but slept there quietly ; and the next morn- 
ing, hearing that Ibrahim was returned, called God to his assis- 
tance, went without any body to introduce him to the durbar, 
or levee, of Ibrahim, which he held before the door in an open 
place. Before he came near enough to make his salam or bow, 
in a great crowd, Ibrahim's officers met him cheerfully, with all 
the politeness imaginable, and made him breakfast with them 
upon bread and cheese, and a very fine musk melon, brought 
for the khan from Nakhychevan. In that place it is a great 
rarity. Afterwards they presented him to the khan, and the 
, elders of the Colan Curds proceeded verbally to prefer their 
petition as follows: "May it please you, our mighty Khan! this 
noble stranger, who is well known to all the world, and was 
brought up in Frankistan in the art of war, is come over with 
resolute intention to rescue his countrymen, the Armenians, from 
their subjection to us and all the musulmans, who, of course, are 
his inexorable enemies : but what of that ? when the shield of 
the Almighty is held over his heart by his temperance and 
sobriety, which are so great, that if any of the Aulias (or 
saints) had been in his stead, when he had both power and 
opportunity, they could not have withstood the temptations 
which the fortune of war offered him. In a word, he is God's 

318 Ibrahim's hatred of emin. 

servant ; nor have we him here by the means of our arms, but 
by the law of hospitality, ordained by our father Ibrahim. He 
is come on his own feet to be the guest of Ibrahim Khan our 
lord and master ; who, we hope, will treat him as such. Though 
he was the leader of the Lazguis, yet Shaverdy was the cause 
of our being enslaved, and this very man delivered us. Now, 
great Khan, act as you judge the best with him!" 

After this speech, the khan paused above half an hour, 
which brought a profound silence over all. Then he said to 
Emin, "You are welcome, my guest; what is your desire?" 
Emin answered, " I have an old horse given me by Melik Yusup 
your subject; I am come to beg one of you for my servant, 
who is not able to travel on foot nor has his master any money 
to buy or hire another." Upon this, immediately, in the pres- 
ence of thousands of Mahomed ans and Armenians, his servants 
by his order brought several horses, which the khan himself did 
not like, saying, they were not worth his guest's acceptance. 
Emin was then desired to come another day, and the khan sent 
one of his servants with him to his quarters, with fresh orders 
to the lady Mirza Khan to take better care of his guest; which 
message made her almost easy. 

The next day Emin went a second time to hear the khan's 
pleasure, and found him sitting on the step of his gate, with a 
single officer standing close by him. Ibrahim no sooner saw 
him, than, after receiving his salam, he began to whisper with 
the man above two hours, now and then casting his eyes with 
marks of fear upon him, and gnashing his teeth. Emin could 
hear very plainly, that the man was expostulating with the 
khan, and begging that he would not act rashly, urging that 
he was his guest, and that the law of God and man would not 
suffer him to be molested. In that manner he pacified him, till 
he ordered another horse; and when it was come, he said to 
Emin, "Well, my guest, do you like that?" Emin answered, 
he could not tell; but he would ride home, (almost a mile,) to 


try it, and then would tell his mind. When he had rode home, 
he returned the horse, and would by no means accept it; for it 
was very old and lame. He sent the horse back, with this mes- 
sage : "O fortunate Khan! it does not become your fame, as 
a prince of the northern mountaineers of Armenia, to make a 
present of one of your servant's old and useless beasts to your 
only guest; and, in lieu of it, to give a good one to them." 
(This custom is much in vogue among the Mahomedan khans.) 
''What will the freebooters of Dagistan say? they are but three 
days journey from Carabagh, and are all your guests and truest 
friends. Emin will come to-morrow morning, and take his leave, 
without accepting a horse." This he spoke, when his hostess the 
lady Mirza Khan was standing at her door perfectly astonished. 
On the next morning he put on his sword, slung his gun 
over his shoulder, mounted his old beast, and went to the khan, 
who was sitting in his eyvan, or varanda, in the middle of four 
dastardly Armenian chiefs, two on each side of him ; namely 
Yusup of Threshetzy, and Hatham of Carrabert,* on the right ; 
Shahnazar of Varranda, and Isay of Dizah,f on the left; with all 
their fighting men standing in a row, with ordered arms. There 
Emin^ for good manners, dismounted at a little distance, made 
a salam, without bending his body, and spoke, very loud, these 
.words: "O Khan! by your permission, your guest is going away; 
he, whom you did not think worthy of a horse out of your own 
stables. Have you any command to Shamakhy in Servan ? I 
am ready to execute it." The khan, with all his Christian and 
Mahomedan warriors, were struck with Emin's daring behaviour, 
which may appear imprudent to his readers; but when they ma- 
turely consider his desperate situation at that time, when he 
had nothing but a paltry life to lose, they will agree that he 
was in the right and his conduct gained him more in the good 

* Yusup of the Beglarians, Meliks of Gulistan, and Atham of the Israelians, Meliks of 
Chrapiert'h. Threshetzy is a form of Thalish. 
t Iesai of the Avanians, Meliks of Thizak, 


opinion of every brave mountaineer, which spread like lightning 
through all Persia, Georgia, and Turkey, than the several skir- 
mishes in which he had been engaged. His poor countrymen, 
seeing his boldness, began to fetch deep sighs and groan like so 
many chained lions, speaking so loud that the khan as well as 
the four low-hearted chiefs, could hear them saying, " O ! if he 
could but have two thousand of us, he might command all the 
Mahomedans." At that critical time, had the chiefs but moved 
to second the unique Emin, they might have been free from 
subjection to this day : for the men were already murmuring at 
their worthless lords, whose eyes were blind, their ears deaf, and 
their hearts in their bellies. Ibrahim's indignation of yesterday 
was no more : his mouth was opened, his ruddy face looked like 
chalk, and his eyes were sunk in his head. He immediately 
ordered a fine colt of four years old to be brought from his 
own stable, and with smooth speech begged Emin to accept it; 
but he, before his face, made a present of it to one of the Colan 
Curds, thanked him, and went away with the utmost coolness; 
resembling a schoolmaster who had been reprimanding one of 
his school-boys for not minding his book. Attempts of this kind 
Emin often made, (and he hopes he may mention them without 
boasting,) nor ever failed to endanger his single life, at several 
times and in several ways, in hopes of delivering his country 
while he was in Armenia. But, alas ! it was to no purpose, as 
the rich men hugged their bags of money to their breasts as 
close as possible to their miserable hearts; and on the other 
hand, the demi-gods of the church undermined the foundation 
of it. 

When he returned to Gantzasar monastery, Johannes Catho- 
licus was surprized to see him ; and began to rub his eyes, 
talking to himself, and saying, " Good God ! methinks I am in 
a dream ! ' ' while the other monks were standing by and laugh- 
ing. When he had recovered himself from his reverie, he lifted 
up his hands and eyes, glorifying God for his infinite mercy, in 


preserving Emin from the jaws of tygers. He then said to him, 
"The Lord in heaven is with you, my beloved friend, my noble 
prince. O ! I wish his Holiness Simon, the head Catholicus of 
all Armenia, had as much esteem for you as I have, together 
with my own monks and nine gallant brothers ; then we could 
easily bring about things to a good purpose, and extirpate 
the enemies of our Christian faith. But, alas! Simon is not 
your friend, nor a well-wisher to his nation. He is not to be 
blamed for being of a very low extraction ;* to this day, his 
brother gets his living as a patamar, or letter-carrier from one 
city to another on foot. Beware of his malignant heart. Do 
not condemn our chiefs, nor the people of Armenia, who, if it 
had not been for him, would have joined you with all their sub- 
stance, and put themselves under your management. Can you 
recollect, a fortnight ago, when my messenger brought a letter 
directed for Melik Yusup, while you were with him at Gulis- 
tan?" Emin said, "Yes, Sir, the messenger's name is Musis." 
"Well," said he, "that was Simon's own letter, sent to me by 
his own patamar or carrier, with a separate letter for me. 
Besides desiring me to direct it with my own hand and send it 
by my carrier, in order to keep it secret from you, and to com- 
mand Yusup to turn you out of his nation, he dispatched also 
four letters to the other four chiefs, advising them to be cautious 
and not to enter into your measures, lest Ivan Turan should be 
displeased with them: and on the other hand, his Holiness' s 
revengeful curse of excommunication should be ready to crush 
them, and condemn their Christian souls to everlasting fire. 
Consider, my dear friend, with such a powerful enemy against 

* The Catholicos Johannes himself belonged to a very old nobility, that of the Hassan- 
Djalalian line, the only family of the five Meliks which was indigenous to Karabagh. Kara- 
bagh was formerly part of the old Aghvan kingdom, and the patriarchates dated from the 
time of Gregorius, the grandson of Gregory the Illuminator, up to 1828, that is to say, 
they existed for a period of fifteen centuries. The seat of the last Aghvan patriarchate 
was the Vank of Gandtsasar, in the province of Khachin. la the province of Khachin 
temporal and spiritual power were alike vested in the Hassan- Djalalian line. 

4 1 


your noble motives, and the Vali Heraclius to give the second 
blow, how can it be possible for you to succeed in them ? His 
reasons for opposing them and you would have been good, if it 
had been in the reign of the late Sultan Murad, at the head of 
the Othman Turks, and Shah Abbas commanding the Persian 
and Nadir, the great hero, who took away the sarpush (or 
cover), and rent the veil of all the eastern quarter of the globe, 
and left the country paved, and the door of liberty open before 
each nation, who have since been groaning under the chains of 
tyranny, and panting to become independent j witness Georgia, 
which is not equal to a fifth part of Armenia, yet has been free 
ever since the death of Nadir. Why should not the Armenians 
follow the example ; get rid of a few mob ringleaders, or in- 
significant petty tyrants, and form an alliance with their northern 
neighbours (I mean the mighty Russians), so as to enjoy liberty, 
as well as their fellow Christians in the kingdoms of blessed 
Frankistan, whose glorious actions nature has placed among the 
twelve celestial signs of the heavens. Nothing can hinder us 
but the ecclesiastics, with Simon now at their head; they are 
the only obstacles in your way, and will always disconcert every 
laudable design of yours. I would have you be contented and 
patient while he exists. After he has bidden farewel to this 
sublunary world, where he has been unhappy all his life time, 
and is gone to enjoy the heavenly one in the next, we may then 
hope for our liberty, by praying God to send us a good chief 
and a true lover of country to succeed him, and restore the 
light of the sublime chair of Gregor Lusavoritch (that is Gregor 
the Giver of Light), the first converter of the Armenian nation 
to Christianity." Emin said with a smile, "Suppose he should 
prove as great a coward as his predecessor ? " Catholicus 
Johannes said, "Then Lord have mercy upon us!" The con- 
versation being ended, they went to dinner. Emin stayed there 
three days with great satisfaction, enjoying the company of his 
Grace, who was really much of a gentleman, and understood 


Persian. Though a priest, he was too much of a politician; he 
was well qualified in the knowledge of that country, and could 
give a very good account of it. So that Emin with great 
reluctance took leave of him, who would have rejoiced with all 
his heart, if Emin could have lived with him the rest of his 
life ; but the jealousy of Ibrahim Khan prevented it ; for 
although Emin had behaved so haughtily without danger, yet, if 
he had stayed there, it is ten to one he might have been assas- 
sinated by some treacherous stratagem. The khan did not put 
his furious designs in execution, fearing an offence to the Rus- 
sians or Lazguis, which was hinted to him, while they cared not 
a pin, at so great a distance, for Emin's life. And the khan's 
ignorance of his power made him fear to make an end of an 
empty noisy Armenian, who, by virtue of a little European 
conduct, had saved himself more than a hundred times, for 
twenty years, in those barbarous distracted countries, where the 
mighty Russians have been expected for seventy years last past. 



[ Journeys on, meeting with silkwinders, gipsy Armenians and others — Monk 
Sukias again — A letter from secular priest Gabriel offering him support of 
18,000 mountaineers needing no pay — Sukias with 600 tumans for Emin, 
gives him thirty rupees, accompanied by threats — Adventure with Mahmed 
Melick Beg — Emin by his ready wit saves the life of a poor Persian — Ali's cat 
who always fell on four legs — The Beg tries to get the better of Emin, who 
outwits him — "What art thou, angel or devil?" — Wanders on to an Ar- 
menian mountain village where he is kindly received.] 

A FTER leaving Gantzasar, and travelling two days, he reached 
the bank of the river Cur, and passed it with his two ser- 
vants in a ferry-boat, to the district of Shaky, under the govern- 
ment of Husein Khan, son of the late Hajy Cheleli, who for- 

324 h£r£ or At bagdad! 

merly defeated Nadir Shah. No sooner had he mounted his 
horse, than he saw at a little distance from the river, on his left, 
a thatched place, where about a dozen soldier-like men were 
employed _ in winding new silk on a large reel. They imme- 
diately came up and laid hold of the horse's rein, inquiring who 
he was? He answered, "An Armenian of Timjz, going to 
Shamakhy, with a letter from the Vali to the Sircar of that place 
(a title given to its khan, since the death of Nadir)." "By no 
means," said they, "shall you be suffered to go to the Sircar; 
we will conduct you to our Khan Husein, and know your busi- 
ness ; you look neither like a Georgian, nor a merchant." Emin 
said, " Brave fellows, you judge very right. I will submit to 
your pleasure ; take me where you think proper. According 
to the old Turkish phrase, it is the same to a blind man to be 
here or at Bagdad. But consider that I have nothing to do at 
Shaky, nor will your khan be either glad or sorry to see me." 
One of them, a good-natured well-looking man, stood by Emin, 
defending him ; saying, in these very words : "O, my good 
companions ! suppose one of us had been in this stranger's case, 
going to Khorasan, and were to be compelled to go to Constan- 
tinople, would it not be cruel to annoy him in so barbarous a 
manner ? Surely we must have some feeling for our fellow-crea- 
tures, whether they be Musulmans or CafTers." They all agreed, 
and let Emin go, wishing him a good journey ; but advising 
him to be expeditious, in order to overtake a caravan that had 
passed by about an hour before. He did so ; and with immense 
difficulty, after travelling five days arrived safe at a place called 
Gadalar, where an Armenian church stood, two miles from the 
town of Shamakhy. Here lived a dozen Gypsy Armenians, to 
take care of it for those merchants in the city who came with 
a priest twice a week, on Saturday evening and Sunday morn- 
ing, to pray, and to hear mass. But those nimble-handed Gyp- 
sies no sooner saw Emin and his servants lie down to sleep after 
the fatigue of their journey, than they stole his horse's felt- 


cloth, which exposed the poor beast for a month after to the 
cold weather; and even distressed Emin, who used to spread 
it on the ground to set or lay himself down on it. This trifling 
loss was very provoking and made him recall to mind all his 
past misfortunes. However, he bore it with patience, and said 
nothing to them. They did not know him personally ; but were 
sagacious enough, like dogs, to suspect something by his halting 
in that low place, and not proceeding to Shamakhy, where he 
might have lodged at an inn, if he had been apprehensive of the 
governor, who watched till he went to sleep, and took advan- 
tage of his rest to rob him. 

The next day, he sent Moossess his relation to the town, 
to inquire among the Armenian merchants, if there was a cara- 
van ready for going to Baku, or Derband. The poor fellow in 
the afternoon returned with remarkable cheerfulness in his coun- 
tenance; wished him joy, and said, "Suciaz Vardapit (or monk) 
is coming. It is he whom we saw at Boragan, near Kizlar, 
when he had an order from Jonas the archbishop, the superior 
of St. John the Baptist, to pay you all the money collected from 
the Armenians, amounting to 600 tumans." He added, "Sir, 
though you would not accept any when you had a small sum 
of your own, yet, I hope you will now take at least one fourth 
of it." No sooner had he ended with groundless joy, than in 
came Suciaz himself, without any sort of concern, as if he did 
not know him, on purpose that the Gypsies might suspect noth- 
ing. He spoke to Emin as if he had been a stranger; but when 
they retired, he asked the reason of his coming thither ? Emin 
said, that he could not do otherwise, and was almost exhausted 
for want of mere subsistence; that he was going to Dirband, 
and thence to Astrakhan. Suciaz laughed heartily, and gave him 
a sealed letter directed to himself ; desiring him to read it first, 
and promising then to tell him what he should do. When he 
opened it, he found it written in the following terms : 


" By the grace of God, the only hope of all Armenians. 

"Be it known to your Highness, two years and a half ago, 
when you were at Tifrliz, and on good terms with his majesty 
our blessed King Heraclius of Georgia, (whom Christ preserve 
to protect us Christians against barbarous infidels!) he and you, 
unanimously agreed to give me letters of credit, with a com- 
mission to go to Btzmiatzin, or the three churches, there to 
obtain a patent from his Holiness the Catholicus, to enter 
Armenia, under pretence of begging alms, and collecting money 
toward repairing or rebuilding the ruined church of Kains, out 
of the fortification of Tifniz; and, by that pretence, to blind 
the Mahomedan rulers of our countrymen in different towns, 
provinces, and villages. Thereupon having executed every part 
of my commission, by learning the minds and inclination of all, 
one by one, particularly the people of Mush, where stands the 
church of St. John, whose archbishop Jonas, with a warm 
heart, was very willing to receive you, on condition that prince 
Heraclius would give you a little assistance; of which, when I 
returned to Tifniz, he was informed, but disconcerted the whole 
project. In my way, before I went to Tiffliz, I made it my 
business to visit the Nestorian Christians, in the countsy of 
Khuy Sulmas; and found in the same nation a monk turned 
Roman Catholic, in a village called Khosrove, who had converted 
of his own countrymen above 800 families; and who assured 
me, that if you would go to his who had influence with the 
Nestorian mountaineers, he would place you at the head of 
18,000 of them. And he said likewise, those people who inhabit 
high mountains almost inaccessible, and pay no tribute to any 
Mahomedan power, knowing you well by hearsay, will be very 
glad to receive you, proyided you exert yourself to manage and 
lead them on properly. I told him you wanted money. He 
said, they require no money, and know well he has none, 
Their arms will procure every thing that is necessary, as soon 
as he shall come thither to be that brave people's commander. 


Now, Sir, do as you think best. In case you should not suc- 
ceed with them, you may easily return to Heraclius, who is 
very sorry that he used you so ill; and has sworn by the life 
of his children, that he will receive you with open arms for 
Christian conduct, when, at the head of so many thousand L,az- 
guis, instead of revenging yourself for his ill treatment, you 
bravely marched and ruined Shaverdy Khan, his restless and in- 
veterate enemy, whose artful pen composing jealous letters would 
have been instrumental in bringing Carim Khan, with an army 
of 100,000 Persians, from Shiraz to Timiz. In my way by land 
to Astrakhan, and passing this town, I have written these lines, 
and left them with Suciaz, your friend Jonas' s minister, to de- 
liver or send them to you, as he has orders from his superiors. 
He can supply you with a sufficient sum of money, and I hope 
you will accept it of him, though you refused before, when he 
offered it to you at Boragan, within a day's journey of Kizlar. 

I am, Sir, 

Your, &c. 

Shamakhy ^he Secular Priest Gabriel." 

20th October 1767. 

Emin, on reading this letter, was elated with joy, and said 
to Suciaz, "Well, reverend father, I obey your commands; I 
"will not proceed to Russia, but return back to Armenia, and 
try once more to renew the same attempt, at the risque of my 
life." Suciaz said, " I will give you no more than thirty rupees, 
Armenian money, out of six hundred tumans; but if you think 
it not sufficient to bear your few expences on the journey, and 
will not consent to go on with it, and throw yourself among 
those brave men, depend on it, I shall become your enemy, and, 
informing against you, will deliver you to the khan of Shamakhy, 
who will put you to death immediately. You are to save the 
Armenians by the assistance of God, who has preserved you 
to this day without money : he alone is your friend, your all, 


and none else. When you have made a little footing there, 
you will have money from the nations, who, without compul- 
sion, will bring it, and lay it down at your feet." Emin bore 
this with patience, and said not a word to the disciple of Bel- 
zebub for his infernal menacing rhetoric. He accepted the thirty 
rupees as the price of his blood ; but he flattered himself with 
hopes of success, when he thought of the letter of the secular 
priest Gabriel, though he could easily foresee, that, without 
money, the event of it would prove nothing but dangerous 
fatigue and trouble. 

At every stage in his way to the village of Khorasan, in 
the province of Salmas, Emin took another route, for caution's 
sake, not to see those silk-winders on the pass of the river Cur 
before mentioned. After three days travelling, he overtook one 
Mahmed Melick Beg, mounted on horseback, with a single ser- 
vant, walking slowly on his own territory; and his house hap- 
pened to be close to the Cur, where they were to pass. In less 
than three hours they could reach that place. Emin was sing- 
ing some Turkish and Persian songs before they came up to 
the Beg, who happened to hear them at some distance, and re- 
quested him to begin again : he made no difficulty, went on 
singing as well as he could, and pleased the party very much. 
Melick asked Emin what his name was ? He answered, Yusup j 
upon which the Beg began to suspect him, and said, he had an 
Armenian slave, named Sarkiss, now made free by turning Maho- 
medan, who had a brother at Kizlar, named Joseph, who under- 
stood Turkish and Persian, and was made a slave by the 
Iyazguis, then turned Musulman, but ran away to the country 
of the Caffers, professing himself a Christian again. " I suspect," 
said he, "that you are the very man." Emin said, "Sir, are 
you assured that he turned Musulman?" He said, "Yes; some 
of the Lazguis told me, that Sarkiss' s brother was circumcised 
in Dagistan." Then Emin said, with a smile, "Sir, I am glad 
you have such authority for it; and hope you will not be 


displeased, if I take the liberty allowed by Mahomed, to satisfy 
you that I am not the man." The Beg said, "Not in the least, 
since you quote the blessed name of the prophet." Emin said, 
he was ready to prove that he was not circumcised ; and this 
offer removed all doubt from the Beg's mind, who desired him 
to sing Persian again. 

Kmin had not begun two minutes when he saw, at a great 
distance, a Kezelbash Persian, mounted on a black horse, and 
riding hard towards them. When he came near, he was almost 
out of breath, and seemed very much in distress. The Beg's 
servant stopped him directly, laying hold of his horse's rein, 
and ordering him to dismount, saying, that he was a thief. 
Emin, seeing the man in that distressed situation, from a mo- 
tive of humanity, was prompted, at the danger of his own life, 
to interpose. He told the Beg, he had an arzi (a petition) to 
make: the Beg said, "Go on, Joseph." Emin begged him to 
order his man not to handle the stranger roughly : his request 
was granted directly, all of them standing still on the road. 
Then Emin proceeded thus: "May it please you, most merci- 
ful Beg, some years ago I was coming from Bagdad to Bosrah, 
in an Arab vessel, on the river Tigris. After eight days run- 
ning with the current, and sailing, about twelve o'clock a large 
, fine fish, weighing full two maunds, leaped out of the water, 
and fell into the vessel: the Arab sailors eagerly ran from all 
sides to catch and cut it in pieces for their provision ; but the 
master, or captain, cried out, For God's sake, do not hurt it! 
and, holding it with his two hands, threw it again into the 
water, telling the sailors, that poor fish did not jump in to be 
made a prey, but in hopes of being protected by them from 
some enemy in the water who pursued it. Consider the mean- 
ing of my story, and have compassion on this man, who has 
fled from his country for protection. If he is an honest man, 
or even but a stranger in great distress, it is against the law 
of God that he should be treated with violence, especially as 


you see he has been already robbed of his arms out of your 
territory, and has nothing left but that horse, which he must 
sell in order to live, when he comes to Shamakhy." Melick 
Mahomed was astonished at Emin's interceding in behalf of that 
Shiah Musulman; and said to the monk Aratun, his fellow- 
traveller, "What an extraordinary man is that Armeqian Joseph! 
he endeavours with all his might to save that Caffer Kezelbash, 
an enemy to his countrymen, and to the true faith of Islam." 
Then turning to the Persian, he said, "Thou art free: — 'get 
thee gone : — pray for this Armenian as long as you exist ; for he 
has saved not only thy horse, but thy life also." The poor man 
wept for joy, made a low bow, spurred his horse, and went away 

But though Emin's expostulation prevailed on Mahomed to 
save the Persian, still his avaricious disposition would not suffer 
him to continue quiet in his momentary sense of humanity, but, 
like a wild beast, who though brought up ever so tame, yet 
when nature comes will soon shew what he is made of, the Beg 
then said, "Well, Joseph, you have saved the Kezelbash' s life 
with your's, by the history of the Arab and the fish, which 
highly pleased me. I am now thinking how to cultivate friend- 
ship with you, who must have seen a great deal of the world^ 
and have great experience. I see your horse is a stallion ; and , 
I shall be very glad if you will exchange it for a gelding of 
mine, which is at home?" Emin said, "I would with all my 
heart ; but, I am sorry to say, the beast is not my own ; it was 
intrusted to me by an Armenian gentleman, to have the free 
use of it only, and to deliver it to Melick Shaknazar the Ar- 
menian at Carabagh, who, I understand, is your intimate friend ; 
and I am in great hopes he will give me a couple of milch 
cows, for my trouble in taking so much care of it, as you observe 
it is in so good order : and if I carry your's instead of this 
under me, if he did not murder me, he would never forgive me." 
The Beg said, "You are exactly like Ali's cat, who could not be 


thrown upon his back, but always came down upon four legs." 
The story of the Persian is, that Ali was so strong as to handle 
a lion like his cat ; and when he played with it, threw it up 
in the air a thousand cubits high, to see if it would fall on its 
back, but it constantly fell on all fours. This expression of 
Mahomed B,eg signified, that he was as powerful as Ali, and 
could play with Emin as with a cat. He insisted on taking his 
horse from him, and said, he would write to Shaknazar about 
it, to indemnify Emin. At that very time, reaching his thatched 
house, he dismounted, and, turning his back, went in to undress 
himself, with half of the speech yet in his mouth; and little 
imagining that Emin was looking out sharp for the means of 
escaping, who immediately took off the horse's saddle, stepped 
into a small light fishing-boat that lay on the bank, led the 
horse by the rein in his left hand into the water, and striking 
with his right hand as an oar, while his horse swam, presently 
crossed to the opposite side of the Cur, which was narrow at 
that part, but very deep, saddled the horse again, and mounted, 
just before Melick Mahomed was apprized of it. The Beg, look- 
ing out of the window of his house, by the side of the river, 
stared as if he had been in a dreadful dream, and called out to 
Emin, "Art thou gone at last, Joseph? Who rowed thee over? 
What art thou, an angel or a devil?" He answered, "Neither 
the one nor the other ; but I crossed as some other Armenians 
had crossed over; men who had nothing to fear, if they had 
staid there ever so long, as being subjects to Ibrahim Khan, 
and on very good terms with the Shirvan Begs." Then Emin 
said aloud, "Mahomed Beg, why are you so anxious to know 
who I am? Have not I told you I am an Armenian?" The 
Beg again said, "I charge you by the law of the Messiah, for 
whose sake you will part with your life, to tell me truly, who 
you are?" Then said Emin, "Sir, my name is Emin, at your 
service." At this, Melick Mahomed expressed great satisfaction, 
saying, "If you had not told me the truth, I should have vexed 


myself to death. I well know you will not come back again to 
be my guest for some days, if I should invite you. You are 
the very man we have heard of ; and we shall hear more, if the 
thick-headed Armenians will have the good sense to follow you. 
Go your* way: I pray God to be with you, and prosper you in 
every undertaking; for I shall never forget your great humanity 
in saving the Kezelbash, and your spirited conversation, and 
intrepid courage in passing the river with a surprising celerity." 
Emin said, " Any man may do this, and more, provided he walk 
in the right path of God's commandments:" then bidding him 
adieu, he marched off with his few comrades, towards the Cara- 
bagh Armenians, subject to Ibrahim Khan, his indifferent friend. 
About six in the afternoon he halted at Sambaran, a great 
village subject to that khan. The next day he travelled from 
four in the morning till six in the afternoon, when he reached 
the foot of the mountains; and, having ascended them an hour 
and a half more, came to an Armenian village, (the name of 
which he has forgotten), where he was entertained unknown for 
two hours ; but when the monk Aratun mentioned who he was 
the villagers shewed him an hundred times more politeness than 
at first, and behaved with great kindness. 



Transldied and adapted from Raffi's " Five Meliks." (Vienna, 1906.) 

After the disappearance of actual royalty there still existed in Arme- 
nia a group of independent princes, descendants of old royal houses, who 
were called governors, governors of marches, heads of provinces, and so 
on. In time these also disappeared in their turn, and in the 16th and 
17th centuries there came into prominence certain men of noble descent, 
some of whom already possessed, and others, who were new-comers, who 
acquired territorial rights over large tracts of land on the Karabagh 
plateau, eventually becoming the rulers or chiefs of five small adjacent 
provinces. They received formal recognition at the hands of Shah Abbas, 
who sanctioned and established the independent rule of each in his own 
territories, reviving and bestowing on them the old title of Mielik,* or 
Melik, in acknowledgment of the great services rendered by them to him 
in his wars against the Osmanlis. 

Their provinces in geographical order were as follows. 
GUL,iSTAN,t or Thalish, extending from the river Kiurak (Kiurakchai) to 

the river Tharthar (now Ter-ter). 
CHRAPIERT.J or Charapiert'h, from the Tharthar to the river Khachin. 
khachin, from the river of the same name to the river Ballu. 
varranda, from the river Ballu to the Thizaphaithi mountain belt. 
thizak, from the Thizaphaithi hills to the river Ierask (Araxes). 

The succession to the Melikdoms was generally hereditary, the eldest 
son succeeding under the title of Melik. The younger sons were called 
Beg. The ancestors of all the Meliks had possessed the title of Uzbashy 
(centurion), a title granted to men who owned estates and lands, and 
who had the right of keeping armed retainers. The rule of the Meliks 
was autocratic and absolute, each governing his province and his people 
according to the laws and customs of his forefathers, with unlimited 

* Mielik or Melik = landowner, ruler, or chief. Mulk is a variant of Melik. 

t Gulistan = Persian for a land of roses. Karabagh was celebrated for its exquisite roses. 

X Chrapiert'h = a fort surrounded by water. 


334 NOTE; ON TH^ mexiks of KARABAOH. 

authority over the persons of his subjects or dependents, even to the 
infliction of capital punishment. 

The Meliks re-constructed and fortified the ancient strongholds of 
Aghvan kings and princes. (Their provinces had formerly formed part of 
the Aghvan kingdom). The Melik of Gulistan possessed two fortresses, 
one near the village of the same name, at the summit of an inaccessible 
height, and another at the small town of Thalish, opposite- the Vank of 
Horiek. The fortress of the Melik of Chrapiert'h was situated opposite 
the Ieritsmankants* Vank,f by the river Tharthar, on the top of a terrific- 
ally precipitous rocky peninsula formed by the waters of the rivers 
Tharthar and Thurghin furiously rushing on either side. The Khachin 
Melik's fort was near the Khachin river, opposite the celebrated Vank of 
Gandtsasar, on the summit of a lofty thickly-wooded mountain peak, and 
had been originally constructed by the Hassan-Djalalian princes against 
Tartar invasions. Another fortress in the same province, on a pinnacle 
high up amongst the clouds, was called the Magpies' Fort, supposed to be 
accessible only to those birds. The Varranda Melik's fort was at 
Chanakhch, a " Gospel "J village opposite a nunnery, and the Melik of 
Thizak occupied a fort at the small town of Thugh, high up near the 


The Black Centurion, or "Sev" (Black) Apov, the first of the 
Beglarian clan to settle in Karabagh, came there in an impoverished con- 
dition, with a few dependents and followers, one autumn in the end of 
the sixteenth, or beginning of the seventeenth century, and lived with 
his people in tents pitched on the left bank of the river Tharthar, near 
what is now called the village of Thalish. Apparently some calamity 
had driven him from his native country of Nij in the province of Uthi, 
and had compelled him to seek an asylum elsewhere. 

Shortly after his coming to Karabagh, a raid of robbers having taken 
place on the neighbouring lands of the Khan of Barda, " Sev " Apov 

* Ieritsmankants = the Three Children (Book of Daniel). 

f Vank = monastery, including the church, and all other buildings appertaining thereto 
% A "Gospel" village, Avietharanuots (Avietharan = Gospel), means a village in which 
there is a church possessing a notable manuscript of the Gospels — celebrated for its work- 
manship in illuminations, or binding, or possibly for its miraculous properties, such as heal- 
ing the sick, and so on. 


went out with some of his young men in pursuit of the invaders, return- 
ing soon after with the stolen property and cattle, and the thieves as 
well, having caught and taken them prisoners. Some of the retainers of 
the Khan appeared next day, saying they had orders to arrest the 
thieves, whom they took away and brought before their master without 
saying to whom the credit of the capture was due, in order to claim 
a reward. Bat this wounded the self-esteem and roused the indignation 
of the captives, who had surrendered to a worthier foe. " Punish us as 
thou wilt," said they to the khan, "for we have laid waste thy lands, 
but dishonour us not by remunerating the unachieved prowess of these 
miserable men, as if they had been our victors!" Whereupon the khan, 
discovering the real hero of the adventure to be the Black Centurion, 
wanted to reward him, but, like a brave man, he refused any recompense, 
saying, "Grant me only a place to settle in." The Khan gave him the 
village of Thalish, or Thalij, near the Vank of Horiek. 

On his tombstone is inscribed one line only, from which it appears 
that he died in the year 1081 of the Armenian era,* A.D. 1632. He 
left several sons and was succeeded by the eldest, Melik Beglar, who 
resembled his father in wisdom and courage. He founded and consoli- 
dated the Melikdom of the Beglar family, extending his rule over much 
of the neighbouring country, including the fortress of Gulistan, which he 
repaired and resided in. He left two sons, Apov and Thamraz. The 
former, who succeeded him, was known as Kagh, or Lame, Apov, on 
accouat of an injury to one of his legs. His life of pillage and plunder 
enabled him to gain and keep power. He took everything by force, 
iticluding his wife ! One day, having gone out on a marauding expedition 
with some of his men, he chanced on the obaner f of Alainlath Khan in 
the mountains above the village of Gedashen. While attacking him 
he caught sight of his daughter, and was so attracted by her beauty that 
he entirely forgot his plan of plundering the Khan of his rich flocks and 
herds of cattle, carrying off his daughter instead, to his fortress of Gulis- 
tan, where he had her converted and baptised, and then married her. 
This abduction brought about a long and sanguinary feud between Apov 
and the Khan, ending in the defeat of the latter, and for many years 

* To find the date according to the Armenian Little Era subtract 551 from the year of 
Our Lord. — 1918 = 1367. 

I Obaner = a tent, or encampment of tents without sides, having only a roof. These 
nomad tribes move with the sun, so that it is always summer with them, and they need no 
other shelter. 


the Khan's anger against his daughter and her self-invited bridegroom 
was unappeased. Old age brought reconciliation, and, having no suc- 
cessor, he left his daughter all his villages, so that Apov, through his 
wife, became the owner of a large tract of land. He died in 1728,* and 
his son Yusup being under age, the government of the country was 
given to his brother Thamraz, and Yusup was placed in his guardianship. 
But Thamraz carried on his government from his palace near the Vank 
of Horiek not as regent, but as ruler, treating Yusup with cruelty and 
meditating his destruction. Yusup lived in the fortress of Gulistan with 
his mother, the beautiful Ghamar-soltana, in an unenviable condition. 

When the vizir Mirza Thahir, tax and tribute-collector to Shah 
Sultan Hussein, visited Karabagh, Melik Thamraz, wishing to ingratiate 
himself with the Persian government, received him in his house, imposed 
fresh and unjust taxes on his people, and hinted to the vizir that his 
brother's gun, in the possession of young Yusup, was a rare fire-arm, 
worthy of the Shah's treasury. Yusup was told to bring the weapon, and 
the vizir, on seeing it, took it away, saying "This fire-piece is more suit- 
able for the treasury of the Shah than for you." Yusup returned to his 
mother with tears in his eyes and without the only relic she possessed of ' 
her husband's brave deeds. " Unworthy son of a brave father," cried 
she, "rather would I that thy dead body had been brought to me, for 
then men would have said that thou hadst lost thy life sooner than 
lose this relic of thy father." Stung by her reproaches — " I will re- 
cover it," exclaimed the boy, and asked for money to buy arms. His 
mother gave him the few gold ornaments she wore on her head. 

The vizir, having collected all that he could, set out with his < 
servants and mules laden with tribute. Yusup, with a band of his 
young comrades, lay in wait for him and fell upon the cavalcade at the 
narrow pass of the river Tharthar, where Yusup with his own hand 
cut off the vizir's head and recovered his father's gun.f They killed 
some of the followers and some escaped, while Yusup. and his brave boys 
carried off all the gold to his fortress. This deed went unpunished, for 
about that time the Shah was deposed and the Afghans came and took 
possession of Ispahan. 

Yusup's power having increased, he began to think of revenging 

* Apov was probably the grandson, not the son, of Beglar. 

t This fire-arm was sold for iooo roubles, says Raffi in a footnote, by the descendants 
of the Melik Beglarians to General Yerrnolov, who sent it to Moscow to the palace of 
" Arujeuaya." 

chrapiert'h and khachin. 337 

himself on his uncle and of regaining his rightful inheritance. He formed 
an alliance with Atham of Chrapiert'h, whose relations with Thamraz 
were not very friendly, and the two together besieged Thamraz in his 
fortress, which they took after some severe fighting, and Thamraz was 
hanged on an elm-tree, which Raffi says was still standing in 188:, on 
the boundary between Gulistan and Chrapiert'h, and was known as the 
"Bloody Cheuar". 

Yusup's mother, Ghamar-soltana, who by her wise counsels had 
greatly helped her son to rise to his rightful oosition, died in the year 
1753, and was buried in the family burial ground of the Melik Beglarians, 
opposite the Vank of Horiek. 


In 1687 Melik Iesai, of the Israelian family, with a number of fol- 
lowers and dependents, came to Karabagh with the intention of killing the 
principal Khan of Siunik, who had had immoral relations with his (Melik 
Iesa'i's) sister. The Khan's men attacked him, but he defeated them in 
the valley of the Arav Mountain,* putting them to flight and killing 
seven of the Khan's sons. He took possession of the mountain, the hill 
tribes and nomads who dwelt thereon gradually coming under his rule, 
and then he occupied neighbouring territory as far as the village of 
Thiuthakan, now known as Kathughkasar. He was succeeded by his 
brothers, during whose suzerainty many other places were added to 
their Melikdom, including Chrapiert'h, the name of this fortress giving 
them their territorial designation of Meliks of Chrapiert'h. 


Of the five Meliks of Karabagh the Meliks of Khachin were the 
only clan originally belonging to Karabagh. 

Their family, that of the Hassan-Djalalian princes, was a very 
ancient one, the members of which in course of time increased so greatly 
in numbers that the whole of the small province of Khachin was split 

* Now Murov Dagh. 



up and divided amongst them, the resultant weakening of their authority 
leading to the final extinction of their rule in Karabagh. 

[To this family belonged the Catholicos Johannes of Gandtsasar, 
who showed hospitality to Emin at his monastery. He fell a victim to 
Ibrahim Khan in the end, and his brother Bishop Sarkies became Catho- 
licos of Gandtsasar, dying in 1828. J 


The historian Arakiel relates that when Shah Abbas the Great 
journeyed from Tiflis to Kiegham, he took up his abode in the small 
town or village of Mazra, in the house of Melik Shahnazar, an Armenian, 
and a powerful noble, who showed the Shah hospitality and became his 
intimate and honoured friend. The Shah gave him the title of Melik 
and bestowed several villages and tracts of land on him and on his 
brothers. In 1682 Shahnazar's son Hussein, and his brother's son 
Melik Baghi, went to Karabagh and settled at Chanakhch in the province 
of Varranda, built churches and monasteries and fortified the place. In • 
172 1, when Caucasian mountaineers overran the country, Baghi resisted 
them and saved his lands from their inroads, after which more territory 
came under his rule, 

In 1733, when, under the leadership of Melik Avankhan of Thizak, 
the Armenians rose against the Osmanlis and cleared them out of Kara- 
bagh, the heroic wife of Melik Hussein of Varranda, Anna-khatoon, sister 
of Melik Avan, led the attack at the "Gospel" village of Chanakhch. 
Suleiman-beg, commanding the Osmanlis in that neighbourhood, had cast 
his eyes on Gaiane, the beautiful daughter of the Melik, but, not daring 
to carry her off, had proposed to marry her, and the parents had, with 
various excuses, put him off till the day planned for the rising. When 
fighting broke out Suleiman-beg tried to save himself by taking refuge 
in the house of the Melik, who had gone to another part of his province, 
the command of the "Gospel" village being in the hands of his wife. 
GaianS, standing armed at the door of the house, seeing her hated bride- 
groom rush in, drew her scimitar and thrust it into his heart, killing him. 
After this shedding of blood she gave up her life to religion, entering the 
nunnery at Chanakhch, where, in 188 1, Raffi was shown a beautiful 
manuscript of the Gospels which had been written by Gaiane. 

Melik Hussein died in 1736 and was succeeded by Melik Mirza-beg, 


his brother's son, who was beheaded, having greatly offended the Shah, 
and Melik Hussein's eldest son Hovsep became Melik by command of the 
Shah. His step-brother Shahnazar was a most immoral man, adopting 
in his private life the polygamous customs of the Persians, whereby he 
greatly shocked and revolted the religious feelings of the people, and in- 
curred the hatred of all the other Meliks. He also committed a terrible 
crime. Although his brother had become Melik by command of the 
Shah, he could not endure the thought of his possessing the suzerainty, 
and one evening he went to Hovsep's house, killed him with his own 
hands, and had his whole family put to death. One child only, Sahi 
Beg, was saved by his nurse escaping with him to the house of his uncle, 
Melik Allah- verdi* of the Hassan-Dialalians, in Khachin. This crime had 
very far-reaching consequences, for Shahnazar now became the ruler of 
the province of Varranda, and eventually, by reason of his alliance with 
Panah-khan, the cause of the downfall of Armenian rule in Karabagh. 
He was half Turkman, his mother having been the daughter of the Khan 
of Nakhichevan, and captured by Melik Hussein, who, later, married her. 


Melik Avan belonged to the family of the Loris Meliks, who, in the 
16th century, were very powerful in the province of Lori. On account of 
a dispute with his relative Elizbar, who had seized his paternal in- 
heritance, Avan quitted Lori and came to Karabagh, settling at the 
village of Thugh in the province of Thizak. Avan fortified the place 
and built a fine church there. Later, when some of his descendants came 
under the dominion of Ibrahim Khan, they turned Mohamedan, but 
Avan's memory is still cherished amongst them with great pride, his 
grave is regularly blessed, and the Easter-Day services in the church 
are performed at their expense. 

About the end of the second decade of the iSth century the greater 
part of Persia was overrun by the Afghans, another portion was in the 
hands of the Russians, while Persian Armenia and Georgia were occupied 
by the Osmanlis (Turks), who by the year 1723 had penetrated to 
Tiflis and Gandtsak (Ganja, now Elisavetpol), and had reached Karabagh. 
The Armenian Meliks, too few in numbers to resist the invasion alone, 

* Allah-verdi means Gift of God. 


had appealed to Russia for help, which was not granted to them. How- 
ever, the conquests of Nadir Shah, who cleared out the Afghans, invaded 
India, and then turned his sword against the Osmanlis, inspired the 
Meliks with courage to rise against the invaders, whose commander, Sari 
Moustafa, had established himself at Gandtsak, quartering his troops all 
over Karabagh, in the very houses of the Armenians. Under the leader- 
ship of Avan of Thizak, the chief, and the most powerful of the five 
Meliks, a rising was planned for the night of St. Bartholomew, 1733. At 
the given signal all the Armenians rose as one man against their unwel- 
come guests and slew them, cleansing Karabagh in one night of their 
hated presence, Sari Moustafa barely escaping with his life to Brivan. 

At the time of his coronation Nadir Shah assembled all the great 
nobles of his kingdom, and bestowed various honours and titles upon 
them, and also upon the Armenian Meliks, in return for the assistance 
they had rendered him against the Osmanlis. By a special firman he re- 
affirmed and re-established their authority in their dominions, particularly 
favouring Melik Avan, and bestowing on him the title of Khan. To 
Allah-ghouli of the Israelians he gave the title of Soltan, or Sultan, 
which in Persia was a title given to generals, and in the reign of Nadir 
was a distinction bestowed on the heads of provinces. 

Melik Avan once during a whole year provided at his own expense all 
the food required by the Shah's soldiers, and Nadir was very friendly with 
him, visiting him in his house and frequently dining there. The Melik was 
noted for keeping a sumptuous table, at which every procurable luxury 
was to be found. One day the Shah, somewhat abashed* at the lavish 
hospitality offered him, asked that a dish of freshf mushrooms should , 
be served to him. The Melik promised that his wish should be gratified, 
but whether it happened to be during the winter, or whether mushrooms 
were not to be found in the fields of Karabagh at that season, when the 
moment arrived for the desired dainty to be set before the king, the 
Melik's retainers placed before the royal guest a dish heaped up with 
gold ! " But I asked for fresh mushrooms," protested the bewildered 
Shah. " We can satisfy our hunger without mushrooms," was his host's 
cool reply — " But your warriors are in need of gold in order to defeat 
your enemies." And the Shah, pleased at the answer, accepted the gold 
instead of the mushrooms ! 

* This is the word in the original. But the spectacle of a Shah abashed — 
f Not pickled. 


[Melik Avail's visits to Petersburgh and the honours bestowed on him 
by Russian royalties, referred to by Emin, are lengthily related by Raffi.] 

Avan died in 1744, and was buried in the porch of his church at 
Thugh. His eldest son succeeded him, but reigned for one year only, and 
was succeeded by his younger brother Melik Iesai, treacherously killed by 
Ibrahim-khan in 1781. Most of Avail's descendants perished by treachery, 
and on account of this his wife Gohar-Khanum* quitted Thizak and went 
to live at Astrakhan and then at Uzlar. 

Melik Iesai's whole life was passed in warfare. He was the first of 
the Meliks to train and arm his men, forming them into bodies of regu- 
lar troops for the defence of his territory, for his province, bordering on 
Persia, was exposed to continual attack and invasion. 


During the reign of Nadir Shah a number of nomad Turkman robber 
tribes called Jevanshir, whose occupations were sheep-tending and brigand- 
age, were inhabiting the regions on the right bank of the river Kur. 
For the sake of the preservation of peace in the interior of Persia the 
Shah commanded these turbulent half-savage peoples to settle at Sarkhas, 
in Khorassan. A man belonging to one of their tribes, named Panah, 
having somehow contrived to find favour with the Shah, was appointed 
to arf insignificant post in the Shah's dominions — the only necessary quali- 
fication for which was the possession of a stentorian voice, in order to go 
, up and down the country loudly proclaiming the Shah's commands. 
"Sharji" (town-crier) Panah performed this duty for a considerable period 
of time, but for some misdemeanour or another he was condemned to 
lose his head, whereupon he fled to his native regions, roaming about 
in Karabagh, a fugitive vagabond, till Allah-ghouli-soltan, Melik of Chra- 
piert'h, took pity on him and made him his tax-collector. From time 
to time stringent orders came from Persia that Panah should be seized 
and sent back to suffer his sentence, but under Allah-ghouli-soltan's 
powerful protection he was safe. 

In 1747, after Nadir Shah was assassinated in his sleep one night in 
Khorassan by the bodyguardsman on duty at the door of his tent, ter- 

* Grandmother of the young lady who jilted my ancestor, and was forsaken by him ii 
a. Uzlar must be Kizlar, where Ehnin encountered Stupition. 


rible rebellions broke out in Persia, Shah succeeding Shah. The Jevan- 
shirs took the opportunity of returning to their native desert regions on 
the banks of the Kur, while "Sharji" Panah no longer went in fear of 
losing his head. He resigned his post as tax-collector and rejoined his 
tribesmen as an ordinary shepherd, and later on, after having acquired 
some influence over them, incited them to rebel against their employer, 
when he himself became their employer. Thus in a short, time he had 
contrived to get them into his power. At that time the Persians were 
selling political posts, honours, and titles. "Sharji" Panah, through the 
influence of Amir Aslam Khan, who was sent to the districts near Kara- 
bagh as governor by Atil Shah, purchased the title of Khan and became 
Panah Khan. But the ambition of this low-born tribesman, this far-sighted 
son of the desert, soared much higher than the acquisition of a title. 
What he aspired to was the absolute rule of an Ishkhan, or prince, and 
for him — a shepherd — it was not easy to attain to that height. His 
tribesmen were herdsmen, cave-dwellers in winter, and in summer need- 
ing pasturage and water for their flocks. The entire plateau of Karabagh 
belonged to the Meliks, to whom they had to pay tithes as grazing fees. 
Panah wanted to secure a central place for himself on the plateau. He 
first went to Bayat and tried to construct a fort there. But there came 
Yusup of the Beglarians, Melik of Gulistan, and Allah- ghouli-soltan of 
the Israelians, Melik of Chrapiert'h, and with them came Hadji Chelepy, 
governor of Sliirwan, and pulled it all down. Then he went to Tikrana- 
kiert'h and fortified a place there. But again came the two Melik?., and 
also Allah- verdi of the Hassan-Djalalians, for it was on his boundaries, 
and they razed it to the ground. Panah, seeing that their league was 
too strong for him, desisted for a time. 

Irritated at the impositions of the Persian authorities after Nadir 
Shah's death, Melik Iesai of Thizak ceased to pay tribute to the Persian 
government. Panah betrayed him to Atil Shah, who sent Kasim Khan, 
governor of Karadagh, with his troops to punish Melik Iesai. Panah 
joined him with a few thousand men, and they besieged the Melik in his 
fortress of Thugh, but it was too strongly fortified for them to succeed 
in taking it. Finding themselves between two fires — part of the Melik's 
troops being ambushed on the thickly wooded mountain slopes and part 
being in the fort — they retreated, came back the following year, and 
were again obliged to retire. Thereafter, for seven long years, Panah 
fought with Melik Iesai. Then, seeing that he could not defeat him, 
the cunning fellow made peace, and adopted other tactics. 


After Melik Shahnazar had committed the terrible crime of fratricide, 
the four other Meliks, who had unanimously vowed vengeance upon him, 
invaded Varranda with their troops, and Shahnazar retreated to his 
" Avietharanuots " fort of Chanakhch. The siege lasted many days, win- 
ter overtook them, and, after sacking and destroying the greater part of 
the village of Varranda, the Meliks went away, intending to return in the 
spring. Now came Panah's opportunity. Shahnazar needed an ally, and 
he found one ready to his hand in the Jevanshir. Panah advised him to 
build another fort for greater security, choosing the site on Shahnazar's 
private property, and the two constructed a fort on the banks of the 
river Karkar as quickly as they could in the intervals of fighting the four 
Meliks. Shahnazar laid the foundation stone, and the fortress was com- 
pleted in 1752, the people of the village of Shoshi were brought to live 
there, and it was named Shoshi or Shushi fortress. Panah had now suc- 
ceeded in establishing himself in the heart of Karabagh, to carry out 
his infamous plots for breaking up the league of the Meliks, with the 
aid of his ally, the traitor and villain, Shahnazar of Varranda. 

Sahi Beg, the rightful heir, son of Shahnazar's murdered elder 

' brother, had now grown up, and with the help of his uncle, Melik Allah- 
verdi of Khachin, desired to avenge the death of his father and regain 
his inheritance. Shahnazar now planned to kill the boy as well as his 
uncle, while Panah, on the other hand, wanted to place someone in 
Khachin as his tool, to impose his will on the whole of the province. 
Melik J Allah-verdi lived in his own fortress, called the Ulu-papi fort, near 
the river Khachin at the village of Karamech, or Orakhach, called by 

,the Turkmans the Ballu-Kaya fort. Panah and Shahnazar besieged him 
there with their Armenian and Turkman troops, but they received such 
a terrible battering from the Melik, who was renowned as an invincible 
warrior, that they fled for their lives, and shut themselves up in their 
fortress at Shushi. 

Panah and Shahnazar then plotted secretly with Mirza-khan,* Melik 
Allah-verdi's overseer at the village of Khanziristan, promising to make 
him Melik of Khachin if he would betray his master into their hands. 
Mirza-khan went to Allah-verdi and told him that Panah and Shahnazar 
were preparing to attack him with overwhelming forces, which the Melik 
would not be strong enough to withstand in his own fortress, advising 
him to retreat to the impregnable Magpies' Fort and provision it against 

* The wife of Mirza-khan was Emin's hostess at Shushi. 


a siege, he, Mirza-khan, as his faithful servant, rendering him all possible 
help in making the necessary preparations, to carry out which he invited 
Allah-verdi to his own house, whence they could visit the fort, which 
was not far from the village of Khanziristan. The unsuspecting Melik 
accepted the invitation. But at supper-time, Mirza-khan, Judas-like, left 
the room. He locked the door behind him, and Panah's and Shahnazar's 
men, who were lying concealed in the house, rushed in and overpowered 
the Melik. By Panah's orders he was beheaded and all his family killed, 
while Shahnazar killed young Sahi Beg. The fratricide's hands were 
steeped in the blood of his brother's son. 

Panah kept his promise. Mirza-khan became Melik of Khachin 
( I 755), ne an d his successors faithfully served the Khan of Shushi, and 
the Hassan- djalalians almost disappeared from Khachin. Infinite harm 
was thus wrought to Armenian rule in Karabagh. The Meliks still op- 
posing Panah did not lose heart, but with their whole united strength 
fought against Panah and his Armenian allies, for years carrying on a 
terrible bloody warfare which did great injury to their country. Then 
Panah, seeing no other way of ending it, proposed a truce and a con- 
ference, either at Shushi or the Vank of Amarassa. To this latter place ' 
the Meliks sent Allah-ghouli-soltan, Melik of Chrapiert'h, as their represen- 
tative. Thither went Panah with his faithful Shahnazar, and thither 
also, in order to visit Panah, went a khan from Nakhichevan, who, seeing 
a gigantic magnificently dressed man (Allah-ghouli) seated near Panah, 
mistook him for the latter, saluting him with great humility and respect. 
Later, on discovering his mistake, the khan reminded Panah of the 
saying of the celebrated Persian poet Sa'ati, — "Ten dervishes can He 
on a torn rug, but two kings cannot agree in one country." This made 
Panah think that his rule could never be firmly established while 
Karabagh held so splendid a chief. Breaking the truce, he treacherously 
entrapped Allah-ghouli,* and took him to Shushi, where he imprisoned, 
and shortly after, beheaded him. Thus did the low-born shepherd of the 
Jevanshirs show his gratitude to his former master, the man to whose 
powerful protection he owed his life when fleeing from the hands of 
Nadir Shah's executioner. 

To this day (iS8r) there may be heard from the country folk the song 
that the captive giant sang in his prison, calling on his brave brother 
Atham, and on his invincible spearman Thali Mahrassa, to come to his aid, 

* The name Allah-ghouli means Servant of God, 

Armenia's noble fleeth not ! 345 

to surround Shushi a.nd reduce it to dust and blood-soaked ashes, and set 
him free. His call for help reached the ears of the favourite beauty in 
Panah's harem. Smitten with pity, she sent him at supper-time, con- 
cealed in a dish of pilaf, the keys both of the fetters on his feet and of 
the doors of his prison, that he might unlock them and escape. To her 
came back the proud reply, 

" Armenia's noble fleeth not! But, had that been my desire, I 
have no need of keys ! " And with his powerful hands he crushed and 
broke his fetters, and filling up the dish with the pieces, sent it back 
to her, sa} r ing, iC Treachery will meet with its reward. My blood will not 
be unavenged." 

After despoiling Chrapiert'h of its sovereign lord, Panah, thinking 
that the resistance of the league of Meliks was broken down, sent an in- 
solent letter to Yusup of the Beglarians, Melik of Gulistan, commanding 
him to come and do him homage. But Yusup's soi would not allow 
his father to reply, saying he would answer Panah himself — which he did 
after his own fashion. Holding his naked sword over the head of Panah's 
messenger, he compelled him to swallow down the whole of the letter, 
and when the wretched man, in fear and trembling, had accomplished 
this to the last morsel — " Now go," said he. ff What thou hast swallowed 
here, that is the answer to Panah-Khan." 

Panah was infuriated at this, and the fighting between him and his 
allies and the three Meliks grew fiercer and fiercer, but he could not 
prevail against the latter, who kept him in a state of continual siege in- 
side his fort of Shushi. 

[Yusup evidently had another son besides Beglar (who was shot by 
his wife Amarnani, the daughter of Shahnazar of Varranda), and Apov, 
who are mentioned by my ancestor. In " The Astronomer of Karabagh," 
a historical tale written by the Russian author Platon Zupov, published 
at Moscow in 1834, the Armenian translation of which by Raffi was 
printed at Vienna in 1906, the incident of Panah's letter to Yusup is 
described, and the son's name is given as Hussein, and there is also 
related a violent scene which took place between Panah and Hussein. 
The scene ends by Panah arrogantly boasting to Hussein that he knew 
how to bring Hussein and all the people of Thalish into subjection to him. 
"What?" cried Hussein in a fury— ,f Repeat those words!" "And 
doth that seem so marvellous a thing to thee ?" sneered Panah. Like 
lightning Hussein drew his scimitar and attacked Panah, crying, " Die, 
evildoer!" But the cunning Khan had foreseen the thrust and evaded 



it, then called on his bodyguardsman to seize the young Melik. Hussein, 
not caring to survive and witness with his own eyes the downfall of his 
rule and the subjection of his people, plunged his weapon into his own 
breast and fell to the ground. Panah stood amazed at the act. 

"Now all is thine, Panah Khan," gasped his victim. "And may 
God grant — that the people of Karabagh — may not suffer." With these 
words he breathed his last.] • 



Thali-Mahrassa in the Turkman language signifies "Mad Friar." 
This was the nickname given by the country people to the Monk (Var- 
thapiet) Avak of the monastery of Elisha the apostle in Chrapiert'h.* 
The tall watch-tower on which the '■' Mad" one dwelt in solitude may still 
be seen by visitors to this Vank. When this militant monk charged on 
the field of battle, mounted on his famous ash-coloured charger, his awful 
voice of thunder was alone sufficient to terrify his enemies. Ecclesiastical 
fanaticism eventually punished him for the shedding of blood, and he 
was taken to Etchmiatsin and imprisoned in the ice-house to do penance. 
One day, on inquiring the cause of a disturbance in the Vank, he was 
told that the Kurds of Jalal had carried off all the cattle belonging to 
the holy fathers. "Can you give me a horse, and a few weapons? " 
said the (im)penitent. When his request was granted he mounted and 
followed the Kurds, returning a few hours afterwards with all the plun- 
dered booty. For this service to the monastery he received his freedom 
on condition that he would not again take life, but this promise was not 
kept, for he considered it no sin to kill the enemies of the fatherland, 
and he continued to join in all the warfare waged by the Meliks. One 
day, while fighting the I^ezguis near Gandtsak, night overtook him, and as 

* Raffi relates that in 1881, when he journeyed through Karabagh, he visited this 
monastery, built on the summit of a lofty mountain, which he describes as not one, but a 
group of monasteries, where there are eight churches, so close to one another that it was 
difficult to pass between them. There he saw the watch-tower in which the Mad Friar had 
dwelt, on the top of which a tall hazel tree had grown. 

Elisha the apostle, Ieghishd Arakial, was one of the many followers of the twelve 
apostles, who came and preached the Gospel in Armenia. All are called apostles, not only 
the twelve. Apostle, arakial, in Armenian, as in other tongues, means one sent, and is derived 
from the word arakiem, to send. 

Blood-thirsty arzuman. 347 

he sat resting on a tombstone surrounded by the bodies of those he had 
slain, one of the wounded L-ezguis raised his pistol and shot him dead. 
He was buried in the porch of the cathedral of Gandtsak. 



" Thiuli " is the Turkman for robber — highway or countryside day- 
light robber. Arzuman was the son of a shepherd in Chrapiert'h, later 
becoming one of Melik Atham's most intrepid warriors. Panah Khan 
was so harassed by him that he craftily seized his father Sarkies, and 
carried him to Shushi as a hostage. One day he said to the old man, 
" Reprimand thy son Arzuman, that he should cease from his evil-doings, 
he is devastating the country." "I have no son of the name of 
Arzuman," returned the old man, icily. "What sayest thou?" demanded 
Panah, waxing furious. " How is it possible that that blood-thirsty Arzu- 
man, who lays waste my lands, who sets fire to the houses of my peasan- 
try, who gives me no peace for a single day — how sayest thou that he 
1 is not thy son ? " 

" Yes, I say, he is not my son," answered the old man. " Had he 
been My son, thou wouldst not have been alive this day, and the ruins 
of thy fort would have become thy tomb!" There and then Panah 
gave orders that the proud old man's head should be cut off. 

In 1761, Fataly Khan, favourite general of Nadir, the late Shah, 
came towards Karabagh, and Yusup of Gulistan and Atham of Chra- 
piert'h, allying themselves with him, laid siege to Panah at Shushi. 
Panah and Shahnazar fought bravely for a time, then abandoned the 
fort. The two Meliks had made an agreement with Fataly that he should 
take all that was in the fort, and that Panah should be handed over to 
them. But Panah escaped by bribing Fataly with a thousand tumans, 
and giving him as a hostage his son Ibrahim, whom Fataly took with 
him to Persia. 

Panah's defeat rankled in his heart, and fighting soon broke out 

Yusup and Atham then applied to Thamraz of Georgia (father of 
Heraclius), promising him, in return for his aid in subduing Panah, to 
assist him whenever he needed help. Thamraz agreeing, the Meliks and 
Thamraz, with his troops, fought Panah and his allies at Askaran, on the 
banks of the Karkar. Panah's men were all killed, and he tried to escape 


by running away to Persia, but the two redoutable men, Thali Mahrassa 
and Thiuli Arzuman, went in pursuit of him and brought him back. 
Shahnazar and Mirza-khan having fled to their "Gospel" fort in the 
village of Chanakhch, the Armenians and Georgians surrounded the place, 
took them prisoners, and destroyed the fort. Now Yusup and Atham 
had made exactly the same agreement with Thamraz as with Fataly — 
namely, that he should take the contents of the fort and that Panah and 
Shahnazar should be delivered up to them. And Thamraz played them 
false in the same way as Fataly had done. With various excuses he put 
off doing anything till he reached the boundaries of Karabagh, when, the 
Meliks becoming aware of his treachery, they cut off all communications 
with him and called upon their old ally, Hadji Chelepy of Shirwan (the 
first to help them against Panah at Bay at), to come to their assistance. 
It took time, however, for Chelepy to reach Karabagh, and meanwhile 
Thamraz's men, passing near Gandtsak, were looting and destroying all 
that came in their way, and Shahverdi Khan, ruler of the district, came 
out to protect the people. In the fight that followed Shahverdi was 
taken prisoner. But now the Meliks and Hadji Chelepy, coming up with 
their men, attacked Thamraz and defeated him, rescuing Shahverdi. ' 
They could not, however, succeed in their main object, that of securing 
Panah and the two traitors Shahnazar and Mirza-khan, for Panah again 
slipped through their grasp by bribing Thamraz, who allowed the three 
to escape. 

The friendship between Shahverdi and the Meliks was of old stand- 
ing. When Shahverdi's father died, his brother Mamlath Khan tried to 
kill him in order to possess himself of the khanate. Shahverdi fled for 
his life to Atham of Chrapiert'h, who with his troops attacked Mamlath 
Khan and killed him, upon which Shahverdi succeeded to his inheritance, 
and never forgot the service Atham had rendered him. Yusup was con- 
nected with Shahverdi through his mother, wife of " Kagh" Apov and 
daughter of Mamlath Khan, converted to Christianity. Shahverdi was a 
Persian, and was favourably inclined towards Christians, unlike the savage 
Mongolian Turkmans. He was greatly respected amongst the surrounding 
khanates, where he was known as Beg-lar-beg (chief of chiefs). 

With the help of Shahverdi the Meliks now opened uegociations with 
Panah. Thirteen years of incessant warfare had exhausted both sides and 
had ruined their lands, and the people, weary of fighting, needed peace. 
A treaty was made binding down Panah to cease from interfering with 
the Meliks' people, and forbidding his encroaching on their territories, 


while leaving him lord of Shushi. If any quarrel arose, it was to be 
settled by arbitration. 

Panah observed the terms of the treaty while he lived, but the end 
of his career of cunning and treachery was approaching. 

After Fataly-Khan's return to Persia he battled with and killed 
Askarkhan, whose brother Kherirn then went from Shiraz and laid siege 
to Fataly in iiis fort at Urmi in 1762, and took him prisoner to Shiraz, 
together with his hostage Ibrahim, son of Panah, who, hearing of this, 
journeyed to Shiraz with presents for Kherim, to induce him to release 
his son. Panah stayed two years in Shiraz without succeeding in freeing 
his son or in getting away himself, for Kherim, who at that time was 
looked upon as the ruler of Persia, did not desire Panah's return to 
Karabagh, for the sake of preserving the peace of that district. So 
Panah, once too often, had recourse to the innate cunning treachery that 
had served him so well hitherto. Feigning death, he placed himself in a 
coffin, and his men approached Kherim with the request that they should 
be allowed to fulfil the last wish of the departed by carrying his body 
away to be interred in his native country. 

But this time Panah had met his match. Kherim's suspicions were 
aroused. Vf I must give him a grand funeral escort," said he. "The 
body may decompose on the journey. He must be embalmed /" 

Kherim ordered his executioners to cut open the (living) corpse, and 
to take out the intestines in order to embalm the body. This was done. 
He then delivered the corpse to Panah's men, saying that they could 
now take it away, which they accordingly did. 

Such was the gruesome end of Panah Khan in the year 1763. 


Kherim, thinking the son might serve him better than the father, 
gave Ibrahim the title of Khan, and sent him to Karabagh as governor. 
At first Ibrahim observed the treaty made between his father and the 
Meliks, but as soon as, with the support of Shahnazar, he had firmly 
established himself in Karabagh, he began to tyrannise over them. Shah- 
nazar, the traitor to his country, who had given his fortress of Shushi to 
Panah, who by his alliance with the lowborn Jevanshir herdsman had 
so exalted him as to bring about through him the downfall of Armenian 
rule in Karabagh— this same Shahnazar, after the death of Panah, to 


maintain with the son the friendship he had formerly with the father, 
committed a most shameful act. He gave his daughter, the beautiful 
Hurizad, to Ibrahim as his wife. This deeply offended the Meliks, more 
especially Iesa'i of Thizak, for Hurizad's mother was his own daughter, 
and Shahnazar's lawful wife. There resulted severe fighting between 
Iesa'i and Shahnazar, who, with Mirza-khan, besieged Iesai in his fortress 
of Thugh in the year 1775. Mirza-khan was taken prisoner with his 
men, and Melik Iesai, holding his naked sword over the traitor's head, 
delivered himself of the following — " Thou, Mirza-khan, dost greatly re- 
semble another traitor named Mierhujan. He renounced our faith, he 
became a tool of the Persians, and he brought desolation to our father- 
land. To him, as the reward for his wicked achievements, was promised 
the crown of Armenia. And with his troops, like unto thee, did he fall 
into the hands of Armenians. For him an iron spit was made redhot 
in flames and bent into the shape of a diadem, by the command of the 
Armenian general, Amrath Bagrathun, who, setting it on the head of the 
traitor, said, " It was thy desire to become king of Armenia. Behold me 
now, knight and king-maker,* thus do I crown thee!" — But thou, Mirza- 
khan, canst not contain the measure of glory that was meted out to 
Mierhujan ! Thou art nought but a vile base traitor, who, for the sake 
of a miserable passing advantage, didst serve the Turkman Khan and 
Melik Shahnazar in all the evil that they wrought ! Thou shalt be dealt 
with even as one dealeth with a rabid dog, which is slain lest it spread 
its poison amongst other creatures." And with the last words down •came 
his sword ! 

Ibrahim appointed Mirza-khan's son Allah- verdi, Melik of Khachin, 
and the son was as faithful to the Turkman Khan as his father had been. 
As Hurizad, Ibrahim's wife and Melik Iesai' s granddaughter, had been 
the original cause of the feud between Iesai and Shahnazar, Ibrahim 
himself now joined the enemies of Iesai, and the latter had to fight the 
three alone, for both Apov (son of Yusuf) of Gulistan, and Mechlum of 
Chrapiert'h (son of Atham, who had died in 1780), were unable to help 
him, being occupied with the affairs of their provinces, and the provinces 
of Khachin and Varranda lay between them and him. 

In 1781 Ibrahim and his allies, Shahnazar and Allah-verdi, besieged 
Iesai at Thugh, where he defended himself bravely for a long while. 

* Tliakathir = King crowner. The family of the Bagratids possessed the hereditary right 
of crowning the kings of Armenia. 


Then the Khan and Shahnazar craftily sent two men, one of them a priest, 
swearing on Cross and Gospel that they had come to treat with Iesai, 
thus to inveigle him out of his fort. He believed them and came out, 
but he was betrayed ! Treachery again triumphed over valour. Ibrahim 
had him seized, imprisoned, and put to death. 

Iesai was succeeded by his nephew, Bakhtham. 

Yusup cKed in 1775 and was succeeded by his eldest son Beglar, a 
warlike young man who had been of great assistance to his father in 
fighting. But his reign was short. 

One day, when he was starting on an expedition against the tribe of 
Lezguis, who had invaded his lands, his mother came to him in tears, 
beseeching him to keep himself aloof from bloodshed on that day at 
least, for she had had a bad dream, and her heart was full of sad fore- 
bodings. Her cruel son repulsed her so roughly as to throw her down, 
and mounted his horse to ride away. 

To this day* the traveller in Gulistan, after leaving the village of 
Kharkhaput, is shown on the right hand an old deserted garden, over- 
grown with trees and shrubs, known as the garden of Melik Beglar. 
There, amidst the thick under-growth, may be seen the ruins of what was 
once a beautiful summer residence, built by the Melik for his mistress 

But his wife, Amarnani, was the daughter of Shahnazar of Varranda ! 
No scruples would deter her from avenging herself on her rival ! 

©n the night before the expedition against the Lazguis, when her 
husband was busy with his preparations for the fight, she bribed one of 
her servants to go to Bala's house and kill her. No weapon was needed, 
for the lovely woman's hair was so long that her murderers wound her 
tresses round her slender throat and strangled her, throwing the poor 
body into a well. At the very moment that Beglar roughly pushed 
his mother aside and mounted his horse, the tidings of Bala's death were 
brought to him. "When I return from the battle," said he, "I know 
what I shall do to the murderers," and rode away — to follow his love to 
another world, for his mother's forebodings were fulfilled. 

Amarnani, knowing well what awaited her from a man of her hus- 
band's merciless character, disguised herself as one of his bodyguard, f 
followed him to the fight, and in the thick of the conflict shot him dead 

f Thikuapah = literally, one who protects the back. 


from behind some bushes, escaping detection, for in the confusion who 
could know whether the bullet that killed the Melik was aimed by the 
Lezguis, or by one of his own men. 

Beglar's son Freytoun, or Feridone, being under age, the govern- 
ment of the province was carried on by Beglar's brother Apov. 

Panah, in comparison with Ibrahim, was in certain things preferable 
to his son, for he had preserved something of his tribal simplicity, and 
was free from the fanatic mollahism that Ibrahim had imbibed during his 
residence in Persia. Ibrahim not only persecuted Christians, but forced a 
large number to embrace the Mahomedan faith. In revenge for this, 
Thiuli Arzuman, the brave captain of the province of Chrapiert'h, turned 
missionary after his own fashion, and forced all the Mahomedans who 
fell into his hands to confess the truth of Christianity and the falseness of 
their own religion. One day he met a Mollah of high degree, who was on 
his way to Shushi with his train of servants. Laying hold of him, Arzu- 
man insisted, with the edge of his sword to the Mollah's neck, 

"Confess that Christ is God, else I slay thee!" 

The Mollah confessed ! After making him repeat the confession three 
times Arzuman let him go. ' Ibrahim, hearing of this, sent for the Mollah, ' 
demanding of him angrily, 

" Is it possible that thou hast confessed that Christ is God ? " 

"Yes, I did confess," asserted the Mollah, adding, with withering 
conviction, (( But if thou, most exalted Khan, wert to fall into the hands 
of Arzuman, thou wouldest say, not only that Christ is God, but that 
thou, Arzuman, art the god of gods ! " 

After some years in Gandsak, Melik Apov went with his followers to 
Bolnis and settled there, but in 1795 he returned to his territory in 
Gulistan, having come to some understanding with Ibrahim. About 1797 
he again left Karabagh for Georgia. 

In 1791 died Shahnazar of Varranda, leaving four sons, the eldest of 
whom, Jamshed, should rightfully have succeeded him. But Ibrahim, in- 
fluenced by Hurizad, appointed his brother Hussein Melik instead of Jam- 
shed. After the death of Shahnazar Ibrahim's power declined, for Jam- 
shed was not of the same way of thinking as his father, and desired to 
renew the old alliance with the Armenian Meliks. 

In the three provinces of Gulistan, Chrapiert'h, and Thizak, the rulers 
were now all hot-blooded young men, the older experienced ones having 
passed away. Of these Ibrahim was most in fear of Mechlum of Chra- 
piert'h, who was as deadly and implacable an enemy of the Turkman 

Ibrahim's treachery. 353 

khan as his father had been. Ibrahim laid a plot to assassinate him, but 
failed. Then, about iy8s J 86, he invited the three in a friendly way to 
come to Shushi and discuss matters relating to their different territories, 
but once there, he imprisoned Apov and Mechlum, and sent Bakhtham 
away to Persia, where he was confined in the fortress of Artavil, and his 
territory of Thizak fell into Persian hands. 

Ibrahim then sent horsemen to plunder and pillage the wealthy 
monastery of Gandtsasar, seized the Catholicos Johannes and five of his 
seven brothers, and imprisoned them at Shushi, inflicting various tortures 
on them. The Catholicos was poisoned in prison (1786), Bishop Sarkies, 
who afterwards became Catholicos of Gandtsasar, was put in the stocks 
for several hours. After nine months in prison he and his brothers were 
liberated, Ibrahim first imposing a heavy fine on the monastery. 

Mechlum and Apov were soon at liberty again, for Mechlum's brave 
captain Arzuman went at night, broke open the doors of the prison, and 
set them free. 

In 1787 Russian troops under General Purnashov, with Heraclius of 
Georgia, were approaching Gandsak, and Mechlum and Apov joined them, 
hoping for their aid, which was promised them, against Ibrahim, but 
simultaneously war broke out for the second time between the Russians 
and the Osmanlis, and, the troops returning to Russia, the two Meliks went 
to Tiflis with them. Ibrahim immediately imprisoned their relatives at 
Shushi as hostages, and gave their lands to others. Some time after this 
Mechlum and Apov reminded Heraclius of his promise to help them, but 
he asked for delay. Ibrahim now wrote to Heraclius to seize and send 
them to him in return for some 3000 Turkmans, formerly Georgian sub- 
jects, who had settled in Karabagh. Heraclius treacherously agreed, but 
the Meliks, slipping, out of his hands, escaped to Gandsak, where Zavath 
Khan, son of Shaverdi Khan, gladly received and protected them, in 
spite of Ibrahim continually sending him messages to deliver them up to 
him. Zavath Khan was possessed of a greater soul than the treacherous 
Georgian prince, and took no notice. The story told of their escape from 
Tiflis was, that Heraclius had invited them to a feast in a garden, in- 
tending to make them drink, and then overpower them at his table. The 
Meliks, coming to know of his treacherous intention, mounted their horses, 
saying they were going hunting to provide something for the feast, and 
did not return. Meeting some carters on the way, Mechlum sent word to 
Heraclius, telling them to go and inform their prince that Melik Mechlum 
would never forget his hospitality. 



But neither did Heraclius and Ibrahim forget that Mechlum had 
got the better of them. Several years later, in 1796, they besieged Zavath- 
khan and Melik Mechlum at Gandsak, and the Melik met his death in 
quelling a mutiny in the fort caused by an old man who treacherously 
incited the garrison to open the gates to the enemy. 

After the death of Catherine II., when the Emperor . Paul I. suc- 
ceeded, Russian policy towards the Christians of Caucasia changed. Peter 
the Great's intentions with respect to the Christians were forgotten, and 
Georgia, after the death of Heraclius in 1798, became a Russian province. 
Jamshed of Varranda, son of Shahnazar, with Freytoun, son of Beglar 
and nephew of Apov of Gulistan, wanted to establish themselves per- 
manently in Georgia, where the Armenians had first of all been well re- 
ceived, but then forced to become serfs and to sell their children. There- 
fore, to keep their freedom, these two Meliks went to Petersburgh to 
represent their condition to the Czar, who passed an edict giving them a 
district where they could settle with the same rights over their people as 
they possessed in Karabagh. They were decorated and given regular 
pensions, and the Russian minister in Georgia, Kovalensky, was informed 
by letter. " The Armenian Meliks Jamshed and Feridone at present here • 
in Petersburgh, and others of their nationality in Georgia and in Persia, 
have applied to the Imperial Majesty and have received a most gracious 
permission to reside in Georgia on condition that the King, George XII., 
should give them lands for their own and their subjects' sustenance, 
and also for such inhabitants of Persia as may desire to leave Persia. 
The King-Emperor desiring that such Christian communities should thrive 
in Georgia for the good of the country, you, Kovalensky, must bring about 
that Georgia should make concessions of lands that may be most advan- ' 
tageous to these Meliks. And, since such a community cannot per- 
manently settle and prosper unless their customs and goverment, which 
from olden times have been peculiar to them, are safeguarded, for that 
reason it is desirable that the Armenian community should be quite in- 
dependent of Georgia, except in respect of paying a small tribute to the 
King, and sharing all that is necessary for the defence of the country 
as regards expenses or men." The Georgian King was then in difficulties 
and he agreed to these conditions. Feridone, or Freytoun, took part of 
the district of Vorchalov and Aghjagala, and his uncle Apov took Bolniss 
and its surroundings. Feridone received a pension of 1000 roubles, 
Jamshed 1200, and his son 600. 

In 1804 Russian troops under Prince Tsitsianoff, marching on Erivan, 


halted near Etchmiatsin, while numerous Persian troops, commanded by 
Abbas Mirza, the Persian heir-apparent, hastening to the relief of Erivan, 
took the Russians by surprise, surrounding them and cutting off their 
communications. Tsitsianoff, who had been intending to lay siege to 
Erivan, found himself in a state of siege instead. Rustom Beg, son of 
Apov of Gulistan, at the head of 500 Russians, with great gallantry passed 
through the Persian forces tw T ice, and brought Tsitsianoff ammunition and 
supplies. On the third occasion he encountered 800 Persians in the 
valley of P'hambak, and a Georgian prince, Alexander, joined the Persians 
with 3000 men, but in spite of their overwhelming numbers, the enemy 
stood stationary, facing Rustom's little force, for three hours before at- 
tacking. When at last fighting began, Rustom hurled his Russians forward 
with great valour, but he was fighting against tremendous odds, his horse 
was shot under him, and at his third wound he fell to the ground and 
was taken prisoner. The Russians were annihilated, Rustom was taken 
to Abbas Mirza's camp by the orders of Alexander, who, resenting the 
former refusal of Apov, father of Rustom, to join him against the Rus- 
sians, thus revenged himself upon the son, who, while leading Russian 
■ troops, had fallen into his hands. Abbas Mirza imprisoned him at Tabriz, 
where he was later on beheaded, when Abbas Mirza retreated to Tabriz 
after being defeated by the Russians. The Armenians of Tabriz buried 
him in the porch of their grave-yard, and taught their children the song 
composed by the hero in his captivity, for he was poet as well as soldier. 
(Ram here quotes the touching words of this song.) 
In 1805 Melik Jamshed of Varranda (son of Shahnazar), with great 
difficulty, contrived to make Ibrahim recognise the Russian government. 
But in 1806, Prince Tsitsianoff, the Russian commander, was assassinated 
at Baku, the Mohamedan population of Transcaucasia was thrown into 
a ferment of excitement, insurrections broke out everywhere, and Ibra- 
him, notwithstanding the fact of his having sworn allegiance to the 
Russian government, secretly sent his son Mamath Hussein Aga to Abbas 
Mirza (who, in command of Persian troops, was at that time occupying a 
district on the right bank of the Ierask, or Araxes), disclosing to him .the 
whereabouts of Russian troops, inviting him to cross the Ierask, and 
promising him his (Ibrahim's) assistance in guiding him to where the 
Russians were encamped in order to annihilate them. 

Abbas Mirza, with an overwhelming number of Persian troops, crossed 
the Ierask, and approached Shushi. Inside the fort were quartered a 
few hundred Russian soldiery under Colonel Iyisanievitch. Jamshed was 


also quartered in the fort at that time with some cavalry. Abbas Mirza 
encamped near the village of Shushi on a high hill whence he could bom- 
bard the fort, and Ibrahim, with his family, stole out quietly at night 
with the intention of going to the camp of Abbas Mirza. But Jamshed 
instantly informing the Russian colonel, the two, with a few horsemen, 
followed Ibrahim and came up with him on the road. They spared the 
women and some others, but Ibrahim and his relatives were -cut to pieces. 

The enemy of Karabagh was slain ! Jamshed had avenged not only 
his own wrongs, but the wrongs of all the other Meliks. While his 
father, Shahnazar, in exalting this savage wild beast, had earned the 
curses and opprobrium of the whole of Karabagh, now the exemplary son 
had atoned for the evil the vile father had wrought, but it was too late ! 
The death of Ibrahim could not heal the wounds inflicted by the Khans 
of Shushi on the Meliks of Karabagh. 

Apov, Melik of Gulistan, son of Yusup, died in 1808. He was not on 
good terms with the Georgian princes ; the story goes that he was in- 
vited to Tifiis and that he was poisoned there, for soon after he fell ill 
and died, as well as his secretary, who had accompanied him. His sur- 
viving sons were minors, and he was succeeded by his nephew Feridone, 
the son of Beglar the second, who had been chosen in 1799 to represent 
the Meliks of Karabagh when a deputation had been sent to the Czar 
Paul I. Feridone's reign was very short. He had excited the jealousy 
of his younger brother Sham, who was a very savage ferocious man, hated 
in his family. In an access of rage he rushed at Feridone and woKnded 
him so severely with his scimitar that he died there and then. Feridone 
was succeeded by Apov's son Minas Beg. Feridone had six sons, Hov- 
sep, Shamir Khan, David (who went to India), Thalish, Themuraz, and 
Beglar the third. After the deaths of Apov and Feridone their descen- 
dants and followers left Georgia and returned to Karabagh. Their lands, 
villages, and property had fallen into the hands of Ibrahim Khan, but 
after their return they regained all their possessions. 

At the end of his book Raffi gives a list of the authorities — histories 
and chronicles by monks, Varthapiets, and others, from whose writings 
he gathered materials for his history of the Five Meliks, and relates how 
he spent two months in 1881 visiting the five provinces and collecting all 
the information he could locally from the old inhabitants. From Gand- 
sak he went to Gulistan, where he spent a week with the descendants of 


the Beglarians, Sergei and Alexander Begs, visited their family burial- 
ground, deciphering the almost illegible inscriptions, and saw their half- 
ruined fortress of Gulistan, and the village churches with their wall- 
inscriptions. Thence to Chrapiert'h, where he saw in the church at Geda- 
shen (where Yusup and Emin fought their famous battle against the son 
of Shaverdi Khan, when Yusup wanted to run away and Emin shamed 
him into standing fast, p. 296) a beautiful MS. of the Gospels, at the end 
of which Melik Atham had written records of his family ; and visited 
Atham's half-ruined palace on the right bank of the river Tharthar, with 
historical inscriptions over the doors. At the village of Marthakierth he 
found an old man, over a hundred years of age, who knew Armenian, 
Persian, Arabic, and Turkman, and who had been interpreter to the last 
khans of Shushi, Ibrahim and Methi-khan (and later, in the same village, 
was a short time in the service of a German missionary). Raffi passed 
two whole days in taking down from his lips all that he could relate 
about the Khans of Shushi. In the province of Khachin he visited the 
splendid Vank of Gandtsasar, where, on the walls, he found a long in- 
scription about the Melik-Beglarians. In the same province he saw the 
Magpies' Fort, and visited Mirza-khan's village of Khanziristan, where, he 
says, he was so shockingly badly received that he only stayed there one 
hour ! At Shushi, to his disappointment, he found that important docu- 
ments from which he could have gained much information had been stolen 
by different persons. At Varranda he visited Shahnazar's " Gospel" 
village of Chanakhch ; from Varranda he went to Thizak, where he saw 
the burial ground of the Avanian Meliks, and found their old palace oc- 
cupied by a Mahomedan Beg, for one branch of the descendants of Avan 
had embraced the faith of Islam. 

Of the five Meliks the Beglarians are the only line who up to the 
present time managed to preserve some portion of their territories, owning 
18 villages, all inhabited by Armenians, extending over large tracts of 

In July, 1813, there arrived in Calcutta Archbishop Phillippos, envoy 
from the Catholicos of Etchmiatsin, which place he had quitted in 18 12, 
accompanied by a servant and a young deacon, eighteen years of age, 
who was gifted with a very beautiful voice, and who acted as chorister 
to the archbishop. (Bishops generally travel with a chorister in atten- 
dance, to ensure the rendering to their own satisfaction of certain rather 
elaborate hymns included in the liturgy when a bishop is celebrant.) 


The archbishop's stay in Calcutta was tragically short. Within the space 
of two months his servant died, and was buried in the southern portion 
of the churchyard of the Armenian Church, under a stone inscribed, 

This is the tomb of Nierses (the servant of His Grace Archbishop 
Phillippos, Envoy of Holy Etchmiatsin), who died on the 16th Nadar 
(September), 1813, in Calcutta. 

A few weeks later the archbishop himself succumbed, and was buried 
in the place of honour under the porch. On his stone is inscribed, 

This is the tomb of Archbishop Phillippos, who departed this life in 
Calcutta on the 18th Thira (October), 1813. 

But the third member of the little party was evidently of tougher 
stuff, for he survived his companions for no less than seventy-one years. 
He was David, the son of Melik Feridone of the Beglarians, and grandson 
of Beglar the second and Amarnani, daughter of Shahnazar of Varranda, 
the ally of Panah Khan. He had taken semi-monastic orders as a deacon, 
but these were set aside a few years later. 

At that period it was the custom of the authorities at the Armenian 
church in Calcutta to issue an annual publication recording all the events, 
domestic or otherwise, concerning the community which had occurred dur- 
ing the previous twelve months, together with an ecclesiastical calendar 
of the current year. These publications formed a very valuable record, 
and it is to be regretted that they only appeared for a few years, and 
were then discontinued. In one of them there is the following entry, 

1822. On February 26 David M.* Fredonian married Mrs. Naz4oom 
Carapiet Sarkisian. 

This was a lady of some means who had been fascinated by the 
young deacon's beautiful voice, and at her death some years later left him 
money, which he afterwards lost in litigation. He lived on in India at 
Dacca, and then at Chinsurah in Bengal, in spite of all the efforts made 
by his relatives in Armenia to induce him to return to his native land. 
They even went to the length of writing to the Governor-Generalf of the 
time, requesting that David Beglar should be sent back, but it was of no 
avail. He could not be prevailed upon to go. His descendants by 
another, and non- Armenian, union are still living near Chinsurah, where 
he died in 1884, at the age of 89. On his tombstone in the portico of 

* Melik. 

t Lord Dalhousie, through David's elder brother Shamir, who was Russian envoy to 


the Armenian Church at Chinsurah there is the following inscription, first 
in Armenian, then in English. 

In loving memory of our beloved father David son of the late Free- 
done Melik Beglaroff, last independent Prince of Karabagh in the Province 
of Tiflis, Caucasus. Born on the ist May 1795 And died in Chinsurah on 
22nd September 1884. 

I am the resurrection and the life. 

This inscription, with others from the graves of David Beglar's des- 
cendants, was published in Bengal Past and Present, vol. x., p. 121, in an 
article by the Rev. Father Hosten, S.J., entitled " The Princely Beg- 

The addition of "off" to the name of Beglar is an error, caused by 
the son of David considering himself a Russian subject. It is not an 
Armenian termination, and his correct designation was David (Melik)-Frey- 
toun Beglarian (the termination ian signifying "of the family of"). But 
David was not an eldest son, and it was only the ruling chief and his 
eldest son who had the right to call themselves Melik , the younger sons were 
called Beg. As to his right to be called the " last independent Prince of 
Karabagh," that is a title applicable to his father Freytoun or Feridone, 
but scarcely to David himself. Karabagh was undoubtedly the last home 
of Armenian independence — that independence for which Bmin fruitlessly 
struggled and suffered for so long. Had it not been for the sundering of 
the Meliks' league of unity by the treachery of Shahnazar of Varranda, 
Emin might perhaps have succeeded in his endeavours in some measure, 
at anv rate for a time. » 


In Narrative and in Note on 

Arav Mt. 


Cur, Cura, Kiurak. 

Dizah, Dizok. 

Gandja, Ganja, Gandsak. 





Shashec, Shushec, Shushi. 

Trashatzy, Threshetzy. 



In Map. 

Murov Dagh. 


Kura-chai (river). 



Aras Su, Araxes (river). 



Shamkor ? 

Shush a. 

Thalish, Thalich. 



* Very few of the former names can now be traced. 




[ Concerning "a young Armenian — Emm continues his wanderings in his own land 
at night, like a cutpurse or a murderer in danger from Ibrahim Khan — Kurds 
run away to lie in ambush to attack him treacherously — An Armenian tells 
them who he is, they immediately become his friends — Ibrahim Khan's officer 
Hatham Beg, and his cup-bearer, or Saki — In great danger of his life from 
Hatham — Emin sets out with his relative Movses. the cup-bearer as guide — His 
dishonesty — A story of soldiers in hospital in Flanders and the sweetness of 
plunder — Inhospitable inhabitants of the village of Maghry, where women 
may look at men but no man dare look at women — Unusual kindness of a 

custom-house officer — Arrival at Orduar.] 


TN that village, an affair happened which may be a little en- 
tertaining ; but, although trifling in its kind, it will appear 
as ostentation : — Just at the dusk of the evening, five minutes 
after he arrived, there came up a young Nakhchuan Armenian 
on horse-back, who, when he had alighted, led his horse, and tied 
it where Emin's horse stood : Emin hallooed to him, as he was 
at some distance, to take the horse away, and make it stand 
farther off, for fear of a quarrel between them. The young 
Nakhchunian flew into a passion, clapped his hand to his sword, 
and said, "Who are you, to call out in that domineering manner ? 
I suppose you would imitate our Emin, who alone is fit to com- 
mand us Armenians ? ' ' Emin pacified him with gentle words, 
and said, " Brother, do not be out of humour, we are both 
46 361 


guests and strangers in this place at this good man's house; he 
does not deserve to be made uneasy by us; — sit by me, and 
permit me to ask you, in a friendly manner, a few civil ques- 
tions." The young hero consented, and sat himself down. The 
author said, "What has been the merit of Emin, that you regard 
him so much behind his back ; for, as far as we can under- 
stand, he has done nothing of any consequence : on the contrary, 
wherever he went, he was driven away as if he had been a wolf." 
The young man said, " He is not what you represent him, nor 
does he deserve such a name : — he is as brave as a lion — as wise 
as Solomon — and as just as Plato. The wolves are our church- 
men in sheeps clothing, and they only obstruct his great under- 
takings ; for he could easily have saved us from subjection to the 
Mahomedans, if those dark angels would but have let him go." 
Then he fetched a very deep sigh. Emin said, "I presume, Sir, 
you have never seen him:" the Nakhchuanian said "No: but 
those who have seen him with their own eyes, and been witnesses 
of his brave actions in many places, have sounded his fame in 
our ears, and made it shine as bright as the sun in the hearts 
and mind of all true Armenians : even the Mahomedans admired 
him, though they are the great enemies of us Christians ; and 
more particularly, when he was among the Lazguis." Aratun the 
monk, with the landlord and several others, some sitting, some 
standing, heard all this, but had not patience enough to let the 
young gentleman go on expressing his sentiments. They said, 
"You are speaking to *the very man, for whom you and all of 
us have great respect." The young man started up, and could 
not contain himself, but burst into tears of joy. Those who 
were present sympathized with him, and he continued several 
minutes bewailing the calamities and distracted condition of the 
Armenians, with no less concern for the precarious situation of 
Emin, who endeavoured to comfort him by encouraging words, 
and said, they need not be in the least uneasy about him, who 
was resolved to die for them, by exerting himself and going 


through every danger to the utmost of his poor abilities. He 
added, "Be easy in your minds, and try to make yourselves 
as happy as you can : — pray to God, and wait with Christian 
patience : — if he is willing to save us, he will, and if not, it is 
our duty to make ourselves contented, and be cheerful." 

After supper, about nine o'clock, Emm, with his relation 
Mussess, and a hired Armenian with a pack-horse, set out ; and 
after travelling seven hours, and ascending and descending high 
rough mountains, about four in the morning passed an Ar- 
menian village belonging to Kezkhalan, sister to Ibrahim Khan, 
the lord of five Armenian chiefs ; namely, Yusup, Hatham, Mirza- 
khan, Shaknazar, and Isay. Who knows but in time the Ar- 
menians may understand English enough to translate these me- 
moirs into their own language, and be spurred by them to some 
exertion for sweet liberty, which precious gem alone was Emin's 
object in sacrificing all the comfort of his life, with the morti- 
fication of being forced to wander about at night in his own 
country as a cutpurse or a murderer, that he might avoid the 
fortification of Shashec,* lest he should be apprehended by Ibra- 
him Khan, who had not obtained his power over the chiefs by 
the 'dint of his sword. Whoever is possessed of humanity, and 
reads this account, must be deeply sensible of Emin's anxiety in 
that painful situation. 

He travelled nine hours during the night, having advanced 
ten miles from the village where he had stopped, and fifteen 
beyond Shashec, not suspecting that the Khan had been ac- 
quainted by some spies with his return to Carabagh. In the 
dark, his apprehension was not so great : but when the light 
appeared, he did not fail to look out sharp, and calling upon 
God, marched on, as if he had been at the head of some 
thousands. He had thirty cartridges of his own making, with a 
strong Turkish firelock, that could hit a mark at 300 yards 

* This must be a local name for Shushi. 


distance. He reconnoitred all the way he past, that in case of 
his being attacked, he might get behind one of those rocks 
thrown out by nature as breast work, and put himself in a 
posture of defence, fighting while his little ammunition should 
last, and rather dying like a man, than suffering to be taken 
like a coward. Neither his relation nor the other , Armenians 
had so much as a penknife. About twelve o'clock, he went out 
of the road upon an eminence covered with fine grass to feed 
the horses, as well as to look round about. He had hardly been 
there fifteen minutes, when he discovered four horsemen coming 
in the same road. Before they reached the bottom of the hill, 
they dismounted on the wrong side of their horses with their 
guns in their hands, and marched slowly along, the horses so 
placed as to cover their bodies from Emin, who called out to them, 
to come and feed their horses with him ; but they made no an- 
swer, creeping along like snakes, then turned to the left, and dis- 
appeared. As they did not speak, Emin little thought they were 
robbers; but they were Curds of the tribe of Mughans, who 
seeing Emin's dress not like that of other Armenians, were weak 
enough to take him for a Lazgui mountaineer, and hurried away 
to be in ambuscade on the left side of the hill, in a place 
covered with wood, intending, as he should come by, to fire at 
him at once, instead of attacking him openly : but Providence 
had ordained, that Emin should by some means be saved. 
The villains fortunately happened to meet in the very spot an 
Armenian, named Mussess of Nakhchuan, and of the village of 
Kazanchu, with his pack-horse, who, seeing them very busy in 
a great flutter, asked what they were about ? They told him, 
they expected a L,azgui there every minute, and were putting 
themselves in the easiest way to shoot him, and to make a prize 
of his horse. The honest Armenian guessing, from the descrip- 
tion given, that it was the author" of these memoirs, laughed at 
them heartily,' saying, "He is Emin of Armenia : — he is not so 
ignorant as you imagine, to pass by you slowly : in the first 


place, he will gallop his horse like lightning; and if you miss 
your aim, no doubt he will turn and kill every one of you. 
Besides, I am credibly informed, that he has a charm about him, 
so that neither fire-arms nor sword can have any effect on him. 
Had he not been so happily endowed with those blessings, how 
could he have escaped in so many battles fought in Frankistan, 
Georgia, and Dagistan, where the savage Eazguis found they 
could not kill him, and were made to take an oath of fidelity 
upon the Alcoran, and to elect him their sovereign." Upon this, 
one of the Curds with an enormous beard and bald head said, 
"Yes; now I remember him: — he that headed 2,000 Eazguis, 
made captives by the Colan Curds, and afterwards saved them. 
I can tell you more of him: — Some time ago he was in the 
kalaoh (or fort) of Shoshu, speaking to our Khan Ibrahim as a 
master speaks to his servant; but as I passed by at a distance 
I could not hear what he said. I am very glad you set us 
right — God knows what would have become of us! — I hope you 
will be so kind as to take no notice to him of our design, lest 
he should be displeased with us." 

Emin expecting them at the bottom of the hill, set his 
horse? gallopping violently, and turned about at a proper distance 
upon a flat ground, whence he saw those assassins looking as 
pale as death ; he levelled his piece to fire at them, when the 
Armenian cried out, "Sir, Sir, they are friends!" and afterwards 
recounted the whole circumstance, as before related. Then all 
the four came, laid hold of Emin's stirrup, and kissed his hand; 
thanking Mussess the good Armenian, in the Curdish language, 
for his friendly advice. They travelled with him like brothers 
about two miles, when the road being divided, they took leave 
of him in a very polite manner, and went to the west ; while 
Emin, with his honest countrymen, and two servants, journeyed 
to the south. This address of his countryman probably saved 
Emin's life; nor can he help reflecting, that if it had not been 
for an Armenian also in London, whose name is mentioned 


before, who had been sent with a horse from Aleppo, and through 
whom, by mere chance, he was taken notice of by the late duke 
of Northumberland, he might have remained, if alive, in total 
oblivion to this very day; or in the obscurity of ignorance, like 
the rest of the Armenians. He takes this opportunity to express 
his gratitude, as having been twice helped by them ; and is 
comforted in having no room to alter his natural attachment to 
them, being persuaded that there are good and bad in all 
nations; but that more virtue may be found among civilized 
free men, than among those who only eat, drink, and sleep, in 
profound ignorance. 

In the afternoon he arrived at Shankevan, an Armenian 
village in the province of Ghapan, situated at the bottom of a 
high mountain, full of vineyards, with plenty of every thing. 
He was just going to a-light at the door of an Armenian, when 
he saw a trooper who dismounted at the fourth door beyond it. 
The Armenians told him that he was Ibrahim Khan's man, and 
that the house was the quarters of Hatham Beg the darugha, 
one of the khan's officers, appointed his deputy to keep the 
village in good order. In about ten minutes he came to see 
Emin, with false complaisance, and ordered the villager to ^ take 
very great care of him. At sun- set he sent the one-handed 
Sarkiss, with a large earthen gurglet of wine, and with compli- . 
ments to Emin, desiring him to drink and be cheerful. Emin in 
return sent two white linen towels, with half a dozen of Russian 
wooden spoons, which were made a present to him by Suciaz 
the monk at Shamakhy. His man Sarkiss sat down at the 
table, holding the vessel under his arm, without a hand, as a 
saki (or cup-bearer,) and the cup in his hand, which he filled and 
presented to Emin, who said he never could drink wine in his life ; 
nor would he drink, though the roguish cup-bearer, for a quarter 
of an hour, was begging and persuading him to it. Finding he 
could not prevail, he endeavoured to make his relation Mussess 
drink ; but he, like Emin, had never tasted wine in his lifetime. 

emin's servant ill-treated. 367 

The other Xakhchuanian Mussess unluckily did not alight at the 
same house with them. On their first entering the village, he 
disappeared and could not be found. The nimble one-handed 
tiger Sarkiss finding neither Emin nor his poor relation would 
come near the liquor, laid down the wine and the cup, and went 
out, perhaps to give notice to his master Hatham Beg. In five 
minutes he came back like lightning, sat down again, took the 
wine and gave it to Ohan the hired man, who had the pack- 
horse, and who drank with him like a fish till about eight in the 
evening, when another Armenian came, with an order from 
Hatham to his nimble servant Sarkiss, to bring with him the 
pack-horse man. Emin suspected there was some mischief going 
on, and Ohan returned half an hour after, bruised all over his 
face, with his shirt-collar torn off, and his neck scratched and 
bloody. He told Emin that Hatham Beg had done all that. 
After inquiring whether Emin had any money, on being told 
that Emin was poor, he beat him in that cruel manner, and 
even drew his dagger and clapped the point to his throat, 
threatening to murder him if he did not tell where the money 
was. The poor man being in this sad plight, Hatham and Sarkiss 
came in, and said to Emin, all in a flutter, ff You saw the 
trooper, mounted on a black horse, who came immediately after 
you and alighted at my door ; he is the Khan's man, with an 
express order from him, acquainting us, that two men of the 
vali of Gurgistan are run away to Carabagh : they are to be 
secured and sent to Tiffliz ; and by the description, you and your 
relation are the men." Emin said, "If we are the suspected 
men, what is the reason of your using the khan's own subject 
in this barbarous manner, whom we have hired at Gantzasar in 
Carabagh. Let me tell you, Hatham Beg, those false pretences 
of yourself or your khan, I value not a straw ; nor have we run 
away with three hundred tumans of the vali, as you said a 
little while ago. Had we that sum, depend upon it, we should 
not have been so stupid as to come hither with two persons 


only, when we could have raised as many thousands, as has al- 
ready been done with one hundred and twenty-seven tumans, for 
almost seven years, in Georgia, Dagistan, and Armenia. Your 
khan knows who I am, and here is his order to be entertained 
in every part of his country. He imagining I have r got a sum 
of money at Shamakhy, and hearing of my return from that 
place, has been excited by avarice to send you an order to try 
if you can get it from me, or procure payment for the young 
colt he made me a present of." Hatham Beg said, "Sir, every 
thing you observe of the khan's letters is true; but as for ill- 
treating Ohan the Armenian, he knows nothing of it ; perhaps 
he has been quarrelling, being drunk himself, and not distin- 
guishing any more than a beast." Ohan said, "You are mistaken ; 
I know myself as well as you, who believe in your prophet 
Mahomed. You Persians, who have neither shame nor honour, 
denying the truth, when you cannot act as you please ; and 
watching like adders for an opportunity to do mischief. What 
is become of your domineering like a tyrant ? A little while ago 
you threatened to kill Emin, his servant, and me. Why don't 
you act this now ? Because the mountaineers will make you 
not only pay for it with your life, but the lives of your family. 
O the churchmen, the churchmen!" Emin said, "Hold thy 
tongue : let us have no more of it." He then told Hatham Beg . 
to set down a while, and afterwards do his duty in executing 
his master's order : and rummaging about to find the money, he 
said, "Sir, from the language you use, and your manner of 
speaking, no man of breeding dares come near you ; and when 
you please to depart hence, I will give you a guide to the next 
stage. I see you are fatigued, take rest, and be easy." Then 
bidding good night, he went away ; but turned back twice 
before he was out of the varanda, and looked at his firelock. 

Emin, after a journey of twenty hours, ascending and des- 
cending high mountains, cannot say that he slept all the night 
any more than his poor relation Mussess, but watched the whole 


time with that single muskate, and passed it as disagreeably as 
if he had been a dozen years in prison; the least noise in the 
dark startled them, expecting every minute to be attacked ; but 
the only thing with which he supported his distracted heart, was 
the true soldier's resolution — let the worst come to the worst, to 
fall like a man, and to kill or be killed. In this dismal situation, 
till the dawn of day, his mind suffered what no one of the 
smallest humanity could hear without being sensible of ; and he 
wishes that his bitterest enemy may never feel the same anxiety. 
At sun-rise he was just going to set out on his journey, when 
the one-handed Sarkiss came, with compliments and a message 
from Hatham, saying, that he should be glad to have Emin's 
coat made of lamb's skin, to dispose of it as a token of friend- 
ship. Emin said, "Let me see Hatham himself;" and going 
out of the house, saw the fellow standing at an open place ; to 
whom he said, " Hatham Beg, let me have your felt great-coat ; 
as we are advancing towards the cold weather, it is necessary 
I should have some covering, and you shall have my lamb's 
skin coat in lieu of it; then we shall be brothers and friends." 
Hatham consented, thinking he had made a good bargain; the 
coats, were exchanged, and cessation of hostilities took place 
between the two potentates. Sarkiss was allowed to be his guide, 
and Ohan the pack-horse man was discharged, and ordered to 
go back to his family. 

Emin, with his relation, set out for Fative, about fifteen 
miles off ; but after four miles march, as they were passing 
through the village of Hallytzar, Sarkiss stopped, and would 
not stir an inch further, unless he could eat some grapes; and 
in the mean time he began sharpening his eyes upon Emin's 
gun as a wolf does his ears when he finds an opportunity to 
seize his prey. Emin finding his intention was bad, and that he 
was not ordered to be a guide, but a robber, leally felt himself 
greatly distressed for want of knowing the right road to Fative ; 
nor could he persuade himself to put an end to Sarkiss' s life, 



though his insolence and villany grew insupportable, when he 
found Emin expostulating like a brother. In that disagreeable 
situation appeared the Carancha Mussess his deliverer, going on 
below the village, to the same stage, with his pack-horse before 
him. Emin called out to him; and he, turning his head round, 
immediately went up to him, and seeing the unmanly behaviour 
of Sarkiss, abused him heartily, and obliged him to go on. 
Emin said to Mussess, "There is no occasion for Sarkiss, since 
you know the way." The devilish Sarkiss said, " It is my 
master's especial order to go with Emin as far as the place of 
destination, and procure a receipt from Minas Vardapit, or the 
monk of the monastery there ; then only I can return to Hatham 
Beg." Mussess could make no objection to that artful speech, 
and said no more to him. 

They were hardly gone three miles out of Hallytzar, when 
Sarkiss, like a running footman, kept up before Emin's horse; 
and now and then would get out of the road, jumping from one 
stone to the top of another, like a wild goat, perhaps to the 
distance of two full yards; then he climbed up the rocks like a 
monkey, with his one hand and a stump ; then he let go his 
hand, from perhaps fifteen or twenty feet high, and come down 
upon his legs without being hurt: it was enough to pain one's 
eyes to look at him. Then, again coming into the road to take 
his post, he told Emin, that he could have a great many like 
himself in those mountains to fight under him, and to drive out 
the Mahomedans in ten days time, provided he would give each 
a gun, with bread and salt. In this manner he so pleased 
Emin, as to get the better of him; and having told him it did 
not become him to have the piece slung over his shoulder, while 
Sarkiss the faithful slave was running before him like a dog, at 
last he got the gun, and slung it over his own shoulder. Soon 
after, the young sharper, as happy as could be, began to gain 
ground jumping again from rock to rock, and saying to himself, 
"Here I will have the enemy, there I will stop the whole gang 


of them;" till he got about sixty yards off. Poor Mussess see- 
ing the fraud, was almost distracted, and could not help repri- 
manding Emin in a mild manner, saying, ''What have you done? 
In a place like this, if you set your old horse gallopping after 
him, you will not catch the villain." But a lucky presence of 
mind assisted Emin, after the grievous complaint of his relation, 
who cried like a child; and Emin made so loud a noise, that 
the mountain echoed, calling out at the same time, " Sarkiss, 
Sarkiss!" as if the world was going to be at an end, "come 
hither, come hither!" He being terrified, run back; and Emin 
said, " My good man, let me have the gun, for you do not see 
the thing, which is really a monster." No sooner had he got 
it than he cocked it, and in an instant clapped it to Sarkiss' s 
breast, who begged for mercy; but Emin in a fury said, "Pull 
off your cap, and run directly to that tree before you, and hang 
it there." He being frightened out of his senses, obeyed with- 
out hesitating, and flew to it instantly; but before he took off 
his hand, Emin fired, and the shot w r ent through the cap. He 
loaded the piece again, and then said to Sarkiss, "Thou villain! 
who art neither a Christian nor Mahomedan, hast thou now seen 
what o Emin can do? how dost thou deceive me with your cun- 
ning words, and run away with my gun ? how art thou now ? 
dost thou see death with open eyes or not?" Sarkiss said, 
" Great Sir, not only death, but also hell itself. I beg ten thou- 
sand pardons; have mercy upon your countryman and fellow 
Christian; and grant life to him who had heard of you often, 
but has now seen your power with open eyes. The devil take 
our darugha, whom I served five years for nothing; he was al- 
ways promising he would give me a gun, and wanting to make 
good his word, ordered me to become your guide, to steal your 
fire-lock, and try to murder you, by Ibrahim Khan's order; in 
order to prove to the Russians, Lazguis, or others, who are your 
protectors, that you are killed by your own fellow Christians the 
Armenians, not by his order, nor by Zvlahomedans. I would 


have you to take care of yourself. " Emin said, "Walk on, 
you fool, and hold your tongue." At this circumstance, both 
Mussess his relation, and the other man, were as happy as the 
nimble Sarkiss was distressed at missing his aim, and letting the 
bird fly out of his hand, by a feigned surprize of Emin's com- 
posing. But his relation could not contain himself ,. and began 
rebuking Sarkiss all the way to Fative. 

An hour before sun-set they arrived at the monastery ; and 
Emin said to his relation, "Take care, lest Sarkiss steal away 
something." Soon after, they went to see Minas, the head monk 
of the monastery ; and on coming back to their room, where the 
things lay, they found that Sarkiss had disappeared, with a 
small bundle of six cartridges, which they had put on the shelf. 
He paid himself in that fashion with more content, after so 
many miles travelling on foot, that if he had received a few 
rupees from Emin; who could not help laughing in his mind # 
recollecting David's psalm, which says, "I am glad of thy word, 
as one that findeth great spoils." So was Sarkiss more glad to 
make a booty of a few shot and a handful of powder, than to 
receive honestly a reward from Emin's own hand, and go away 
contented! When Emin was in England, a gentleman irr the 
course of conversation, going from one thing to another, related, 
that when the late duke of Cumberland commanded the English « 
army in Flanders, at the hospital in one of the towns were lying 
1200 sick soldiers, not able to stir. Some mischievous men re- 
ported, that the people of the place were in agitation, and ready 
to revolt. This false report was so well received by those half- 
dying men, that they ran out all at once, without arms, to plun- 
der the innocent inhabitants, and there was great difficulty to 
keep them quiet. After they returned to their quarters, and to 
bed again, the very gentleman who told the story, with some 
others, began to banter them a little, saying to them, "My 
lads, what was all that alertness for? How came you to be so 
well, going to do wonders, when before you could hardly crawl 


out of your beds ? " The answer was : " May it please your 
honours, if you knew the sweetness of plunder as we soldiers 
know it, and were you dead, you would rise from your graves 
and run headlong after it." Therefore neither Emin, nor any 
other, should blame Sarkiss the Armenian mountaineer, who pre- 
ferred stealing to receiving a present; or wonder that David 
admired the word of God, as others rejoice in finding spoils. 

Emin made shifts to lodge in the monastery that night, and 
slept as well as he could, after forty-eight hours travelling. The 
next morning, by chance, an Armenian traveller was going to 
his home at Maghry, the last frontier town of Capan, a sort of 
republic, and a place of some trade, which produced an immense 
quantity of silk, cotton, and tine strong wine, situate on the 
bank of the river iVraskh, belonging to the Armenians, and con- 
taining 3000 families, three days journey from Tabriz. There at 
sun-set Emin arrived, after travelling thirty-six hours. But he 
cannot pass it by without making an observation on the in- 
habitants, who are entirely void of hospitality. As it was not 
quite dark, a few of them came and stood looking at him, but 
went away ; and as Emin was not a merchant to buy their 
commodities, did not think it worth while to invite him to their 
wine-cellars, or give him even a cup-full of vinegar to soak his 
bread in as a sauce. That is all they give on fast-days, unless 
the stranger is come there to purchase silk ; then they give 
him some wine. The males are as jealous of their females as 
the Spaniards or Portuguese ; they being, without exception, very 
brave, but not so blood-thirsty. The women are not hid, and go 
without veils, but are very industrious, so as to manage the silk 
and cotton and make wine. They have the liberty to stand 
and stare at strangers, but if a stranger should chance to look 
at them, the men taking notice of it, instantly run in a body, 
and beat him unmercifully. The reason they give for this, which 
is kept as a law among them, is, tnat when God created Adam, 
he opened his eyes and saw that he was made of dust ; then 


Eve was taken out of his side, and she lifting up her eyes, saw 
Adam : therefore it is allowed that women should look up to 
the men ; but men must hang down their heads and look at the 
ground, either passing by them, or sitting down, when the}^ are 
coming or going by. Emin, in calling them brave, is not with- 
out reason ; because they have made themselves independent 
since the death of Nadir, and maintained their liberty most 
valiantly, having overcome many times different armies of com- 
petitors ; till of late, to his sorrow, he has been told they have 
submitted to Ibrahim Khan of Carabagh. He did not chuse to 
make himself known to them, since he was determined to see 
the event of the letter from Gabriel, priest of Tiffliz, given to 
him by the monk Suciaz at Shamakhy, as already mentioned. 
The very young man that conducted him before from Fative 
monastery to that place, told him, that he would call on him 
at one o'clock the next morning; and in the night he with his 
relation made a shift to lie down by the horse, in an open place 
which is called Madan. The man, true to his word, came, and 
led them out of the town by a road so rough or round about 
that if it had not been for him, even by day-light they could 
not have found their way out. The man said to Emin, "You 
see that high mountain on your right hand, standing exactly 
like a wall ; that will be your guide, with the river Araskh on 
your left, all along to the town of Orduar ; you will want no 
other, nor wish to meet any one to ask the way to it. And 
when you are arrived there, you may be sure of meeting cara- 
vans to go from any part of the country to Tabriz, Romia, Baya- 
zid, &c. 

Emin thanked the Armenian, and moved on witli Mussess. 
About three o'clock, he heard a challenge all of a sudden on 
the right of the rock, and being somewhat alarmed, he instantly 
presented his piece, threatening the challenger to fire, suspecting 
him to be a highwayman. The man spoke in a very humble tone 
of voice, saying, " Pray, stranger, do not be hasty ; I am a turn- 


pike-man, belonging to the custom-house of Carabagh, posted 
here by Mustapha Khan, to receive a small custom from mer- 
chants passing by, if they have any silk of Meghrey ; but I can 
see you have nothing. My asking a civil question made you 
think I was a bad man ; you thought proper to be upon your 
guard ; you are in the right of it, and your daring is commend- 
able in such a narrow pass. Go your journey, and God be with 
you, I have nothing more to say to you ; you are not like other 
Armenians, who, hi passing by this place, must pay very dear 
for it." Emin said, " You are very much in the right ; if they 
had been like me, they would not have suffered you to sit in 
that strong hold, nor me to ramble from place to place, for no 
benefit to myself." Again the man said, "Good Sir, you seem 
to be desperate ; I wish you a good journey, success, and pros- 
perity ! " Emin, when he heard the kahdar, or turnpike-man, 
pronounce those words in so feeling a manner, not only desisted 
from acting rashly, but comforted himself in the dark, after so 
many dangers, in so many years in those miserable districts, 
where he never heard from any body the like kind expressions; 
he cannot help thinking of them now and then, and they give 
him, great satisfaction. Whether the man was afraid of being 
fired at, or from a motive of humanity, he spoke as kindly as 
, if he had really known the desperate condition of Emin's life j 
who thanked him, moved forward on his journey, and exactly 
at sun-rise saw the Armenian caravan, which had set out before 
him from the same place, pitched by the side of a brook, about 
half a mile from Orduar, in the province of Nakhchuan. The 
people knew Emin directly at some distance, and came to meet 
him, begging him to alight awhile, and eat some breakfast. They 
behaved very civilly, and in half an hour's time packed up for 
Orduar, which is inhabited by Persians. He thanked them, and 
went to take a room in a caravanserai, while they advanced to 
Akulis, a mile farther, a place inhabited by Armenian merchants, 
and formerly a very flourishing town, but much ruined by Azad 


Khan the Afghan, who reigned some years in Persia after Nadir 
Shah, but was at last conquered and taken by Carim Khan. 
He lived eighteen years after, and died at Shiraz, eighteen months 
after Carim. 


[ Journeying on to Khuy, beyond Tabriz, first to Khosrove — Johannes the Vardapiet 
or Archimandrite, with tears and lamentations, cursing Heraclius on account 
of his and Catholicos Simon's behaviour to " our prince Emin " — Emin makes 
himself known — Immediate terror of the monk — Fervent anxiety to get rid 
of Emin as soon as possible — All because Emin has no money — In great 
anxiety and perplexity not knowing where to turn — Johannes, recovering 
from his fright, advises return to Heraclius — Emin agrees, since " necessity 
has no law " — Continues on the road to Khuy — Danger on the way — An Ar- 
menian, Mehrab. custom-house officer — Wants to report Emin to his master 
Ahmed Khan — Ahmed Khan turns Mehrab out with much abuse as an un- 
grateful Armenian trying to betray one who runs through fire and sword to 
save his countrymen from slavery — Emin at Tiflis— Heraclius welcomes him 
— Accounts for his own bad treatment of him by blaming the Catholicos 
Simon and others.] 

T^MIN remained very quietly at Orduar exactly a fortnight, be- 
fore a caravan happened to go to Khuy, two days journey 
beyond Tabriz. He hired a pack-horse for his man Mussess, of 
a Mahomedan named Alahverdy, a very good-natured fellow, who 
had only that one horse to let, and agreed with him, on condi- 
tion that he would not enter any of the towns in his way, lest 
the other Armenians should know of his going to the village of 
Khosrove, and should inform the man there, that Emin was 
coming to demand of him the forty tumans lent some years be- 
fore when in Timiz. He intended by that method to keep the 
people in the dark, as well as his new-hired Mahomedan, that 
they might not suspect who Emin was, and on what business 
he was wandering from one place to another. A stranger in 
those countries, without being a merchant travelling in a cara- 
van, is looked upon as a madman or a rogue; and for those 


reasons Emin made the pretence, that such a person owed him 
that sum of money, the only capital he had in this world to 
depend upon. 

Emin having had intelligence when he was at Shoshu, that 
the debtor, was gone to Shamakhy, and thence to the village of 
Khosrove, the men of the caravan hearing his case, expressed 
great concern, and wished with all their hearts that he might 
find the man there; commending him for not disclosing the debt- 
or's name, making him welcome to their tables all the way for 
several days, till the road divided in two, one going to Khuy, 
the other to Khosrove; where he with Mussess his relation, and 
Alahverdy his hired man, arrived just before sun-set; and after 
a little inquiry, found Johannes the Assyrian vardapit, or monk, 
to whom the monk Suciaz had directed him at Shamakhy, six- 
teen or seventeen days long journey off. According to the in- 
structions in the priest Gabriel's letter, Emin did not make him- 
self known to him for two days. He began with asking him 
in an ambiguous manner, if he, or those Mahomedans who are 
independent, would wish to receive Emin to be their leader, as 
they had given their words to Gabriel the priest, above three 
years ago. Johannes said, yes; and began to curse poor Hera- 
clius most warmly; shedding tears bitterly, and invoking God to 
crush him. Emin said, "Holy father, what is your reason for 
such grievous exclamations against that prince, who has been 
defending some part of Christianity so many years against the 
Turks, Lazguis, Afghans, and Persians?" Johannes said, "You 
do not know, noble stranger, that he, and Simon the Catholicus, 
have been the cause of fastening more strongly the chains of 
slavery on the Armenians and Assyrians, when prince Emin was 
going to break them asunder, and set those two miserable na- 
tions free. May Heaven's curse fall on those who would not let 
him destroy the power of the unbelievers ! ' ' Emin said again, 
" What could your prince do, whom all the world knows to be 
as poor as myself ? " He said, "Prince Heraclius's name is as 

4 8 


great now as Nadir Shah's; if he would but have assisted our 
prince Emin with an hundred Georgians, an hundred thousand 
Curdistan Armenians would have joined him, besides as many 
Assyrians and Nestorians, who could easily have found money." 
Emin expressed a wish to know where he (Emin) was at that 
time. He said, "The gentleman has been reported to, have been 
among the Lazguis, and to have saved many thousand Armenian 
Christians, at the battle of Gedashen, against Shaverdy Khan 
of Ganja; but they, finding him to be in a way of becoming 
powerful, in the malignity of their hearts, sent to Melik Yusup 
of Thusatzy* to turn him out of that country, and thence he is 
gone to the fortified town of Shoshu; but, ten to one, Ibrahim 
Khan has by this time destroyed him. A thousand pities! He 
was the very man to have saved us; and none else, like him, 
will ever go to Frankistan to improve himself; and leaving be- 
hind him that blessed country of England, come to Russia to 
obtain a favourable recommendation from the empress; and then 
advance with such zeal and heroic resolution, to die for his coun- 
try's cause." Emin told Johannes, that he had the honour to 
be one of his faithful servants, from St. Petersburg to Tifniz; 
but having no money to maintain himself, he was obliged to 
take leave of him; that as for the safety of Emin's person, he 
might be assured of his being alive ; nor would it be long be- 
fore he would make him a visit. Upon this the monk got up 
to embrace Emin for joy, who then revealed himself; saying, 
" Here is the very man you have been wishing for, and for 
these three long days constantly speaking of; what can you do 
now with him, who is ready to follow your advice ? " It may 
be supposed, that after the monk's earnest professions of inter- 
esting himself in Emin's favour, he would have been very glad 
to do all in his power, and be as good as his word. But the 
poor man, on the reverse, instead of rejoicing to find him pre- 
sent, drew back, sat down with amazing concern, seeming so 

* Thalish. 


much terrified as to be thrown into an ague-fit, fetching deep 
sighs, groaning most heavily, and trembling like a willow. He 
then uttered these words: "O! Sir, I grieve to see you in that 
poor condition, which shews you have no money, and without 
having forty or fifty Armenians about you. If the mountaineers 
(meaning tjie Xestors) should happen to see you, they would 
not believe you to be Emin. I have converted 800 Nestorian 
families to the Roman Catholic religion, who in this small ex- 
tent of flat country, where hardly a rock is to be found for a 
defence, will be in danger of being put to the sword by their 
master Ahmed Khan, should he know you are here. He re- 
sides in the town of Khuy, by which you have past, six leagues 
hence. I beg you will do one of two things ; either return, or 
go up to that mountain which you see; it is fifteen miles from 
this place, and there you will find 18,000 mountaineers, who have 
been expecting you ever since you left Tifniz ; but without a 
few hundred zarmahbool zeckins, you will find it a hard matter 
to effect your purpose. However, I shall do my best endea- 
vours, and write to them in your favour ; and hope they will 
be persuaded to come into your measures, provided your rela- 
tion ..Mussess go with you thither; he has not said any thing to 
me, but my deacon Joseph has discovered his being disheart- 
ened, and resolved to part from you. I have told Joseph to 
pretend that he knows not your name, for the people ought not 
to know you. Therefore go first and try to persuade Mussess, 
and when that is done, I will compose the letter, and send also 
Joseph, who is as brave a young man as ever lived, to accom- 
pany you, and help you as much as he can, and to remain 
there as long as you please ; then send him back with good news 
of your prosperity. But if fortune should not favour you, you 
will have some satisfaction in having seen them, as well as other 
nations and countries. They are a most hospitable good-natured 
set of men, and in other times may be of great service to you, 
who by their uprightness of conduct have gained the minds of 


all the Armenians and Lazguis. But, alas ! you might also have 
purchased the black hearts of the churchmen for the same pur- 
pose, if you had a good sum of money." 

From this long friendly speech, composed of lamentation, 
reprimands, terror, and encouraging recommendation, Emin could 
not venture, in his distracted mind, to form any idea., Johannes, 
while he did not know who he was, would do any thing in the 
world to see his person, though ever so poor; but when he 
began to know him, he was terrified; and when he recovered 
himself from an unexpected surprize, would serve him to all 
intents and purposes! Emm judged it best to thank him for 
his fatherly advice; but little thought his boasted relation 
Mussess would have behaved in so pusillanimous a manner, as 
to expose his weak side, when he expected him to be as sound 
as a rock, like himself ; and was astonished at the whiteness of 
Mussess' s liver, when he told him, he would not go with him 
by any means among those mountaineers, nor accompany him 
longer, unless he returned to Timiz, or to some part of Persia. 
The monk Johannes, learning what had past between the two • 
relations, comforted Hmin in private like a father, and so did his 
deacon Joseph, telling him it did not signify, and since Mussess 
could not be persuaded to concur with Emin, his best way 
would be to go to Heraclius, who would certainly receive him , 
again with pleasure and satisfaction, being sorry for having 
turned him out of his country. Emin remembering the old Eng- 
lish saying, that "necessity has no law," put on a bold face, 
forcing his heart to become a piece of hard steel; and taking 
leave of Johannes, set out once more to have recourse to that 
famous prince, at the risque of his life, all the way to Timiz, 
not knowing in what his fate would end. Then, besides his 
doubt in what manner he should be received by Heraclius a 
thousand perplexing imaginations every hour passing and re- 
passing through his inconsolable mind, he often wished he had 
been -made a slave by the Turkmans, instead of returning to a 


prince who had assured Emm, that he was not a person likely 
to be of service either to him or to the Christians, when he 
was in power, and had an opportunity, at the head of the 
Lazguis, to ruin Georgia. Even at that hopeless time, had 
he gone among them, he would have been received as before. 
But great 4 is the principle of religion! powerfully affecting the 
human mind in general ; dividing kingdoms, setting brothers 
against brothers, ready to cut each others throats, and turning 
their hearts to inveterate enmity from social friendship. Such 
have been the motives of Emin from the beginning of his under- 
taking to this day; yet he did not prosper in his honest designs 
in the world, though many others in his place, and with his 
opportunity, would have sacrificed every thing that was dear to 
selfish ambition, so as to ruin others to serve themselves. 

It was in the morning when he took leave of Johannes, and 
departed from the village of Khosrove, with his poor-hearted 
relation and Alahverdy the hired Mahomedan. They were not 
gone half away to the town of Khuy, when, with intention to 
shun the place again as before, they halted about a hundred 
steps on the right, out of the road, and alighted by the side of 
a spring to rest a while, eat something, and consult what route 
it would be the least dangerous to take : but unluckily he found 
that Mussess's yapencJiee or felt great coat was missing; he 
having dismounted an hour before they came to that place, had 
thrown it carelessly on the back of the pack-horse, and leading 
it without looking behind, had dropped it. In the mean time, 
Emin saw a single traveller pass by, with his face intirely turned 
to the left, so as not to be perceived. This uncommon attitude 
made him suspect that he had picked up the yapenchee, and 
for that reason did not look towards the spring where they were 
sitting. He had got out of sight, when, after a few minutes 
pause, Emin mounted his horse, telling his men to follow quietly 
after him and gallopping about, scouring to the right and left, 
found him at last dismounted sitting in the corner of a meadow. 


Emin seeing the yapenchee at some distance, went up and took 
it from him, reprimanding the young Armenian for his behaviour. 
The Armenian excused himself, saying, that he thought they 
were Mahomedan Persians, whose prophet had made the property 
of Christians lawful booty for them, and, in consequence, their 
goods ought to be made so to the Christians. This he said, not 
knowing who Emin was. He then mounted, and before they 
reached the high road, Emin inquiring who he was, found him to 
be a servant of the custom-house, named Mehrab Aga, an Arme- 
nian, of Tiffliz, in the service of Ahmad Khan of Khuy, a man who 
had been sent by an order to search about the country under 
the Khan's government, and find out if any Armenian merchants 
or pedlars could be detected carrying or smuggling away Turkish 
piasters to the town of Shoshu, there to be made into current 
abasis (each equal to an English shilling ; ) and he hoped, he 
said, that Emin had not any such about him, for they would 
be taken from him, and he would receive 500 bastinadoes on ' 
the soles of his feet. Emin said, he had not a single piaster 
about him. The young man believed him ; but was sorry to . 
say, that he must acquaint the custom-officer, as he had taken 
his oath, that such and such Armenians were coming upon, the 
road. This polite way of threatening was occasioned by Mussess's 
imprudence, who, when he came up to them, insulted the young 
man in most furious abusive terms for stealing his coat, other- 
wise Emin could have sent him away in a very friendly manner : 
but he was obliged to go to Khuy, in spite of all his endeavours 
to avoid it, as the suspecting custom-officer, through avarice, 
would have sent half-a-dozen horse to overtake and carry him 
up to the Khan, whether he would or not. Mussess recollecting 
his rashness, not knowing at first who the Armenian was, could 
not help being sorry for it. Emin said to himself, " Let the 
worst come to the worst," and went on with great vexation of 
spirit; nor could he keep hold of the young Armenian to force 
him to go along with him a day's journey, for he was mounted 


in a better horse, and took care to keep off at a great distance, 
after having told the nature of his office. In this disagreeable 
situation, Emin marched very slowly, on purpose to enter the 
place in the dark, so as to set out in the morning early, without 
being known. It being past eight o'clock, when he entered the 
town, and the young man then out of danger, he drew near and 
conducted Emin and his servants to the very caravanserai, 
which was also made into a custom-house, where the officers of 
Tiffliz Armenian merchants inhabited. They immediately making 
a noise, like many Jews, with dark lantherns in their hands, 
came in a fury to rummage the portmanteau, and at last found 
piasters. In the mean while, Emin tried to keep at a distance, 
in the dark, in order to shun them, but it was to no purpose. 
They first cried out to Mehrab, "Sir, we do not know this man, 
who seems to have no language, for he does not speak a word." 
Emin finding that their inquisitiveness could not be satisfied 
without knowing his person, said, " What is it that you want ? 
You have seen, good people, that there is no money ; but hav- 
ing done your duty, go your way — let me alone." One of them, 
sitting with Mehrab and several others, in a low varanda not a 
great> way off, heard his voice, and cried out, " Oh ! it is Emin 
Aga." Then he, with all the rest, got up from their seats, run 
down, and coming from all sides, carried and made him sit at 
the head of the table, already laid for supper. Mehrab the 
head custom-officer, with his second named Vasky, told Emin 
plainly, before all that sat and stood by, that he, with his com- 
panion Vasky, must go and report to Ahmad Khan of Emin's 
coming to the town of Khuy, and that he had been at Khosrove 
among the Assyrians or Curds, to make them revolt. Emin, 
finding him so unmercifully resolved to betray him, without cause 
or any offence given, nor even a single word being spoken to him 
said, "My friend, do your worst; — shew your fidelity to the 
Khan, and shed my blood, and then satisfy your conscience for 
being the cause of murdering your fellow Christian, who never 


saw you in his life before nor offended you. But the Great 
God, who has saved him from many perils, will not let him 
fall by your means." The villanous Mehrab said, "I shall try 
that God, whom you have trusted so much without money : but 
the crooked sword of Kizlebash will shew you the contrary." 
He pronounced these words in anger, and went away with Vasky 
to the Khan. In half an hour he came back appearing very un- 
happy and dejected : he sat at the table, but said not a word for 
five minutes; then he opened his ungodly mouth again, saying, 
" Gentlemen, surely Emin Aga's God is great, [as if he had been 
an unbeliever]. I went and stood in the presence of the Khan, 
like Judas the betrayer of Jesus, and accused him with such 
heavy enormous charges, that if he had been the Khan's own 
brother or son, he would have ordered him to be cut into a 
hundred pieces: on the contrary, he abused and insulted me 
with such angry words and threatening language, that I thought 
myself very near falling a victim instead of Emin ; and rebuking 
me, said, you wicked Armenian of Tiffliz, Emin has trusted in 
the only God, running through fire and sword to save you from' 
slavery, while you, brute beasts ! are endeavouring to reward 
him with a downfal : — get out of my sight ! — -tell Emin, from me, 
he is welcome to my country : — let him rest satisfied, stay as 
long as he pleases, and go when he pleases, no soul shall dare 
to say a word to him." Emin said nothing, only glorifying the 
Omnipotent God in his mind, when the rest of the Armenians 
were saying to one another, "Sure this is a miracle — for we 
expected him by this time to be cut in pieces ; yet he is sitting 
in peace, and will sleep in tranquillity." The next morning he 
went without the walls, and lodged at an Armenian's house a 
fortnight, without being disturbed, after many months fatigue 
and danger, not forgetting to this day, the natural humanity of 
Ahmed Khan the Mahomedan, to the shame of Mehrab the Ar- 
menian merchant of Tiffliz, who did not desist from endeavouring 
to make an end of Emin. But God, who sees the hearts, and 


knows the secrets of all men, will not forsake any who puts 
his whole trust in him. 

Emin, after staying at Khuy fourteen days, and having 
given his disturbed mind some rest, entertained fresh hopes, 
contemplating, that while he continued firm in the principles of 
virtue, he need not be apprehensive of being immaturely sent 
out of the world. He undertook therefore the second time to 
go to prince Heraclius, though without an invitation from him : 
yet, as several Armenians of Tifliz, or Georgians, had informed 
him, that his Highness had often declared in public, that he 
should be glad if Emin would return to Georgia, he flattered 
himself, that the prince, being a Christian, had, from motives of 
conscience, repented of his ill-behaviour to him, or endeavoured 
to retrieve his disobliging the mighty Russians who had been so 
favourable as to recommend Emin. On the other hand, he was 
under the necessity to justify his character, and stop the mur- 
muring reflections of the world, leaving no room for any man 
to say, that the prince's mind was good towards him; but that 
•he obstinately refused to be reconciled to the prince. Emin, on 
those two points, built a castle in the air ; and putting on, a 
second time, a bold face, set out with an Armenian caravan, 
and after twelve days slow travelling arrived one afternoon at 
Tiffliz. He found that the prince was just gone out on a party 
of pleasure, and not making any halt, gallopped immediately 
after him, and overtook him at two miles distance going along 
the bank of the Cur. Emin, according to custom, dismounted; 
and no sooner did the prince see him holding his stirrup, and 
kissing his hand, than he started : but recollecting himself, ex- 
pressed great joy, like a father receiving a prodigal son, and all 
his nobles were seemingly glad, yet much surprized to find him 
among them again.. Then the prince, in a fatherly tone of 
voice, desired him to mount, after he had stood five minutes, 
and then expressed sorrow for his former ill-treatment with great 
joy seeing him a second time in his country, saying further, " My 


unnecessary suspicions are all vanished. — Truly you are an 
honour to the Armenian nation, more particularly in your zeal 
for Christianity; — any one else in your place, with such oppor- 
tunity could never have withstood the temptation which you 
resisted, refusing most prudently the command of so many brave 
men in Dagistan. It is surprizing to me, that you came from 
them unmolested, when they found that you were not inclined 
to injure Christians." [Here the author could not help suspect- 
ing the prince's. sincerity, since envy appeared in his countenance 
notwithstanding his fair speech.] " Pray, Emin Aga," continued 
he, "how did you manage those savage Barbarians, who are 
thirsty for Christian blood?" Emin answered, "May it please 
your Highness, by speaking truth, and by virtue of your pray- 
ers, which saved me from all danger." On hearing the word 
truth, to which his Highness is intirely a stranger, he cast his 
head down, and then lifting it up again, said, "I wish every 
man had your way of thinking : and hope you will forgive me, 
not intirely laying to my charge the ill-usage you received, 
which was chiefly owing to his Highness Simon the Catholicus, ■ 
to the bishop Zacharia of Tiffliz, and to many others among my 
own Georgians." Emin added, that he had done his duty so, far, 
that he wished well to all evil-doers, and was indifferent what 
should become of himself. 



[How Ganja came under Heraclius through the death of Shaverdy Khan, his rival, 
at the hands of a young Armenian repentant apostate — Battle between Lez- 
guis and Georgians — Michael the centurion, an Armenian captive from in- 
fancy, commanding the Lezguis — Heraclius' treachery again — Emin ordered 
to charge alone — Both sides aiming at him — His miraculous escape — 
Michael's glorious death — Lezguis entrenched fighting desperately but out- 
numbered — A captive Armenian boy — Emin's rebuke to Heraclius for his 
betrayal of the Lezguis — Movses goes to Tiffiiz — Heraclius for the second time 
drives Emin out — Narrow escape from drowning — Dangerous roads infested 
by robbers.] 

TT was then the beginning of autumn ; and, in the latter end of 
December, Shaverdy Khan of Ganja began again his under- 
mining politics, writing letters to the Lazguis for troops to re- 
duce the great tribe of Shamsadin, who had put themselves 
under the prince's protection ; but Heraclius, fearing some ill 
consequence, sent five hundred Georgian horse to Ganja, in order 
• to keep the khan quiet. He, not minding them much, laid a 
scheme, on the arrival of the Lazguis, to put them all to the 
sword in cold blood. Since the Shamsadin tribe, like others, 
was divided into two parties, one for the prince, and the other 
for the khan, one party would have joined to put the design 
into execution ; but, luckily for the Georgians, a young Ar- 
menian mountaineer, a new apostate to the Mohamedan faith, 
had been a few days before made a 'servant to "Shaverdy ; who 
being in bed and asleep, the young man, not contented with his 
new religion, took the gun hanging in the same room, and shot 
the khan to death, which ended all the mischief, and saved the 
lives of many thousands. The young man was put to the sword 
by the khan's son, called Agajar Beg; and from that time 
Ganja by degrees became a province under Heraclius. The young 
Armenian, before he was put to death, being asked what was 
his motive for so doing? said, "He did it, that by killing the 



khan, and leaving a good fame behind, he might be killed him- 
self afterwards for having renounced his own divine religion." 

It may not be improper to recapitulate here three remark- 
able circumstances in regard to the Armenian nation, which were 
of service to Heraclius. The first was, David his subject, dis- 
covering the horrid conspiracy of thirty-two Georgian noblemen, 
headed by Heraclius's own uncle by his mother's side, Prince 
Pala : the second, that Emin, when commanding the L,azguis, 
discomposed Shaverdy Khan's government, by freeing the Colan 
Curd tribe mentioned before : the third, that the young moun- 
taineer put an end to the khan's life, when he was near recover- 
ing his dominions from disorder, and preparing to overset the 
prince's power, who being just on the brink of downfal, was for- 
tunately saved from one of his greatest rivals. 

The Armenian merchants or tradesmen of Tifniz have served 
the prince and his family, on all occasions, with troops, money, 
quarters, provisions, and forage, for forty years last past, most 
truly and affectionately ; yet the prince was never mindful of 
them, nor shewed them any regard. Emin cannot in conscience 
blame the poor prince on that head ; he is rather to be pitied ; 
since the force of his religion, and the holy ministers of - the 
sacred Greek church, being predominant in his mind, he was not 
endowed with probity sufficient to shake off its spiritual in- 
fluence ; not resembling those great-souled heroes, who disdained 
partiality, and rewarded merit wherever it was found. Such 
has been the chief curse to some Christian powers, for the 
vengeance of the Almighty falling upon them, when Mahomed 
mounted on a camel from Arabia came to scourge them ; and 
they are treated with indignity by all nations. 

Emin, from day to day, nattered himself, through the smooth 
words of the prince, that he would assist him, by giving the 
command of a detachment to him. In this manner full nine 
months passed ; but Heraclius could not afford to bestow on 
him a single abasy, nor any thing else, except half a Tabriz 


maund, or pound, of bread, (little more than three English penny 
loaves,) half a maund of mutton, and half a maund of weak 
wine, for the allowance of two hungry persons. Emin and his 
relation Mussess, who through necessity were thankful for being 
taught economy by His Highness. Emin did not much mind 
it ; having .inured himself to living by that rule all his lifetime. 
Poor Mussess persevered as well as he could ; but it must be 
supposed that he suffered greatly. This way of victualling was 
on feast days ; but on fast days they had no more than half a 
maund of bread and half a maund of wine : for the Armenians 
feast six months in the year, and fast six months without eat- 
ing either fish or flesh. Those who can afford it, may have all 
sorts of fruits, fine olives, and pilau with oil ; but God help those 
that are poor ; they can enjoy nothing. In any part of Ar- 
menia they may have plenty of fruits, but not at Tirniz where 
everything is proportionably dear ; it being in some sort a met- 

In one of the last battles against the Lazguis, in the depth 
•of winter, they were no more than a hundred men, each having 
an Emeral : the Georgians* were commanded by Michael the Cen- 
turion, an Armenian by birth, who had been taken captive when 
an infant, and brought up in Dagistan. This brave man hap- 
pened to be one of the captains of the Lazguis sent to Solomon, 
prince of Emeral, as auxiliary troops. He came from Dagistan, 
joined his troops, and defeated 40,000 Turks and Dadians be- 
longing to a petty Georgian prince of the Turks party, whose 
country the Iyazguis ruined and took slaves for their pay, to the 
number of one hundred, chiefly females. Others, more prudent, 
staid where they were, in Emeral Georgia, till the melting of the 
snow, knowing that prince Heraclius would not keep his coven- 
ant, made when they were invited by his son-in-law prince 
Archil, brother to Prince Solomon. But this Michael being 

* Apparently the word Georgians is a mistake for Lazguis, as it seems to be the latter 
who were commanded by Michael. 


originally an Armenian, and credulous by nature, trusted to prince 
Heraclius's honour, who having intelligence before of his inten- 
tion to march through the snow on the Plain of Samigory (or 
the Three Miles,) lay in his way near a forest, half a mile's dis- 
tance from the river Chabry, one the branches of the Cur. There 
he remained a fortnight, with four thousand chosen, Georgians, 
cavalry and infantry. In the afternoon the Georgian centries 
brought word that the Lazguis were coming, upon which every 
man mounted readily, but without any order, making a confused 
effeminate noise, with the sound of a long i, as far as their breath 
could go. The I^azguis not apprized of the prince's hostile inten- 
tion, took it to be a hunting party. Before they came up, prince 
Heraclius's eshikagesies, or aids du-camp, said to Emm, "It is 
his Highness' s express command that you go out of his band to 
charge the enemy before." He instantly obeyed, spurring and 
whipping his horse ; but he was hardly gone ten yards, when 
the Georgians began firing behind him, and the Lazguis scarce ' 
fifty yards from him in front ; so that he was between two fires, 
both taking aim at him. The Lazguis took him to be a Geor- ■ 
gian, and the Georgians were glad of the opportunity to make 
an end of a poor single Armenian, whose great faith was his 
armour and shield. He called upon God, and rushed through the 
enemy without being hurt, so that he went round and stood at 
some distance to see the operation. While he was between, 
those two savages fired balls that flew close to his ears, and killed 
fifty Georgians, with some men of note, and as many of the 
L,azguis. Being opposite, he then fell upon them sword in hand, 
surprizing them in close quarter ; while the I^azguis, fighting 
like tigers, laughed and spit in the Georgians faces, calling them 
treacherous Caffers, for not keeping true to their word. Michael 
the Centurion signalized himself in a most surprizing manner, as 
he was surrounded by three hundred Georgians for his share, 
and firing his piece, he killed one first, and not having time 
enough to load again, he clubbed it, and holding it by the muzzle, 


fell among the Georgians, and knocked down six or seven of 
them. When his firelock was broken, he drew his sword, and 
with his dagger in his left hand, defended himself, fighting and 
calling Heraclius by all manner of bad names. The prince took 
care to go upon a high eminence. Michael received nine balls 
through his, body before he fell, pronouncing, Lallan, Ilalah, &c. : 
then he laid himself down with as much composure as if he was 
going to sleep, and with his right hand under his head, looked 
as fresh as a rose. The Georgians behaved like savages ; for 
when he was dead and gone, some of them came and took his 
head off, some his hands, some his feet, and others ripped open 
his chest to see his heart, which was amazingly large, and his 
liver was as black as jet ; which puts me in mind of an expres- 
sion of the sailors as a rebuke to a cowardly man, Go your way, 
you white-livered fellow ! The appellation signifies that a black 
liver belongs to a brave man. When his son was taken he said 
that his father was seventy- two years of age. Forty of the Laz- 
guis fought retreating composedly till they got. to the top of an 
eminence, the ground being soft and mixed chiefly with salt- 
petre. In five minutes they dug holes with their daggers deep 
enough to entrench themselves ; in the mean time the whole 
army of Georgians formed a circle round them. The Lazguis 
fought desperately. When any of them had exhausted his am- 
munition, he left his post, drew his sword, or clubbed his fire- 
lock like Hercules, came out of the entrenchment, rushed among 
the Georgians, and fought till he was destroyed. This continued 
till eleven o'clock at night, when the snow began to fall very 
thick, each flake being as big as an English shilling. Both sides 
were tired, partly by the cold, partly by the fatigue ; those left 
in the entrenchment having no more powder or ball, cried out, 
Barish ! (or peace,) on condition that the prince would grant 
quarter, and not molest them, to which his Highness consented ; 
but after they came out, they were stripped stark naked ; and 
after the army had marched back to the camp seventeen of them 


were put to the sword, and three only left, whom the prince 
ordered to receive a Tabriz maund of flour for four or five days 
journey, through snow half a yard deep, to the foot of Dagistan. 
Among them an Armenian boy, sixteen years of age, was taken 
prisoner and preserved. Emin had the curiosity to ask him, 
"Who were those twenty-four men among the dead, and not 
circumcised?" He said, " They are Armenians, brought from 
Armenia when children, and brought up as Lazguis in Dagistan ; 
for the Lazguis seldom sell the Armenian boys to the Turks as 
they do the Georgians. The Armenian infants brought up by 
the Lazguis, turn out brave, and faithful to their masters ; where- 
as the Georgians are not so, but false and treacherous. There is 
no occasion to say more ; you have been in Dagistan, where you 
hardly saw a Georgian male slave made free, as we emancipate 
the Armenians, who live there like princes, and when they des- 
cend from Dagistan into Georgia for plunder, a few of them 
stand against thousands of Georgians. You have seen a proof ' 
of their behaviour to-day, by Michael our leader ; who, trust- 
ing to Heraclius's false word, lost his life bravely." Emin then . 
said, "Why did not those Lazguis keep the grown men and 
women as well as the children?" Then he said, " O, good, Sir, 
how can you be so ignorant of the world. The Armenians will 
never turn Mahomedans, if they were cut to pieces ; nor are their 
women so beautiful as the Georgians ; and in their slavery they 
are most unhappy ; they are therefore ransomed by their own 
countrymen, and become free again." 

That very night the prince asked Emin the reason of his not 
bringing the heads of two Lazguis, which, as he had been told, 
he killed in the action. Emin swore by his honour that it was 
not true; and declared honestly, that he did not even fire his 
piece at them ; when he had an opportunity, shewing the pan 
of it to the prince, that it was fresh and the muzzle not at all 
dirty. The prince said, "Why so, my Emin Aga?" Emin 
said, "May it please your Highness, they are my best friends. 


I have been treated by them like their own eyes, as it is known 
to all men; it would be dastardly in any man of the least prin- 
ciple, to hurt his friends without provocation; especially as it 
is against the law of nations, to attack these brave men who 
were called at the desire of prince Solomon and your son-in-law 
prince Archil his brother, and became the chief instruments of 
rescuing their principalities out of the hands of the cruel Turks." 
The prince, at this reasonable answer, hung his head, and after 
casting his eyes five minutes on the ground, said to him, "May 
God reward you according to your heart!" The next morning 
the prince marched with the heads of the Lazguis on mules 
backs. They were skinned after his arrival at Tifniz, stuffed 
with chopped straw, and sent to Akhaltzikhas Pasha, to be dis- 
patched by him to Constantinople, as a token of friendship to 
the Sultan, and a proof of his important victory over the Laz- 
guis. This small piece of policy, though childish in its kind, 
made as much noise in those parts of Turkey, as any one of 
the famous victories of the late Frederick King of Prussia made 
in Europe, which is owing mostly to the effeminacy or igno- 
rance of the sinking power of the Othomans. 

In the following spring, and till the middle of summer, Emin 
staid in Georgia, with the same short allowance mentioned be- 
fore, and even that was gotten with great difficulty; for his 
poor relation Mussess used to go early in the morning to attend 
upon the prince's nazir, or steward, bending his neck at his door 
till three in the afternoon for an order to procure that paultry 

The prince, for his recreation every year, as well as to lie 
in wait for Lazgui inroaders, at the head of some thousand 
horse, went to the town of Gory, with his haram, or family; the 
first short stage was about seven or eight miles, from Tifniz to 
Kheta, where their principal church stands, to the west of the 
river Cur. In the afternoon Mussess appeared somewhat fa- 
tigued by marching on foot, and seemed to be in despair ; having 


more sense than like Emin to follow the prince in vain, without 
any fair prospect of benefit. Though naturally modest, he 
abruptly asked Emm's permission to go away; the poor fellow 
made some trifling excuses; that he had forgot his linen, and 
left some other necessary things behind: he wished therefore to 
go back to Tifniz for them. Emin perceiving his intention, made 
no objection. Thus he departed, and Emin being left alone, on 
the next morning followed the prince and reached the town of Gory. 

Five or six days after, prince Ivani Abasachi, Heraclius's 
brother-in-law, came and spoke to Emin with a good-natured 
tone of voice, but with threatening words, from Heraclius, to the 
following effect : "I am commanded by his Highness, (for which I 
am heartily sorry,) to acquaint you with his severe order, that 
you prepare immediately to go out of his dominions which way 
you chuse; but in case of your delay, he will put an end to 
your life." The good man burst into tears like a child, ex- 
claiming against Heraclius for his barbarity ; and adding, " The 
greatest part of his subjects are Armenians, trained up in wars 
against the Lazguis; he is very suspicious, and even afraid of 
a revolt from them, the consequence of which may be fatal to 
him; therefore I must advise you, my dear Emin, to set out 
immediately, and save your life from his tyranny; for he is a 
man of so bad a disposition, and so full of envy, that he cannot , 
bear to see or hear of any merit. He is ungrateful, like the 
Persians, and false to his very marrow ; no doubt he will lose 
his kingdom, and all his pains will prove vain." 

Emin thanked Abasachi for his friendly concern, and said, 
"There is no occasion for many words:" then he saddled his 
horse and set out for Emeral Georgia, to try what sort of metal 
prince Solomon was made of. He asked some men the way to 
it, and had himself learned in England, from maps lent him by 
his friend Mr. Edmund Burke, that it was to the westward of 
Cartuel. After marching about five miles he reached the bank 
of an unfordable river, one of the branches of the Cur, then 

Emin's narrow escape from drowning. 395 

much swelled by the late fall of rain, and the melting of the 
snow in the mountains. Being at a loss in what manner to 
pass, yet trusting in God, he pushed the horse into the terrible 
current, which carried him like lightning down the river, where 
himself, from his waist to the head, and only the head of his 
horse, might have been seen, like two gourds floating on the sur- 
face of the water. The only prayer he could pronounce to Provi- 
dence was this, " O, my God; let not prince Heraclius rejoice 
at the death of your sinful creature ! " He cannot recollect how 
many minutes had passed when his poor beast touched the 
ground, and came out of the water : but when he looked back 
at the distance between the two stations, he guessed it to be 
almost two miles. He then glorified the Great Maker of all for 
his narrow escape — and, an hour or two before sun-set, came to 
the door of a mud house in a beautiful plain, without any other 
building or village near it : there he saw an elderly woman sit- 
ting down and spinning cotton, and not guessing her temper he 
asked her, if she could tell the way to such a place ? No 
sooner had she heard him, than she flew into a furious passion, 
scolding like a mad witch, ready to rush against his face; but 
fortunately a sweet angelic Georgian girl, who was standing by, 
interposed, and pacified the old dame with her amiable charm- 
ing voice and sensible expostulation, telling her that she should 
not behave so roughly to the gentleman, who was a stranger in 
their country, and without any companion. " Do not you see," 
she said, " that his cloaths are wet ? I dare say he is saved from 
being drowned in the river, which an elephant could not pass 
at this time of the year : ' ' then turning her dear self to Emin, 
she gave him an account of the road to Kertzkhilvan, the last 
frontier town of Cartuel. The words of her lovely mouth were 
these: "My dear stranger brother, be not uneasy; let not your 
good heart be in the least discomposed at the thoughtless ex- 
pressions and unbecoming behaviour of this old woman — she knows 
no better, else she would not act in such a manner. O, my 


God ! if you had been drowned, what would have been the con- 
dition of your poor relations when they heard of it ? Pray go 
to your journey's end, for it will be soon dark, lest you should 
not find your way easily." Emin thanked the sweet angel and 
departed ; but, now and then turning his face back, he saw her 
standing in the same posture in which he left her, .till he was 
out of sight. The emotion of his mind, excited by the natural 
humanity of that innocent lovely creature, was not to be won- 
dered at. Iyet no brave man be blamed for endeavouring at 
the danger of his single life, nor the richest man at the hazard 
of his fortune, to obtain such a woman as she was ; for she 
would study to make him pass his life happily, and her agree- 
able society, continuing always the same, ought to be esteemed 
a singular felicity, while she would set a commendable example 
for others to follow, and would teach them to be contented in 
the short passage through this visionary world. Hmin cannot 
with a good conscience avoid saying, that this kind of happi- ' 
ness, as he has by many observations found, exists among a 
number of European Christian couples ; but among few, very i 
few indeed, of the Asiatics, whose usage towards the fair sex 
cannot be compared to any thing but the conduct of devils : 
the law allowing a plurality of wives, has been the very cause 
of their never enjoying peace of mind, but continually destroy- 
ing one another ever since the beginning of their empire. Any 
law or custom against nature, must ruin cities, depopulate king- 
doms, and leave nothing behind but a desert, as wild as if it had 
never been inhabited by men. 

Emin, in this manner was contemplating on horse-back quite 
fatigued, till two hours after sun-set he reached the same river, 
over which was made a fascine bridge woven with branches of 
trees, the butt end of whose sticks was not thicker than an 
inch; it was pretty strong and tough, but was moved up and 
down in the middle by the wind, like a spring, and was there 
no broader than two feet and a half. He was going to pass it 


on horse-back, but the poor beast blowing with his nostrils, 
started back: — fortunately an Armenian happened to be on the 
other side of the river, just at the end of the bridge, and dis- 
covering him in the dark to be Emin, called out to him in a 
frightened tone of voice, " Pray, Sir, for God's sake dismount, 
and lead tfre beast, for fear of its falling in with you ! " Emin 
did as he was advised, went over safe, and thanked the friendly 
Armenian for giving him caution, otherwise he might have been 
lost. The village town of Kertzkhilvan being almost close to 
him he was conducted by the same young man his deliverer to 
the church, where he supped, and slept that night. As a great 
part of the inhabitants were Armenians, when they knew what 
ill-treatment he had received from Heraclius, they were grieved 
to the heart, and were afraid to entertain him long in their 
houses, though they wished to enjoy his company some weeks. 

1 768. 

[ Young Georgian nobleman guides Emin to Tzeretel — Dangerous roads infested 
by robbers— Recognised by an Emeral Georgian — Others begin to praise 
Emin and denounce Heraclius, after getting pretty well heated with wine — 
Accommodated by Armenian merchants — Return of Prince Solomon of Emeral 
Georgia. — How dinner was served to the prince — Solomon's wonderful wine 
and the sociable effect it produces on Emin — Emin continues his journey — 
Armenians who beg his protection on the road — Turkish tribes who molest 
the Armenian and Georgian caravans — A young Armenian — Tribesmen appear, 
old friends of Emin, and take him with them, quitting his troublesome 
countrymen — Turkman Chief — Terror of the Armenians moves Emin, who 
again consents to accompany them — Mahomedans warn him they will again 
treat him badly so soon as they are safe — which is exactly what happens — 
Mahomed Hassan Khan, Governor of Ganja, offers him a command, but Emin 
refuses — His own security amongst these tribes of alien faith. ] 

rPHE next morning, a poor young nobleman of Emeral Georgia 
was going to Tzeretel, the first place of that principality, and 

39$ A f-HlRD £SCAP£ tfROM DltATH. 

willingly became Emin's companion and guide. This poor noble- 
man had neither arms nor a horse to ride on ; and the road was 
most dangerously infested (as they said) by Lazguis, and they 
had full twenty-five miles to march to their journey's end. They 
were hardly gone from the village half a mile, when another 
Kmeralian Georgian, a stout young man, joined them, armed 
with a firelock and a hanger ; he knew the way better than the 
first, and said, they must take another route for fear of meeting 
robbers. Emin agreed, and said he should not object to any 
way he thought the fastest. As he had been instructed before 
in the village by an Armenian priest, as well as by others, he 
told them in the way he had a letter from Heraclius to Mipe 
or prince Solomon, upon business of some consequence. After 
travelling five or six miles, they discovered, on the left of the 
road, at about 500 yards distance, seven I^azguis sitting down 
upon the grass. When they saw Emin and his comrades, they 
rose in haste, and put themselves in readiness. His companions 
took to their heels; but he, going on slowly, and expecting to 
be taken, had advanced no farther than fifty yards, when he « 
fortunately found twenty armed Emerals sitting down to rest in 
the road, with their knapsacks lying before them. No sooner 
had they seen the Lazguis' heads, and heard the hard thumping 
of their feet, than they got up and cocked their firelocks to re- 
ceive them; but the L,azguis, little expecting to meet many 
armed men, and hoping to take Emin with his two companions, 
retired quickly to the neighbouring woods. They were said after- 
wards to have surprised six travellers coming from the same 
village, and taken into slavery two Georgian boys. According 
to the ancient superstitions of the Greeks, which prevail to this 
day all over the East, they firmly believe that the number three 
will be fatal in its kind : yet, Emin, in about twenty-four hours^ 
fortunately escaped the two preceding dangers from rapid rivers, 
and the third from the Lazguis, when he might have been either 
killed or taken prisoner, if those Christians had not been upon 


the road, and he, knowing better things, never regarded that idea, 
imputing it to Omnipotent God's infinite goodness, who saved 
him from being destroyed. He (Emin) in honour could not 
leave those brave men without expressing his acknowledgments 
in a long oriental speech, thanking them heartily, and then he 
departed from them. 

The road being divided, each party set out on their several 
ways. After marching, with immense fatigue, through rough 
grounds and thick forests, till fifteen minutes after sun-set, Emin 
and his companions came at last to the side of another river, 
running down from the high lands with the velocity of a dart. 
Unfortunately the bridge was made of the same stuff or bavin 
as the former one, the side of it beinsr overflowed about twelve 
feet, where the ground was rather flat; but they did not think 
it advisable for Emin to pass. The young nobleman stayed 
with him on the bank. The armed man was anxious to go to 
his family, and an abasy (equal to a shilling) was given to him, 
to get some bread and wine for his companions from Tzeretel, 
which was a little way from the other side of the river ; but the 
man, being perhaps fatigued, did not return. That night Emin 
slep^i on the turf, covered with his felt coat. The young man, his 
first comrade, with great good-nature, took care of his horse, 
which was grazing all the time. The next morning early, the 
other man, who went home in the night, came back, made his 
apology for disappointing them, and returned the money. Emin 
desired him to keep it with much persuasion, but he would by 
no means accept it. He said, that he was a Christian, and 
Emin's guest; that they were not like the Cartuel Georgians, 
who sell their fathers for an abasy and are no better than Per- 
sians. Then they stript off their coats, led the horse over the 
river, and with much trouble got on the bridge, and walked to 
the other side. The young man held the beast, while the other 
returned, and carried Emin on his back, setting him on the 
bridge. When he was gone over, he saw, at about 100 yards 


distance, a thatched house on a rising ground, belonging to that 
noble young man, where a beautiful young lady was standing, 
and looking about like an innocent dove. She was the young 
man's wife, and lately married. He desired Bmin, with politeness 
and good-nature, to alight on the green turf, making apologies, and 
telling him that it was preferable to his house, where no carpet 
was spread worthy of his reception; for the devilish Turks on 
the one hand, and the Lazgui inroaders on the other, had utterly 
impoverished him. This pathetic speech of the gentleman affected 
him so deeply, as to make him forget all his misfortunes. The 
young host perceiving that, was no less sensible of it, and begged 
him to sit down, not knowing all the while who his guest was. 
He then went up to the house, and brought two large cuy (or 
gurglets) of good wine, with some fresh cheese, and Jerusalem 
white bread. Emin at that time was forty- two years of age, and 
hardly relished wine ; but that day, through fatigue and hunger, 
he liked it very much, and it made him forget at the time all ' 
his past dangers and troubles. Whilst he was eating and drink- 
ing with his host and some of the neighbouring people behold, . 
all on a sudden, a grey-headed Emeral fell down on his knees 
and kissed Emin's hand, then rising up, stood before him with 
his hands crossed on his breast. This unexpected circumstance 
surprized the company ; and the old man said to the host, ff My 
lord Ivane, do you not know the gentleman whose hand I 
kissed ?" Being answered no ; he said, " He is Samckhy's patona 
(which signifies prince of Armenia) ; his name is Emin Aga, 
whom I have seen at St. Peter sburgh ; he had come thither 
from England, with letters of recommendation from English 
nobles, and was much respected by the great men in all the 
Russian empire, was introduced to the grand nazir Worronzoff, 
and then presented to the late king Tahtnuraz father to Heraclius." 
He was going to tell the whole that he had seen there, when Emin 
interrupting him, desired him to sit down by lord Ivane, whose 
name he just then learned, and who could not contain himself 


for joy. The people being acquainted with this news, gathered 
from all sides bringing each of them a gurglet of wine, bread, 
meat, and boiled kids, that they might sit by, eat, drink, and be 
merry. But when they understood that prince Heraclius had 
driven him out of Cartuel, they were sunk deep in sorrow, and 
comforted him as well as they could, railing much against his 
highness' s barbarous behaviour, with many unbecoming words. 
All this Emin did not approve, and appeased them in a friendly 
manner ; adding, that the prince did not deserve to be blamed ; 
that it was owing to his own credulous weakness, in twice hav- 
ing recourse to the prince, who was master of his own country , 
and might do as he thought proper. Xor to this day has Emin 
spoken ill of Heraclius ; but cannot help pitying him for not 
knowing well enough those men who could be of service to him. 
Emin did not understand the Georgian language, but an Ar- 
menian, a native of Tifliz, happened then to be among them ; 

' he acted as linguist, and explained to them his speech, word for 
word. They were much astonished, and commended the goodness 

. of his heart, after such unchristianlike treatment from the prince ; 
swearing by all the saints above, (they were pretty well heated 
with wine), that Emin deserved to be ruler of his countrymen. 
They went on beyond the limits of prudence, wishing that he 
had the command of Cartuel, and of Emeral also, which were 
in a great measure exhausted by their own tyrant lords. Emin 
could not help reprimanding them (yet in a most friendly man- 
ner), saying, ff Gentlemen, I am sorry for these expressions, which 
cannot be of any benefit, but, on the reverse, when carried to 
the ears of any prince with absolute power, would be considered 
as provocations, rather than imputed either to ignorance or to 
innocence. Consider what you are saying; it is my duty, as a 
man of honour, to wish well to his Highness." They said, "You 
are not in his country, what makes you speak well of him?" 
Then Emin said, that he was neither a Georgian nor a Persian, 
to speak ill of any man behind his back, much less would he 


speak against the prince whose bread and salt he had eaten so 
long a time. They then cried out, " Martalia (or true), you are 
a downright Armenian Christian ; but we Georgians are a very 
strange people, and know no better." Then bending down their 
heads in a respectful manner, they made a long speech to ask 
his pardon. In this sort of conversation the entertainment 
lasted till an hour before sun-set, when a man from the lord of 
Tzerelet came, and making a low bow, conducted him to an 
Armenian thatched house, to lodge there till his lord should 
return with prince Solomon, who was gone pleasuring about the 

During exactly forty days, Kmin was accommodated and 
entertained by the same Armenian petty merchants; when the 
chiefs returned, with about 300 aznavurs, or knights, all from 
twenty-five to thirty years of age. So many handsome well- 
made men he never had seen before, except the English Oxford 
blues, the king's horse grenadiers and the Leib company (or the 
company of lions), the body-guard of her imperial majesty Cathe- 
rina. Prince Solomon immediately alighted. Emin waited on « 
him, and was received very politely ; but had no inclination to 
make a long stay there, and only gratified his curiosity of seeing 
that valiant Solomon, who really had saved his countrymen from 
being sold to the Turks, and their freedom continues to this day. 
Half an hour after this the dinner was ordered j and it was 
curious enough to observe the rusticity of its manner. The 
prince sat down on the short grass, which served for a table- 
cloth ; the small ends of branches of trees were cut, and the 
leaves spread before all the company ; bread and khavia (or fish 
roe) were placed before every body, without any distinction. It 
surprized Emin to see lord Tzeretel, about five yards from the 
company, gently digging the ground. When it was near two 
feet deep, there appeared a large flat stone of twenty inches 
diameter ; lifting it up, he opened a large cistern brimful of 
wine, and the servants with leathern buckets began filling their 


gurglets, each holding above three English gallons, one of which 
they brought, and set between every two persons, who had flat 
silver cups in their pockets to drink out of. But the wine which 
was set before the prince was brought from Tzeretel's own house, 
his cup being a good deal larger than the rest, holding almost 
one-third pf a quart bottle. The prince filled it with his own 
hand, and presented it to Emin, sitting down just by him knee 
to knee ; and he, with a shew of Asiatic modesty, declining to 
make so free as to drink in his company, the people with one 
voice blamed him, saying, "His highness confers so great an 
honour on you, that you must accept it immediately." The 
prince interrupted them saying, " You are the first man among 
all the Armenians, and deserve all due honours ; therefore I 
thought proper to give this wine with my own hand." He added, 
with great good-nature, " Patona Emin, I will lay you a bet, 
after you have drank this, if you do not ask for a second or 

' third cup of your own accord, but abstain from drinking more, 
you shall have my horse, but if you do, I will take your horse 

. from you." Emin agreed, casting his eyes on the prince's horse; 
then he took the noble cup and drank it ; the wine created such 
an .appetite, that he could not know how to eat his bread ; he 
thought his head grown as big as St. Paul's church, and his 
arms like two monuments. A few minutes after, he asked the 
prince for a second bumper, acknowledging that the wine con- 
quered him, and that he was growing so big, that neither the 
prince's nor his own horse was sufficient to carry him, nay even 
an elephant would be no more than a kid to him. This pleasan- 
try brought on such merriment in the prince and the company, 
that for half an hour they could not hold themselves from laugh- 
ing. Emin was not become a giant only, but as great an orator 
as Cicero. The prince said, ''Now you are touched by the mag- 
net of a sociable disposition, tell me 3v T our opinion of me, and 
of prince Heraclius, who has treated you so ill ? " Emin said, 
"Sir, there is a great difference between you and Heraclius." 


Solomon asked what ? He expected to be praised as superior, 
and lie was by all accounts as brave, and of an older family. 
But Emin having too much of the Armenian blood in him to 
natter, besides the generous wine he had drank from the hand 
of the prince, spoke his mind to this effect: "Sir, prince Hera- 
clius, from many years experience in the toils of war, is worthy 
to be the emperor of Persia, and yourself his generalissimo; pro- 
vided you will both resolve not to put on always, and every 
where, the religious habit -of your holy church, to condemn all 
others, and to commend yours only. Such conduct will soon 
bring over the honest Armenians to furnish you with all the 
necessaries of life, and true Christianity will thrive better." 
Upon this, Solomon with all the company hung down their heads 
a long while, and seemed as if they had drunk no wine at all ; 
then lifting them up, they unanimously and soberly applauded 
Emin's just observation. He did not expect to please the prince 
so well, thinking he had said too much, and with too little par- ' 
tiality. Then Solomon asking him to stay there, he declined it, 
saying, he had been away from his father twenty years, and « 
must in duty return to obtain his paternal blessing. The prince 
asked, what made him come thither ? Emin answered, "*The 
celebrity of a prince who has been the instrument of delivering 
his country from the subjection to the Turks." Then the prince 
bad him farewell, praying God to prosper him in all his under- 

Emin being at some loss which way to betake himself, stayed 
some days longer, not without the entreaties of several persons 
to remain there, and enter into Solomon's service. While he 
was deliberating with himself, there came a nobleman from Hera- 
clius to Solomon on some business, and was a little shy of speak- 
ing to Emin ; but his people told him, that the whole conver- 
sation he held with Solomon had been laid word for word before 
Heraclius ; who was astonished at Emin's prefering him to Solo- 
mon, without fear ; especially when he had been used so bar- 


barously, after a solemn oath to treat him well. Emin believ- 
ing this news to be strictly true, went with the same party back 
to Gory, where Heraclius was. There Zacharia, the old bishop 
of TifHiz, saw him, and told him, that prince Heraclius was much 
pleased with Hmin's speaking respectfully of him, and intended 
to send him in a public character, with a letter, on some great 
affair. Emin, well knowing the temper of Heraclius, told him, 
that his father was growing old, and had sent him an order to 
go to Bengal. Zacharia said no more ; nor did he go to see the 
prince, who, hearing that, could make no objection. He stayed 
there only two days, set out with some armed Armenians, and 
in two days more came to Tiffliz. The next day he joined a 
caravan, without looking back, to go to Ganja. In this caravan 
were twelve armed Armenian merchants, who begged of him to 
keep them company, as there was great fear on the road from 
the Lazguis ; desiring him to command them in case of an 

' attack, and promising to give him four tumans (or eighty cur- 
rent rupees). Emin, very glad of the opportunity to be of service 

« to them, gave his word not to depart from them. 

The road, for four or five days journey between Tiffliz and 
Gan^a, is very populously inhabited by Tarakamas (or Turk 
tribes), who were removed by Shah Abbas from some part of 
Persia, and made subjects by Heraclius after the death of Nadir 
Shah. They serve also as troops under him, when ordered ; 
but in the months of June and July, they, with all their families 
and cattle, &c. ascend some high mountains on the frontiers of 
Armenia, about two days journey off, to avoid the hot season. 
These men, generally trained up in war, change their habits for 
Lazgui dresses, to disguise them, and forming different parties, 
become great inroaders themselves, and lying in ambuscade, fall 
upon the caravans, which are composed commonly of Armenian 
merchants, whom they kill, or enslave and sell to the Lazguis. 
In this manner, the Armenians or Georgians are from time to 
time molested, by the careless management of the famous prince 

406 Emin insulted by nazar of Tabriz. 

Heraclius, who judges it perhaps the best method to serve his 
own interest, like many other Asiatic khans, of whom the author 
in some places speaks well, as he ought, because they really 
have some merit ; but in others, tells his sentiments without 
reserve, from a regard to truth. 

Before Emin proceeded on that dangerous journey, the cara- 
van had pitched about five miles out of the town, at a place called 
Sokanluk, where he was consulting with those poor merchants, 
and instructing them in the method of fighting ; when all of a 
sudden, a young man among them named Nazar, of the city of 
Tabriz, knowing Emin's precarious situation, and apprehensive 
of the prince's sending after him, took it into his head to be 
very abusive, and said he would be the leader. Emin with great 
patience bore his pertness, and said not a word. That very in- 
stant, two horsemen of the above mentioned Tarakamas arrived 
from Tiffliz, pretending they were going to Ira van; and being 
Emin's old acquaintance, were exceedingly glad of the insolent' 
behaviour of Nazar, and with all politeness begged him to go 
along with them. He consented immediately, mounted his horse,, 
left the Armenians, and set out. As the road divided, they 
went westward, and after passing some high lands came .to a 
village on the brow of a hill, where they found Aly Kuly Beg, 
one of the chiefs of the Cossack Tarakamas, who had staid be- 
hind with his family, and about twenty well-mounted stout 
troopers. He also was glad of Emin's being affronted by the 
young Armenian of the caravan, and said, "Let them go to the 
devil, with the vali their prince, since they do not know the 
worth of Emin." Having halted there, they eat some bread and 
tyr (or sour milk), and were just getting ready to set out, when 
there arrived four of those poor Armenians, with tears in their 
eyes, almost in despair. They begged Aly Kuly Beg to order a 
convoy of half a dozen horsemen to conduct the caravan safe 
to Ganja. He said, after making some difficulties, that he would 
order only four men, for whom they must pay twelve tumans, 


to carry them no farther than a stage called Minoris, the in- 
habitants of which were gone up to the mountains for two 
months, as usual; and there the gangs of those pretended L,az- 
guis generally make their rendezvous. This answer terrified the 
Armenians. The Mahomedans, glorying to see them in distress, 
reprimanded them severely, and cursed Heraclius for his tyran- 
nical government, saying, "Why does not he order a party of 
horse to keep the roads quiet ? " Emin, hearing all those re- 
flections, said nothing, but his distracted heart felt enough within. 
The Armenians fell on their knees, holding his feet, and begging 
him for God's sake to take care of them, and to convoy the 
caravan to Ganja : adding, that if they should not make a full 
recompence for his trouble, their families, wives, and innocent 
children, would earnestly pray God to reward him with success 
in all his undertakings. They requested him, in a most sub- 
missive manner, to overlook the offence of Nazar the brutal 

"Tabrizian. Emin seeing this pathetic behaviour, melted into 
tears, and granting their request, undertook to go with them. 

• Ali Kuly with his gang were much affected, and said, "Go your 
ways, you unthinking Christians! Emin's compassion has saved 
all }K)ur lives and properties: the more shame for the vali who 
knows not his merits, for we have often seen him in terrible 
actions against the Lazguis." Then he said, " Emin Aga, you 
are in the right to take care of your countrymen; but let me 
tell you, that they will not behave to you as they ought, after 
they get to Ganja." Emin said, "That does not much signify, 
as long as I can be of service to them that is all I want for 
my satisfaction." 

They set out with the caravan, and their journey was com- 
pleted exactly in five stages. They were frequently visited by 
those Tarakamas, or sham Lazguis, every marching day, some- 
times twice, and sometimes three times a-day. They rushed on 
sword in hand, all well-mounted, and ready to kill or plunder; 
but when they found Emin to be there, they did no harm; they 


only wished that he had not been among them. They now 
reached the square gardens of Ganja about two miles off, and 
though, while they were travelling, they had been frightened out 
of their senses, and had given over the hope of escaping death, 
looking as if they had been taken out of their graves; yet now, 
seeing themselves safe with their goods, their dastardly hearts 
revived, and they began to exhibit their mean disposition, speak- 
ing to one another on purpose that Bmin might hear them, in 
these words : " He was a fool to believe that our fears were 
real, and to let his compassion be moved, and be weak enough 
to be tempted by the offer we made to pay him four tumans 
for his trouble (each tuman makes twenty current rupees) : be- 
sides, he might easily have let those roguish Cossacks make a 
booty of us, when they swore to share it with him like brothers. 
It is astonishing how much they respected him, as if he really 
had been their lord, only because they had been in parties with 
him, while in Georgia under the vali against the Lazguis. Not' 
long ago he first came from Russia to Timiz, and was thence 
driven away by Heraclius ; and this is the second time, when . 
every Mahomedan was thirsty for his blood, and it was expected 
by all the world he should have been cut off; but on,, the 
contrary, he is become their darling." This speech was made 
by one of them named Anton ; but Hovsep, on the other hand, 
a man of some consideration, said to Anton, " You are an im- 
prudent foolish man. Emin at first said, he should expect 
nothing from us, what makes you take pains to displease him. 
He did not spare his life to save ours. All that goodness is 
owing to the Christian education he received in Frankistan, which 
aided his mind to be of service to us; and we see he is capable 
of travelling over all parts of the country with as much tran- * 
quillity as if he was walking in his own garden." Emin laughed : 
then Anton said, "Sir, you are obliged to make a jest of it. 
If it were in your power, you would demand a double sum of us. 
You are afraid of Mahomed Hassan Khan, whom you defeated 


with a handful of Armenian mountaineers at the battle of 
Gedashen, and almost ruined his late father's government by your 
Frankistan politics, which you effected at the head of some thou- 
sands of savage kazguis. Depend upon it, on the least motion 
you pretend to make here, or at Ganja, we will inform against 
you. Indeed, the khan will soon hear of your coming of your 
own accord to his slaughter-house, marked like a ram, to be 
butchered by his fury." Hovsep and the rest reprimanded him, 
and said, "You well know that his conduct has gained him the 
good-will of all these country-people. To vex him in that manner, 
and put him out of patience, is not right; suppose he should lay 
violent hands upon you, who will restrain him and turn his 
horse about ? or who will be the man to go after him?" Anton 
said, " I am well assured he will do no such thing ; for the 
chains of Christianity on his neck, and the iron cutis on his wrist 
will not let him stir an inch." Emin could not help laughing 

'again at the drollery of Anton's sentiments, mixed with malignant 
expressions. He thanked him in the main for his good opinion 

.of Emin's faith. 

At last they arrived at Ganja, and entered a caravanferai. 
Emin found a near relation of his, named Agababa, who had 
come thither from Bagdad with merchandize ; and at his habita- 
tion he took up his lodging. After ten or twelve days were 
passed, Mahomed Hassan Khan the governor of Ganja, sent his 
first aid-du-camp with compliments, saying that the khan would 
be glad to see him. He went immediately with the officer, and 
coming to the place, made a salam to the khan, who was sitting 
with his brother Aghajan Beg, in a large varanda, four feet above 
the ground, and about five hundred well-armed and well-dressed 
officers standing in the court-yard, round the four sides of a large 
cistern, or pond, with fountains playing in it, which is a great 
luxury among the Asiatic lords. The khan hardly suffering 
Emin to stand a moment, desired him instantly to walk up and 
sit about three yards from him. After some ceremonious compli- 


ments between them, and a collation of sweet-meats, sherbet, 

and coffee, the khan began to speak with great cheerfulness, 

saying, "I am very glad to see you have done with Heraclius, 

to whom you went twice without his knowing your value. I 

wish my late father had not, like him, treated you in so arrogant 

a manner above two years ago, when you came hither with two 

thousand I,azgui horse, offering your service : his refusal has 

been the chief cause of our country's depopulation; nor would 

Melick Yusup have left us, whose battle you fought at Gedashen 

against me, defeating my army of about five thousaud men. 

In that action your conduct alone saved him and his tribe. I 

understand the cowardly merchants of Tiffliz, whose caravan 

was loaded with goods, have made your laudable conduct their 

ground of a base information against you, imagining that Mahmud 

Hassan Khan would be mean enough, like their vali, to molest 

you. By this conduct they hoped to make you fear them so as 

not to demand the four tumans, your just due. They are mis- ' 

taken in their dishonourable conjectures. If you chuse it, I 

will this instant order yasawalls, or officers of severity, to exact ■ 

forty round tumans of them, instead of four ; besides chastising 

them handsomely for their ungrateful insolence." Emin .was 

surprized to find the khan so well-informed of every thing that 

had passed in the way, for he repeated the whole history of 

their mean behaviour, word for word, in a loud voice, before 

all his officers. Emin thanked the khan for his friendship and 

powerful interposition in his favour, but humbly implored him 

not to persist in it, and to forgive them ; quoting the following 

two lines in Turkman verse : — 

" Yakhchilugha yakhchilug har egyden ishi dur, 
"Yamanlugha yukhchilugh ur egyden ish dur." 
that is to say, To return good for good, is the duty of a com- 
mon man, but to return good for evil, is the conduct of the 
brave." Mahmud Hassan was much pleased, and admired 
Emin's placability of temper, and swore by Mortzaly, that if he 


had been in Emin's place, and so poor in pocket, with the same 
opportunity, he would have made them pay very dear for their 
ungrateful Jewish behaviour. He added, " Since you have so 
great an attachment for the Armenians, and even have shewn 
compassion to the Curdish Mahomedans, I should be very glad 
if you would stay with me, and accept a command in my ser- 
vice." Emin thanked him, and begged to be excused, since, as 
he was resolved to return to his father in Bengal, it would not 
be possible for him to accept the khan's kind offer. The con- 
versation being over, Emin took his leave, and went away. At 
the gates of the tent he met with those poor Tifiiizians, who 
having heard from other iirmenians that were present what had 
passed between the khan and him, fell trembling on their knees, 
kissing his feet, asking pardon, and making some nonsensical 
speeches; calling him their saviour; which word disgusted him 
so much, that he took no notice of them, and said not a word. 

■ He staid about three months at Ganja, where the inhabitants 
behaved so very hospitably and politely, as to make him forget 

, all his hardships through the ill-treatment of Heraclius and his 
unmanly subjects, who, though of the Armenian religion, are 
entirely assimilated with the false disposition of the Georgians, 
having no probity, like others who are either under the Turks, 
or the Persian. 

Emin, during eight years in the before-mentioned countries, 
so well established his character, by virtue of his European 
education and conduct, that from princes to soldiers, from rich 
and poor, all became his friends, so that he could travel alone 
every where without fear. They finding his intention was not 
founded on principles of violence or tyrannical ambition, wished 
him success in his honest undertakings : being convinced by 
Emin's harangues, that if the Armenians, who are scattered all 
over the world, great part of them through oppression having 
taken refuge even in Turkey, could hear that the Persians 
treated them well, they would resort back to their own country 


again, and become of infinite service to the kingdom; particu- 
larly if they were told that there was a person of their own 
nation at their head. He used to add, that the Persians need 
not be in the least apprehensive of a revolt, well knowing that 
the Armenians were but few in comparison of the Persians; 
their country being so small in extent, and so ill situated in the 
midst of three large empires, that in case of a design to become 
independent, they might be crushed at all times by any one of 
those mighty powers; and of course they would resolve to con- 
tinue faithful in peace and quiet, as in old times, or from the 
reign of the house of Safavia to that of Shah Sultan Husein, 
since which the kingdom had been depopulating every year. 
Thus he lulled the minds of the khans, warriors, and husband- 
men, and made his preaching familiar to them. 


August — December 1768. 

[At Shushi for the third time — To Tabriz — Joins Shia pilgrims journeying to 
Bagdad — They object to his presence intheir holy assembly — Emin saves them 
from paying toll to the Kurds — They 'change their opinion — "An angel, not 
an Armenian " — Emin solemnly agrees to save his skin — At Bagdad joins a 
caravan — Malalah a young Arab — Journey and wayside accommodation from 
Bagdad to Hilla and Samavat — Caravan stopped by custom-house officers — 
Emin takes another road — Malalah's devotion — His Arab fleetness of foot 
— Frozen waterways — Emin representing himself to be a Shia for safety 
of himself and companions — At Qurna embarks for Basra — The H.E.I. C. 
" Revenge" — Mr. Eyre, officer commanding, and his uncourteous treatment 
of Emin — At Basra — Mr. Moore, the Resident — His suspicions — Satisfied by 
his Armenian broker, still refuses his protection — Taken in by an Armenian — 
Malalah and Emin part with sorrow.] 

Tj^MIN left Ganja in the month of August, marched with Aga- 

baba his relation, and in four days arrived at Shoshu the 

third time. There he visited Ibrahim Khan, who favoured him 

with an order, signed and sealed, for him to be entertained, 


and his horse to be found with forage. He stayed there a week, 
and thence, with a single servant, in three days came to Orduvar,* 
and thence to Tabriz, where he joined a large zavar (or assembly 
of pilgrims) going to Bagdad, to the number of 5000 souls, men 
and women of all sorts, princes, warriors, merchants, and others. 
Those abominable people of the Shia sect began to grumble at 
him for being a Caffer; saying, he was not worthy to travel 
with that holy zavar of Husein the mart} r red son of Ali. He was 
so much insulted, and so exasperated by their abusive expres- 
sions, that he proposed to himself to leave them ; but after 
five days travelling, they entered the confines of Curdistan ; and, 
before they came to the town called Banna, in one of the passes 
there stood forty or fifty stout Curds to exact rahdary or 
turnpike- money. Each man was to pay a quarter of Turkish 
dollar. As the zavar was numerous, and not willing to give any, 
they said nothing while they were passing, not knowing that a 
servant of Rania Khan's happened to be gone to some village in 
the environs with three other men to buy chopped straw or 
forage. The Curdish party increasing, saw the others coming 
from the right, and the zavar losing courage, (though there 
were 300 horsemen well-mounted), were panic- struck, and stood 
still looking at the Curds. Emin could not bear to see their 
cowardice, and took the opportunity to reprimand them sharply. 
He then charged on a full gallop from the high ground to 
attack the Curds, the 300 men resuming their spirit trotted after 
him, and put every one of the Curds to flight, when the servants 
who were gone for forage joined the zavar, without a blow, or 
firing a piece. This small exertion of spirit was taken so much 
notice of by the whole body of zavar, that when they pitched, 
which happened on the fifth day of the march, they unanimously 
elected Emin commander of the zavar; those ridiculous super- 
stitious fools telling him to his face that he was not an Ar- 

* Ordubad.' 


menian, but an angel ordained to come down and take care of 
the most pious zavar of Hazrat Imam Husein, and Emin durst 
not contradict them for fear of being ill-treated. He was con- 
tented to be in peace, laughed in his own mind, but looked very 
solemn and grave. The poor men, who had no horses, mules, 
or asses, marched in the front, after the advanced guard of a 
dozen horse; and the rest who were mounted kept their post 
in the rear, and like an army passed several turnpikes without 
paying any thing. That journey continued about a fortnight. 

When they came to Charachualan, one of the capital towns 
of the Turkish Curds, Emin, after staying six days, set out with 
three Armenians for Bagdad, and arrived there in seven days ; 
there he stayed eighteen days with some apprehension of the 
Turks. About four o'clock in the morning he joined a .Maho- 
medan caravan; and after going over the bridge of boats on 
the Tigris a stout young Arab on the march offered himself, in 
broken Turkish, to be his servant. Emin declined his service, < 
saying, that he was a Christian and poor in his circumstances ; 
that he could not presume to accept him on those terms, but , 
should be very glad if he would become his comrade. The 
young Arab, whose name was Malalah, being struck with Etnin's 
frankness, jumped down from his mule, thanked him by the word 
Barekallah, and said, " Sir, since you are so good and considerate 
as to know the difference between Christians and Musulmans, I 
will serve you like a slave, without any wages, and, if you chuse 
it, I will accompany you to any part of the world." While 
they were making this friendly agreement, the people of the 
caravan wondered, saying, " Wallahel Agim ! (or, by the Great 
God ! ) this man is not a Gabr Gavury, or Armenian ; and it is 
through the goodness of his heart that honest Malalah has 
offered his service to him." They added, "Yusup, or Joseph," 
half in Turkish, and half in Arabic, "you are very fortunate to 
have such a youth as your servant and comrade." Emin always 
took care, in all the Turkish territories, to be called Yusup, or 


Joseph; for the word Emin is an Arabic name, and he feared 
lest the deluded Turks should be troublesome to him. 

From Bagdad to Helli * are four stages : — two miles before 
each stage Malalah took care every day to gallop his hired mule, 
and secure > the best berth in the public caravanserais. And in 
the morning when they reached Helli, after stopping at an inn 
on the bank of the Euphrates, Malalah went immediately and 
spoke to the master of a zeyma loaded with corn and bound for 
Bosra, and agreed to pay a dollar for each person : he then came 
back like lightning, and saying that he had got a passage, packed 
up the baggage, carried it on his shoulders, and laid it in the 
boat. The next morning they left Helli, and dropped down 
the river by the current, sailing the whole day and some part 
of the night. They tied the boat wherever there was a mizif- 
khana (house of charity : ) those places are thatched houses, built 
by rich Arabs to entertain travellers both by land and water, and 
'they give plenty of coarse boiled rice, with a little oil}- butter, 
and abundance of dates. Malalah took care always to go out 
-with the boat's crew to eat there. Emin, having a provision of 
biscuits, stewed meat, and sweet-meats, told him not to go out, 
but to stay in the boat and eat as he did ; but all his persuasion 
was to no purpose : Malalah, modestly refusing, said, " Sir, we 
Arabs are used to make our diet upon coarse victuals. If I 
begin to eat yours, it will not last you rive days, and we shall 
have twenty days sailing before we come to Bosra ; therefore I 
beg you will not press me : I have eaten your bread and salt 
four days, from Bagdad to Helli, which is fully sufficient for any 
honest man. I have once told you, that I am your slave, — rest 
satisfied I am an Arab, not like the Osmanly Turks, who have 
neither shame, nor principle of true honour. I will stand to my 
word as long as I live. I have a sister at Bosra married to an 
Arab : having two dollars about me, in our way I shall buy rice as 

* Hilla. 


a present for her, and then return to Bagdad, if you have no more 
occasion for me ; but if you have, I will go with you to the 
world's end." As they went on, the friendship between them 
increased daily and hourly ; and, to do justice, the attachment 
of Malalah towards him was greater. In the boat were fifteen 
Bagdad Janizaries, all well-armed and equally attached to Emin, 
but not so ready with their firelocks. It so happened in the 
night, when some mashuffs (or fishing boats) of Arab robbers 
appeared like furies to attack the boat, Hmin, with prepared 
cartridges, could fire his piece four times before they could pull 
their triggers, and that without their piece going off. Malalah 
could not help rejoicing to find him so expert, laughing and 
mocking the Janizaries ; yet they went on cheerfully, singing and 
conversing sociably. 

After seventeen days they came to a village of Smavat.* 
The boatman having imprudently forgot to get a permit at Bag- 
dad, was stopped by the Turkish custom-house officers, and was ' 
obliged to go back to Bagdad for a pass. The good Malalah told 
Hmin it would be a month before he could return; and that < 
their best way would be to go in a small fishing boat, which goes 
in a day and a half's journey only to a place where they might 
get another conveyance ; that if any accident should happen to 
the governor of Bagdad, the Arabs, according to custom, would 
revolt, and then they would not be able to stir an inch from 
that place. Emin consented, and hired two boats, one for him- 
self, and the other for three young Janizaries, each for an eighth 
part of a dollar ; the rest, whose baggages were heavy, were left 
behind. They dropped down and towed the whole day, and in 
the night they slept in the boats : but poor Malalah, sitting by 
the head of Emin, continued awake the whole night for fear of 
being surprized by robbers. The next morning they proceeded 
in company with the Janizaries ; and in the afternoon they came 

* Samava in maps of the present day. 


to a place, the name of which is forgotten. Here they found 
several Janizary merchants, who had come from Bosra to buy oil, 
butter, or grease. As they had taken their quarters at the mizif- 
khana, they invited Emin and his comrades to lodge there. They 
halted three days, not finding a conveyance to proceed. Malalah 
advised Eiuin and the three Janizaries to travel on foot down to 
Sagshuff,* where he did not doubt of getting boats to go to Corna. 
The Janizaries' baggage was not very heavy, and they could carry- 
it very easily. Emin, in the first place, had his Tartarian saddle, 
weighing almost thirty pounds, his bedding, wearing-apparel, and 
provision, almost a hundred pounds. The Herculian Malalah 
packed them all up in a ball, and put them into his abba (or 
mantle,) the long sides towards the angles, which lapped over 
one another crossways very compactly, and with the other two 
ends tied together and slung over his forehead like an English 
porter's knot. He then said to Emin, "Now Sir, you have only 
to carry your piece and your great cloak to keep yourself from 
cold." They set out marching, and Malalah tripped on, can- 
. tering like a dromedary, which made Emin suspect that he had 
run away with the baggage. The poor Janizaries were no less 
surprized. Malalah, thinking they had kept up the same pace, 
never looked behind till he was out of sight : they in the mean 
time running and trotting quite out of breath, saw him at last 
standing, and drawing near heard him cry out, " Come on, you 
Janizaries!" When they came up, they found him standing by 
the side of a creek frozen on the surface: the water was five 
feet deep, and about forty feet wide. He then began to scold 
the Janizaries, saying, ei Are not you ashamed of yourselves ? 
Your mantles are not heavier than five pounds. You have not 
strength enough either to keep up the same pace, or to call out 
to me, that I might not go too fast before you, so as to fatigue 
Emin, whose L,azgui cloak is as heavy as your three." They, 

* Suk-esh-Sheyukh. 



grumbling, said, " How is it possible for us, who are like oxen, 
to fly like you, who resemble an Arabian horse ? " He laughed 
immoderately, and laid down his load, telling them to do as he 
did. He then pulled off his cloaths from head to foot, took 
them upon his head, crossed over to the other side,, and there 
laying down the things, returned back, sat on his knees like a 
camel, and made Emin ride on his neck. When he found Emin 
going to strip, he would by no means suffer it, lest he should 
catch cold. He carried him over like a child, so as not to wet 
even his feet in the water. The Turks followed the same 
method, and passed stark naked: but when they were told by 
Malalah, that there were four or five more such frozen creeks to 
ford, it frightened the poor devils out of their senses ; they looked 
like stuck pigs, almost despaired, and swore by the head of 
their Prophet, that if they had known it before, they would not 
for a thousand dollars have stirred out of the zeyma at Smavat. 
It was certainly a hard trial of patience in the month of 
December, especially when a pinching north-west wind was blow- 
ing, and when the only comfort they had was, that their faces « 
were to the south-east, otherwise every one would have suffered 
severely, except the heroic Malalah, who seemed as if he 'was 
walking on a bed of roses. He was six feet high, as white and 
fresh as an European, always in good humour, with a smile on 
his countenance. Those creeks, as Emin was told, had been 
dug up to water the cultivated lands, chiefly fields of rice and 
other grain, which were distant from one another about two 
miles more or less. Through every one of them, Malalah took 
the same care of Emin as over the first. 

Within two miles and a half from Sagshuff, as they were 
travelling pretty near the river, they discovered a corn-boat with 
a fair wind sailing down the water ; Malalah hailed the boat- 
man as loud as he could, and begged him, for God's name, and 
the Prophet's sake, to take them on board as passengers, since 
they would be glad to go to Corna : — there the Euphrates and 


Tigris meet ; and, luckily, the boat happened to be bound for 
that place. On hearing the distress which the five travellers 
were in, the boatman took compassion on them, and brought 
the zeyma close to the bank, where they got in with great com- 
fort and satisfaction. The master and crew asked, who that 
stranger was ? meaning Emm : Malalah said, he was an A jam 
Shiah Musulman and warrior, belonging to Carim Khan, Sultan 
of Persia. Emin reproved him in Turkish for not telling the 
truth; but Malalah, chiding- him in a good-natured way, said, 
" Good Sir ! hold your tongue ; for if they know you are a Chris- 
tian, they will not only kill you, but kill us all. Consider you 
are in Shiah Arabistan, without a friend or protector : — you will 
be demolished in an instant, if you will not conduct yourself 
prudently : — you are not to be compelled to renounce your reli- 
gion : — be patient only for a couple of days, when you will come 
into Sunni government, and then you may publicly profess your 
faith, as well as the other Armenians in Bosra." He added, 
"You see our comrades (meaning the Janizaries) are Sunnis, but 
are obliged to profess themselves Shiahs, to save their lives. I 
myself am a downright Shiah; but my heart does not suffer me 
to inform against you and shed your innocent blood ; therefore 
I beseech you to consider, and not to be the cause of your own 
destruction." The Janizaries also were frightened at Emin's con- 
duct, and begging him for Christ's sake to say nothing while 
they were in such a dangerous situation. Emin, who had been 
among the I^azguis for so long a time, never had suffered him- 
self a minute to be masked in such a character; but recollect- 
ing the words of Saint Paul, "To the weak, became I as weak, 
that I might gain the weak. I am made all things to all men, 
that I might by all means save some." Emin therefore said 
nothing for the sake of his comrades. Had he been alone, or 
had he understood the Arabic language, he would have declared 
what he was, to preserve his honour or fall a sacrifice for his 


After a few minutes more sailing, they came to Sagshuff, 
and went on shore. The boat-master, with his companions and 
crew, sat on their knees saying prayers : Hmin also sat down, and 
got up with open hands, prostrating himself on the turf five or 
six times as they did, till the prayers were over. They slept in 
the boat close to the bank at Sagshuff, and about twelve o'clock 
at night they began rowing and sailing for Corna. The next 
afternoon about five o'clock they arrived at that place, where a 
large boat was ready to go to Bosra. After sailing two days, on 
the twenty- fifth of December, they saw the Company's ship Re- 
venge, commanded by the late captain Farmer, lying at anchor 
near Minavy,* opposite to the mouth of the creek. Emin's heart 
leaped for joy : he hired a ghiffa (or tarred basket) for his little 
baggage : Malalah got into it and rowed towards the ship. When 
the officers of the watch on the gangway asked who he was ? he 
answered, "An English traveller, named Wilson, would be very 
glad if you would allow him an hour's time on board, just to 
put on new clothes to wait on Mr. Henry Moore the president 
at Bosra." The captain was gone up to town to pass Christmas- 
day with the president : a midshipman was sent down to the 
cabin to Mr. Eyre, next in command, for an order. At first he 
made no objection ; and Emin flattered himself the officer would 
have the good manners and hospitality to invite him to dinner, 
for he was very hungry, having not tasted fresh boiled meat dur- 
ing all the twenty-five days from Bagdad to that place; but his 
expectation was disappointed. The things were not handed up 
two minutes before there came another express order from Mr. 
Eyre, for him to go immediately out of the ship. This cold 
usage was shocking to Emin; and he felt it so severely, that 
he forgot all his past troubles. The officers too were astonished 
at Eyre's barbarous behaviour, and advised Emin to go down 
himself to speak to him about staying for the time desired; he 

* Minawi. 


did so; but Eyre's heart was turned into hard stone; he would 
by no means comply, making excuses that he could not let him 
stay in the ship, as it was against the commander's order. Emin 
said, "Sir, I do not want to stay in the ship for good, or to 
sleep in it; allow me but half an hour, like the strange Arabs, 
who sell provisions to the crew, and who stay the whole day on 
board." It was to no purpose, the officer would not consent. 
Broken-hearted Emin took his things into the basket again, the 
officers cursing Eyre for his unpoliteness. Poor Malalah, though 
he understood not the language, was sensible that Emin was ill- 
received, and rowing the boat to the creek's mouth, it being low 
water, they landed. 

At this place they hired an ass, and Malalah packed up the 
things, but could not persuade Emin to ride on the beast. Emin 
made him mount ; so they marched, not knowing exactly the dis- 
tance, (it might have been between three and four miles), up to 
the town of Bosra. At about two in the afternoorf they reached 
Mr. Moore's* gates. The porter gave notice, and he was (being 
' first disarmed by the Janizaries and Sepahis) admitted into the 
dining-room, where a Christmas table was just laid. Mr. Moore 
was* sometimes standing, and sometimes walking : and on seeing 
a stranger, he said, "Who are you, Sir?" Emin said, "In pri- 
vate, I will tell you." Mr. Moore said, " I will not hear you in 
private." Then Emin retired; and as he was going down stairs, 
dropped these very words, "Is it not enough that I am disarmed 
by Palioz Moore's warriors at his gate, yet he is afraid to speak 
with a single man in private." Taking his arms back, he was 
just stepping out of doors, when a servant running down, called 
him back. When he went up again, Mr. Moore said, " There is 
nobody here ; pray tell me now what is your name, or what you 
want?" He said, "My name is Emin; you may have heard of 
my having been taken notice of by the nobles of England, 

* Henry Moore, appointed Resident of Basra in 1767. 


patronized by the duke of Northumberland, protected by his 
Royal Highness the duke of Cumberland ; of my having served 
some campaigns in Germany under Prince Ferdinand and the 
duke of Marlborough ; of my being recommended to the court 
of Russia ; and by them, to Prince Heraclius, without succeeding 
in my honest designs. I now stop at Bosra, before I, go to my 
father in Calcutta ; and for my services to your famous nation, 
without any emolument, I now come with hopes of obtaining the 
protection of the Honourable Company's Flag, under which you, 
Sir, are president in this factory." Upon this, Mr. Moore started 
back, and said, that he could not believe, unless he could prove 
it, that he was Emin, who had been talked of all over the world 
as being descended from the ancient families of the Armenian 
kings ; as being discovered by the great men in England ; and 
of course respected, as Emin observed." This he said, rubbing his 
hands together, smiling, and walking up and down the room, in 
seeming triumph, as if he was detecting a sharper. Emin said,' 
coolly, " Sir, you are mistaken ; he is not of royal blood, nor 
did the good people of England take notice of him on that vain < 
account : it was by means of his honesty and upright dealings, 
as a despiser of all tyrannical names. My name is Emin : I am 
the son of Joseph Michael Emin of Calcutta, an Armenian by 
religion, and by birth a native of Hamadan in Persia." Mr. 
Moore said, "You seem to be an Irishman by your accent." 
Emin smiling answered, " You honour me much in thinking so ; 
for the Irish are a very brave nation, with deserved renown." 
This answer made the gentleman look serious • he asked Emin if 
he understood his native language ? He said, " Yes." Then Mr. 
Moore, in a hurry, called for his broker Petrus Malik ; who, when 
he came in, was ordered to speak and ask questions. Emin 
answered every word ; and Petrus knowing his family and 
father, satisfied Mr. Moore ; who turning to him, said, "Now 
what shall I do for you ? I cannot protect you. I am but 
newly come ; you have been making a great noise in the world. 


I am afraid of displeasing the Turks ; or of drawing the Com- 
pany into some trouble." He added, " If you are an honest 
man I will protect you; but you may be an impostor." Emin, 
by that cruel expression, was so pierced to the heart, that he 
forgot himself and the poor Armenian merchants, for whose sake 
alone he had humbled himself in asking protection, hoping to 
secure them from being fleeced by the Turks. His sinking soul 
rose at once, and he said, fC Sir, you are not worthy of your 
post, and know not the power vested in you ; since you are so 
timorous, and so satirical, it were better you had not been born. 
Take care ; remember what you have said, and depend upon it, 
that I will afford you ample satisfaction for my words ; for I 
am an honest Armenian, and as fearless as an Irishman. If the 
point cannot be decided at Bosra, where you are a great signior 
and perhaps will continue here some years, I shall soon, by God's 
help, be at Bombay." Emin finishing his speech, turned about 
to go away. Mr. Moore laid hold of his arm, and asked his 
pardon, making very civil apologies, and saying, that he meant 
' no harm ; that he spoke only to try him j and that he must 
consider, that being newly sent thither, he was an entire stranger 
to tlie cursed disposition of the Turks. Emin said no more, and 
went away, not much pleased, and excessively hungry. At the 
gate his arms were returned to him ; and going along he met 
an Armenian, who showed him the way to one of his relations. 
When he entered the house, poor Malalah understanding from 
the servants of . Mr. Moore that he was not received as he 
expected, was in great concern ; and perhaps more dejected than 
Emin. He said, "Sir, I find that there is no ship going to 
Bengal ; it will be a long time before you will be able to go 
thither : it is best for me to return to Bagdad. I am going to 
see my sister, and shall stay there but two days, and then set out 
again." Emin gave him a dollar, which was all the money he had, 
and prevailed on him to accept it with much ado. They eat a bit 
of bread and cheese, and parted like brothers, with great sorrow. 


[A subscription made, Moore sends for Emin — Murn Vana comes' to surrender 
to the Turks — His execution— Success arrives from Bengal — Emin returns to 
Calcutta, January 1770 — Cool reception by his father — Lord Bute's son and 
his kindness, and that of other Englishmen — Mr. Cox, Persian Interpreter — 
Governor Cartier appoints Emin rosaldar to first brigade of Turkswars — Mr. 
Floyer, a councillor — Dinner at the Governor's — Arrival of English mail — 
Letter from Lord Northumberland — Doubts of guests — Arrival of duplicate 
letter to the confusion of doubters — Khoja Petrus, "earthly God of the 
Calcutta Armenians " — Emin's rebuke to him.] 

A FTER three months, Mr. Moore, establishing himself in amity 
with the Musulman governor of Bosra, and hearing no noise, 
or any thing amiss in Emin's conduct, was assured of his being 
the very person of whom he had before heard ; and one morning, 
he sent Shekh Pogos, the head Armenian interpreter, with compli- 
ments, inviting Emin to dine with him. When he went, he saw 
Mr. Moore with a tumbler of punch in his hand, standing in 
the same dining room, with the table-cloth laid, as on the 
Christmas-day before. He cheerfully, and with polite words, 
presented the tumbler to him, saying, " Mr. Emin, I hope you 
have forgot all that passed in this place." Emin said, "Yes, 
Sir, from that very day." He then took it, and drank it to 
Palioz Beg's good health. The time passed very merrily at 
dinner, with the rest of the Bosra gentlemen; and when it was 
over, as he was going to wish them a good afternoon, Mr. 
Moore very kindly ordered a horse ; Emin begged to be excused, 
alleging, that it would be imprudent to confer that honour upon 
him at once, in that despotic government; and adding, that he 
should be contented only with his good protection as one of the 
British subjects. Mr. Moore and the rest were much pleased, 
and complimented him with these expressions : " Mr. Emin, your 
conduct is fully sufficient to protect you ; both what we have 



heard before and what we see at present. Do as you please ; we 
are your friends." Then Emin, making a bow, went away, through 
the sun. The next morning, about eight o'clock, Beshuve, his 
second Syrian interpreter, came with a note from Mr. Moore, and 
a bag with six hundred rupees to Emin. He had heard from 
the other Armenians, and was much pleased to hear, that the late 
Aga Petrus, the son of Gregor Aga of Julpha, of the family of 
Minas, had offered him a sum of money which he refused, know- 
ing well the nature of the people of the Julpha, once famous 
for its riches, which is not far from the disposition of modern 
Israelites; and being sure that presently after they would have 
made a handle of it to cast provoking reflections on his character, 
as having received their charity. The purport of the note was 
as follows : " Mr. Moore and the gentlemen at Bosra send their 
compliments to Mr. Emin, and knowing him to be in streights, 
desire his acceptance of six hundred rupees ; and if that is not 
sufficient, they will be very glad to supply him with more, 

Latouch, Secretary." 
He answered thus, 

" Gentlemen, 

" I return } t ou my most humble thanks for your kind 
assistance in my present distressed condition, which will make 
me remember you gratefully all the days of my life, as having 
added to the many and great favours already received by me 

from your noble countrymen. I remain, 

Gentlemen, yours, &c. &c. 

J. Emin." 

The Julpha Armenians, hearing of this conduct of Mr. Moore, 
and the other good-natured gentlemen, began to say to Emin, 
goodmorning, or good-day to 3 r ou, Sir ; which condescending 
favour they did not deign before to bestow on him; except 
Aga Petrus, son of Gregor Aga, mentioned before, who was 
really very glad of his little success. Those of opposite parties, 


though in awe of Mr. Moore, were outwardly somehow civil, 
when they met him by chance in the street passing or re- 
passing ; yet would not be sorry if the worst of disasters had 
crushed him to nothing. Since they were removed by Shah 
Abbas from Armenia to Ispahan, they grew very rich in one 
century, but when born and brought up there, they lost entirely 
all the virtues of their forefathers, and became exactly like the 
shopkeepers in the bazars of Ispahan. Such also is the case of 
the Hamadan Armenians, of whom Emm himself is one, and 
would have been as bad as the rest, if nature had not favoured 
him with a mind a little above them, which induced him to 
leave his father, and run away to Europe ; for the force even 
of his superficial education has made him proud enough to 
think that he knows himself, and can judge tolerably of others. 
He is very well convinced that there may be found good and 
bad in all countries; but wherever learning is hated, and shut 
up in the dark dungeon of cruel ignorance, men are no longer' 
to be blamed, even if they resemble savage beasts, and tear each 
other to pieces. To return to the subject, Emin cannot in con- ■ 
science condemn them wholly. A set of artful people of the 
same nation, most piously working on their innocent soft minds, 
have brought them down so low as to be despised by every 
body ; particularly by the indigent Georgians, who firmly believe, 
that the Armenian nation are not created by the hand of 
the same God, but sprung on dung-hills like mushrooms or 
weeds. As there was no vessel at that time bound for Bengal, 
Emin was entertained, almost every day in the week, both at 
dinner and supper, by Mr. Moore, Mr. Beaumont, and Mr. 
Livius,* but never so much as eat a mouthful of bread in any 
Julpha Armenian's house. The kind reader may judge that 
Emin speaks as he feels, and speaks truth, which is the queen of 
all virtues. 

* See p. 454. 


Emin spending a very small part of his six hundred rupees, 
preserved the rest with great care, still in hopes of returning to 
Armenia, and to Mush, in Curdistan, to St. John's monastery, 
where his only friend Padre Jonas was then living, who had 
laid up eight thousand fire-arms, ready to distribute among 
those thathad none. Here came two Armenian petty merchants 
to him, one from Mashet, the other from Persia : the first with 
six thousand rupees worth of goods, the other with four thou- 
sand rupees in ready money, offering Emin the whole sum, 
if he would again venture to go to Armenia ; informing him of 
the war commenced between the Russians and Turks, and that 
the people of Curdistan had been long wishing to have him 
among them ; so that it would be the only time to undertake 
the plan. Considering a little, he approved their proposals, on 
this condition, that he was not to accept any of their money, 
alleging that he had just enough to furnish him with a horse for 
reaching Bagdad, or going over to Persia; and advising them 
each to buy a horse and goods, as if they were merchants for 
, the market of the places they were to pass, till their arrival in 
the country before-mentioned ; where he doubted not to find 
mor rf e men like them. This was agreed upon, and they seemed 
very sanguine, on finding Emin so averse to accept any of their 
offers. They said to him, " Sir, our lives and properties are at 
your service, do and command as you please ; we are ready to 
obey you." He said, " Good friends, it is very proper to observe 
one thing, since I have experienced often the disposition of Ar- 
menian merchants, who will soon fly from their words : — I can- 
not help doubting of what you have now said, nor can any one 
be so weak as to believe such a thing, till you have performed 
it. Go, and God be with you ! " Emin, though he could easily 
foresee that those merchants' resolute proposals were chimerical, 
yet was in some hopes to see them prosper ; flattering himself 
with fortune's reconciliation to him ; but, alas ! his opinion of 
merchants in general was just, their mean spirits are only fit, by 


indefatigable industry, to heap up riches, to give them away to 
the priests in laps-full, and to be plundered by the Turks or 
Persians ! 

While those two poor Armenians were busy to get things in 
readiness, the famous Murn Vana of the island of Kharick, came 
from his revolted army to Bosra, with thirteen of his ^officers, to 
crave protection. The barbarous Turks, instead of receiving him, 
put him in prison, with strong guards over him, and sent a re- 
port to the late Omar Pasha, governor of Bagdad. In thirty 
days time an order was brought for his execution, his head was 
cut off, and the body thrown into the ruined mud wall of a 
garden, about six feet on the right hand of the middle street, 
which led to the north gate, where the Armenians of Bosra 
commonly used to take a walk mornings and afternoons. At the 
same time another accident happened : seven stout Arab thieves 
were caught in one night robbing either a house or a shop ; 
eveiy one of them was strangled, and hung up in different ' 
places, some near the entrance of the bazars, which most people 
resort to or pass under, and two of them just over the place where . 
the Armenians walk. When this happened, the two Armenian 
volunteer merchants came to Bmin, and said, "Sir, have <you 
heard the news, or have you seen the men who have lost their 
lives?" He laughing, said, "Yes." Then again, out of breath, 
asked, "If he was not afraid ?" He burst into a loud laugh, and 
answered, "No." Then again they repeated their fear, saying, 
" O, dear Sir, you must have a heart like steel ! Suppose we 
should be caught, what will be our fate then ? " Kmin said, 
" You need not be apprehensive here at Bosra, but when you 
are in Curdistan, should you behave basely, and not resolve 
either to kill or to be killed, your punishment will be worse, you 
will be impaled for not fighting bravely for your religion and 
liberty. Go your ways, follow your Jewish profession, carry on 
trade, pay duty for your goods, count down your poll-tax to the 
Mahomedans, and give your money to the holy fathers of the 


church, confess to them as often as you commit sins, that they 
may absolve and pray for you, so that when you die you may 
go to heaven ! " The poor creatures were dashed with chagrin, 
went away, and said not a word. 

Emin continued at Bosra about eight months and a half, 
before the, Success galley, commanded by captain Roseboome, 
arrived from Bengal. He took a passage in it, and arrived in 
three months at Calcutta. Two hours before sun-rise he came 
to his father's door, like the prodigal son, but was not received 
by him with the same rejoicing ;* he ought to have put a ring 
on his finger, to have killed the two fat oxen, to have invited 
his neighbours to a feast, to eat and be glad with him. How- 
ever, with great patience he bore it for about five or six weeks, 
not knowing a single person among the gentlemen at Calcutta. 
The earl of Bute's son, the honourable Frederick Stuart, f in his 
infancy, at the duke of Northumberland's house at London, 
'happened to see Emin, and when grown bigger, heard more of 
the author from his Grace. Being sent to Calcutta a writer in 
the honourable Company's establishment at the age of seventeen 

* Since his eighth or ninth year Emin had been an only son, but now he was so no 
longt"r, which may account for his father's coldness towards ,him. In his letter to Mrs. 
Montagu, dated January, 1789, he mentions his brother. When Emin arrived in Calcutta in 
1770 this brother was ten years old. Emin's stepmother died in September, 1758, and his 
father seems to have immediately entered into a third union, bu: there is nothing to show 
with whom. 

f Frederick, 3rd son of John Stuart, 3rd Earl of Bute, and Mary, daughter of Edward 
and Lady Mary Wortley Montagu. He was born in 175 1, and died unmarried in 1802. He 
sat in Parliament as member for Bute. Mr. William Foster of the India Office kindly sent a 
note in answer to an inquiry made by Archdeacon Firminger regarding Frederick Stuart, 
as follows : 

"The appointment of the Hon. Frederick Stuart as a Bengal Writer was notified in the 
Court's despatch of 17th March, 1769 (para. 47) ; so presumably he went out in that year. 
On 21st December, 1774, he was proposed by Hastings for the post of Resident at the 
Vizir's court, but was rejected by the majority of the Council in favour of Bristow. 
Thereupon Stuart resigned the service on the grounds of loss of prospects and ill-health. 
I have not been able to identify him positively with the Frederick Stuart (1751-1802) who 
was the third son of the Earl of Bute ; but his title, and the fact that Hastings referred 
specially to Stuart's family connections as a qualification for his appointment to Lucknow, 
make the identification probable." 

Emin's testimony should prove the identification of which Mr. Foster is uncertain. 


years, he had the curiosity (and was the first gentleman who had 
it) to find Emin out, and was very glad to see him. Mr. 
Stuart's hospitality it is impossible to describe fully ; his palan- 
quin was at Emin's father's door regularly three times in the 
day, to go to breakfast, dinner, and supper with him. Emin 
only slept at home for several weeks together. Next to Mr. 
Stuart was Sir Archibald Campbell ; * then the late Mr. Cox the 
Persian interpreter. Sir Archibald introduced him first to Mr. 
Cartier, then governor ; next to Mr. Russell, now at Visagapatam. 
In short, in two months time, Emin was not only taken notice 
of by all the gentlemen in the settlement, but caressed as their 
favourite ; they learning from other hands, that his father after 
finding a son lost for twenty-one years, behaved but indifferently 
towards him, and thought that the English gentlemen, who are 
fond of novelty like other Europeans, would not be long before 
they would be tired of him. 

Mr. Cox, one night as he was going to the Council-house, « 
desired Emin to keep him company part of the way ; and said, 
that if Emin would consent, the gentlemen of the settlement . 
would very readily make a subscription for him, as at that time 
money was in great plenty in Calcutta : he believed it would 
amount to 65,000 rupees. No sooner had he uttered those 
words, than Emin said nothing, turned about, and went to a 
great distance. Mr. Cox went on slowly, but finding him not to 

* Sir Archibald Campbell 1739 (?) — 1791. Entered the army as Captain in the Fraser 
Highlanders, when that regiment was disbanded transferred to 29th Regiment. He was 
wounded at Quebec. Major and Lieut.- Col. in 42nd Highlanders, with which he served 
in India till 1773 when he returned to Scotland. In '75, when Simon Fraser raised another 
regiment of Highlanders, he was Lieut.-Col. of the 2nd Battalion. As Colonel captured 
Savannah in 1778: Governor of Jamaica: made Governor of Madras in 1786 In 1779 
married Amelia, daughter of Allan Ramsay, the painter. (Diet, of National Biography and 
Buckland's Dictionary of Indian Biography.) 

Neither of these Dictionaries mention Sir Archibald as Chief Engineer, but Emin is 
perfectly correct in thus writing of him. In Bengal Past and Present, vol. ii. , p. 16, in a Note 
on the building of the barracks at Berhampur, is the following passage, " On the Consulta- 
tions of 21st August, 1772, occur (1) a letter from Lieutenant-Colonel Archibald Campbell, 
Chief Engineer, submitting ail estimate of the expense of completing the building of the 
Berhampur Cantonments," etc. 

MR. COX. 431 

come on, turned back, calling loudly to Emin, and swearing 
upon his honour he had something to say. When they met, 
perceiving the reason of his taking offence, Mr. Cox made an 
apology. Emin said, upon his honour he would never go to 
him, nor was his spirit so mean as even to hear the name of a 
subscription ; he was neither a beggar, nor a cripple, to bend 
himself to such a proposal ; he was young and stout, and could 
serve the Honourable Company, if they thought him fit ; and if 
not, it did not much signify, he was able to live in some way 
or another in India, where he never had known a white man 
starved. Though it was now made up between the two friends, 
yet Emin's spirit could not be easy with it ; he pretended to be 
sick, and never went out of doors for a fortnight, refusing all 
the invitations of his worthy friends. One morning Mr. Cox 
came with his brother,* and took him to his house ; and after 
dinner said, that he had spoken to Mr. Cartier, and was in hopes 
' he would favour Emin with a commission in the army. Thus 
was he entertained a long time, and treated like one of their 
own countrymen, taking pleasure at balls and concerts in their 
garden-houses. But to his great sorrow, cruel death snatched 
away from him his good friend Mr. Cox, who died in three days 
of a high fever. This loss he felt more severely than all his 
past adversity. Every one that knew his real friendship to-